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Psychological Disorders


Schizophrenia Obsessive-Compulsive Dissociative Disorder Histrionics Bipolar or Manic-Depressive Disorder Borderline Personality disorder Emotions blunted Thoughts ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Disorders

Psychological Disorders
Obsessive- Compulsive
Dissociative Disorder
Bipolar or Manic-Depressive Disorder
Borderline Personality disorder
Psychological Disorders
Here are your chapter project options about
psychological disorders.
Go to http// and write a
report on any of the topics listed for this
Psychological Disorders
Observe the following film clip from the
commercial film, Patch Adams.
Watch the characters. List what ever behaviors
exhibited by them that you consider to be
abnormal. Be prepared to discuss them.
Psychological Disorders
15.4 of the population suffers
from diagnosable mental health
problems Any year 56 million Americans
meet the criteria for a diagnosable
psychological disorder Over the lifespan, 32
of Americans will suffer from some psychological
Psychological Disorders
Definitions of Abnormal Behavior
Any deviation from the average or the majority
Failure to adjust to the rules of society
physically, emotionally, and socially
Thomas Szasz (1984) people who have problems
livingserious conflicts with the world around
Psychological Disorders
Three Classic Symptoms of Severe Psychopathology

Psychological Disorders
The Spectrum of Mental Disorder
No Disorder
Mild Disorder
Moderate Disorder
Severe Disorder
Few signs of distress or other indicators of
psychological disorder Few behavior problems
responses usually appropriate to the
situation Few difficulties with relationships
Indicators of disorder are more pronounced and
occur more frequently More distinct behavior
problems behavior is often inappropriate to
the situation More frequent difficulties with
Clear signs of psychological disorder, which
dominate the persons life Severe and frequent
behavior problems behavior is usually
inappropriate to the situation Many poor
relationships or lack of relationships with
Absence of signs of psychological
disorder Absence of behavior problems No problems
with interpersonal relationships
Psychological Disorders
Hippocrates and the 4 humors
Blood (heartsanguine or
cheerful) Phlegm (mucus from
brainsluggish) Black bile (spleenmelancholy)
Yellow bile (liverangry or choleric)
Psychological Disorders
Asylum Movement
Political pressures eventually turned the
initially therapeutic asylums into overcrowded
warehouses of neglect
Psychological Disorders
Weaknesses in medical model
Assumption of disease leads to a
doctor-knows-best approach therapist takes all
responsibility for diagnosing the illness and
prescribing treatment. The patient may become
passive and dependent on the doctor
Psychological Disorders
Social-cognitive-behavioral approach
Cognitive looks inward, emphasizing mental
processes Behaviorism looks outward,
emphasizing the influence of the environment The
two now seen as complementary
Psychological Disorders
Behaviorism and abnormal behaviors
Acquired through behavioral learning Behavior and
environmental conditions (rewards and
Psychological Disorders
Cognitive and abnormal behaviors
Also consider how people perceive them-selves and
their relations with others Cognitive variables
whether people believe they have control over
their lives how they cope with stress and
threat do they attribute behavior to situational
or personal factors?
Psychological Disorders
Albert Bandura Reciprocal Determinism
Proposes that behavior, cognition, and social/
environ-mental all influence each other
A fear of public speaking can be understood as
a product of behavioral learning, cognitive
learning, and social learning
Psychological Disorders
Modern research and the brain
It is a complex organ whose mental functions
depend on a delicate balance of chemicals and
ever-changing circuits Subtle alterations can
profoundly alter thoughts and behaviors
Psychological Disorders
Subtle signs that may also indicate
psychological disturbances
Distress prolonged levels of un-ease or anxiety
Maladaptiveness acts in a way that makes others
fearful or interfere with his or her well-being
Irrationality act or talk in ways that are
irrational or incomprehen- sible to others
inappropriate behavior or emotional responses
Psychological Disorders
Subtle signs that may also indicate
psychological disturbances
Unpredictability behave erratically and
inconsistently at different times or from one
situation to another
Unconventionality and undesirable behavior
behave in ways that are statistically rare and
violate social norms of what is legally or
morally acceptable or desirable
Psychological Disorders
Classifying Emotional Disorders
Challenges in doing so
1952 American Psychiatric Assn.
agreed on a standard system for classifying
abnormal symptoms, published in the Diagnostic
And Statistical Manual For Mental Disorders (DSM)
4 versions latest update DSM-IV-TR 2000
Psychological Disorders
In this chapter we shall be discussing
psychological disorders. But please be careful
to avoid. . .
Medical Students Disease
Psychological Disorders
Helps psychologists look at the entire person
as they make evaluations. Process
called multiaxial diagnosis professionals
consider not only abnormal behavior, but also
general medical conditions
Psychological Disorders
Classifying Emotional Disorders
Five axes, or dimensions
Axis I classifies current symptoms into
explicitly defined categories Axis II describes
developmental dis- orders and long-standing
personality disorders or maladaptive traits
(com- pulssiveness, over-dependency, etc.) Axis
III physical disorders or general medical
conditions that are potentially relevant to
understanding or caring for a person (brain
Psychological Disorders
Classifying Emotional Disorders
Five axes, or dimensions
Axis IV a measurement of the current stress
level at which the person is functioning (a
rating of stressors based on what the individual
has experienced in the past year) Axis V
describes the highest level of adaptive
functioning present within the past year
(social relations, occupational functioning,
use of leisure time)
Psychological Disorders
Oh noooooooo Heres a homework assignment.
Try one of the following behaviors. Observe/recor
d peoples reactions.
Shake hands hold longer/normal Eye contact gt 10
seconds from afar Why do you want to know?
Psychological Disorders
Before 1980 neurosis and psychosis were the
most commonly used diagnostic distinctions
Now those terms have been replaced by more
specific terms Neurosis now called a disorder
Psychosis loss of contact with reality
We shall now study those specific terms
Anxiety disorders
Somatoform Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
Mood Disorders
Mood Disorders
Im obviously in a BAD mood. Would someone
please give us the definition of mood disorders?
As someone who suffers from shifts in moods, here
goes abnormal disturbances in emotion or mood.
Mood Disorders
Major Depressive Disorder
Individuals suffering from this disorder spend at
least two weeks feeling depressed, sad,
anxious, fatigued, and agitated, experiencing a
reduced ability to function and interact with
Cannot be attributed to bereavement
Mood Disorders
Major Depressive Disorder
Marked by at least 4 of following problems
eating, sleeping, thinking, concentrating,
decision making lacking energy thinking about
suicide and feeling worthless or guilty.
Associated with low levels of serotonin
Mood Disorders
Martin Seligman depression is the common cold of
psychological disorders
Almost everyone has suffered from some sort of
In the U. S. depression accounts for the
majority of all mental hospital admissions Still
believed to be under-diagnosed and
under-treated 43 Billion a year in the U.S.
Mood Disorders
Depression-Suicide Linkage
Suicide claims 1 in 50 depression
sufferers Suicide is a greater risk when a
depressed person is on the way down in a
depressive episode
In the depths of a depressive episode, usually
no energy or will to do anything, much less
Mood Disorders
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
Some people suffer from depression in winter and
spirits only lift with coming of spring
(depression caused by sunlight deprivation)
Mood Disorders
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
Winter SAD sufferers sleep and eat excessively
The hormone melatonin may play a role less
lightmore melatonin secreted by the brains
pineal gland. High levels of melatonin can
cause some to suffer from SAD.
Mood Disorders
Elements of Depression
Need for others help and support
Negative assessment of ones own worth.
Nothing I do matters
Mood Disorders
Elements of Depression
  • Draw illogical conclusions about
  • themselves.
  • Blame selves for normal problems
  • Consider every minor failure a
  • catastrophe

Mood Disorders
Depression a Vicious Cycle
Negative Event
Other people avoid
Low self-esteem
Negative behaviors (crying)
Negative Self-evaluation
Attribution of negative events to personal flaws
learned helplessness
Mood Disorders
Depression Greater in Women
Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
Differing response styles of women and men
experiencing negative moods Women tend to
think about possible causes and
implications of their feelings
Men attempt to distract
themselves from depressed feelings
shifting attention to something else or
engaging in a physical activity
Mood Disorders
Depression Now Often a Teen Issue
Still more prevalent in females
  • Three factors
  • Out of
  • control
  • individualism and self-centeredness that
  • focuses on individual success failure
  • The self-esteem movement (should feel good
  • about yourself irrespective of efforts
  • achievements
  • 3. Culture of victimologypoints the finger of
  • blame at someone or something else

Mood Disorders
Bipolar disorderindividuals are excessively
and inappropriately happy or unhappy
High elation hopeless depression or an
alteration between the two
Manic phasea person experiences elation,
extreme confusion, distractibility, and racing
Often exaggerated self-esteem irresponsible
behavior (sprees, insulting remarks)
Mood Disorders
Depressive phasethe individual is overcome by
feelings of failure, sinfulness, worthlessness,
and despair
Depressive-type reaction lethargy, despair,
To illustrate bipolar disorder, we are going to
watch a short film clip about a person who
suffers from bipolar disorder NBC News
personality, Jane Pauley.
Anxiety-Based Disorders
Most common mental illness in U. S. 19 million
Americans endure symptoms typical of
anxiety-based disorders annually (15 of
Common characteristics
Feelings of anxiety
Feelings of personal inadequacy
Avoid dealing with problems
Unrealistic self-images
Cant get rid of recurring fears worries
Anxiety-Based Disorders
Anxious people often have difficulty forming
stable and satisfying relationships.
That right Elizabeth. Also even though the
behavior of anxious people may be self-defeating
and ineffective in solving problems, those driven
by anxiety often refuse to give up their
behaviors in favor of more effective ways of
dealing with anxiety.
Anxiety-Based Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety is a generalized apprehension that is a
reaction to vague or imagined dangers.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder is a continuous,
generalized anxiety. Fearing unknown and
unforeseen circumstances, people suffering from
the disorder are unable to make decisions or
enjoy life.
Anxiety-Based Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
So preoccupied with internal problems, people
  • Trouble dealing with family/
  • friends
  • Trouble fulfilling responsibilities
  • Feel trapped in a vicious cycle
  • Worry Difficulty Worry
  • Physical symptoms muscle tension
  • cant relax strained face poor appetite
  • indigestion, diarrhea frequent urination

Anxiety-Based Disorders
Panic Disorder
Sudden, unexplainable attack of intense fear
sense of inevitable doom or even death.
Sx smothering
chest pains
difficulty breathing
Anxiety-Based Disorders
Panic disorder probably can be traced back to
the Amygdala in the limbic system of the brain
(unconscious, emotional pathways)
Anxiety-Based Disorders--Phobias
Now, well watch a brief film clip from the Today
Show on NBC about panic disorder and its
Anxiety-Based Disorders--Phobias
Would somebody please define the term
2 of the Population more women than men
Fear of the marketplacefear may experience some
kind of attack in large places become
prisoners in their own homes (Emily Dickenson)
Anxiety-Based Disorders
Phobic Disorder
Severe anxiety focused on a particular object,
activity or situation when compared to real
  • Specific phobias
  • Social phobias
  • Agoraphobia

Often elaborate plans to avoid feared
situations. For example the situation in this
film clip
Anxiety-Based Disorders--Phobias
My therapist said I have many phobias. What
kinds of phobias do people experience?
Mohini, there are many different phobias. Some
examples are clowns, spiders, cats or chickens.
12 of all Americans
Anxiety-Based Disorders--Phobias
Heights Drafts Pain Chickens Garlic Riding in a
car Staying single Bees Spiders Failure
Acrophobia Aerophobia Agliophobia Alektorophobia A
lliumphobia Amaxophobia Anuptaphobia Apiphobia Ara
chnophobia Atychiphobia
Anxiety-Based Disorders--Phobias
Aulophobia Autophobia Aviophobia Blennophobia Caco
phobia Claustrophobia Coulrophobia Cynophobia Deme
ntophobia Dromophobia
Flutes Being alone Flying Slime Ugliness Confined
spaces Clowns Dogs or rabies Insanity Crossing
Anxiety-Based Disorders--Phobias
Cats Teenagers Reptiles Men Ridicule
Vegetables Poetry Dead things
Light Darkness The sea Clothing
Elurophobia Ephebiphobia Herpetophobia Hominophobi
a Katagelophobia Lachanophobia Metrophobia Necroph
obia Photophobia Scotophobia Thalassophobia
Anxiety-Based Disorders--Phobias
Now, well watch two brief film clips from the
Today Show on NBC one about phobias and their
treatment, and the other about social phobias and
their treatment.
Anxiety-Based Disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Obsession Uncontrollably thinking same
thoughts over and over again.
Compulsion Repeatedly performing irrational
We all have obsessions and compulsions. What
are some of yours or of someone you know?
Anxiety-Based Disorders
Only a psychological problem when thoughts and
activities interfere with what a person wants
and needs to do.
Some people experience both obsession and
compulsion together Obsessive-Compulsive

Anxiety-Based Disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Observe Melvin in the following film clip from
James L. Brooks As Good As It Gets and list as
many instances of his compulsive behavior as you

Have you ever known anyone who can be
characterized as obsessive- compulsive?
Anxiety-Based Disorders--Phobias
Now, well watch another brief film clip from the
Today Show on NBC about Obsessive-Compulsive
Disorder and its treatment.
Anxiety-Based Disorders
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Person who has
experienced a traumatic event feels severe and
long-lasting after-effects.
War veterans
Victims of natural disasters
Victims of human aggression
Somatoform Disorders
Experiencing physical symptoms for which there
is no apparent physical cause .
Conversion Disorder
Somatoform Disorders
Conversion Disorder
Convert emotional difficulties into the loss of a
specific physiological function.
Real, prolonged handicap
Sudden paralysis, not caused by anything
physical. . .
. . . the victim accepts the malady with relative
Victims unconsciously invent physical symptoms
to gain freedom from unbearable conflict.
Somatoform Disorders
Glove anesthesia a pattern of insensitivity to
touch or pain that fits the patient like a
glove but the symptoms do not match any
possible pattern of nerve impairment
Somatoform Disorders
Person who is in good health becomes preoccupied
with imaginary ailments.
Spends much time looking for signs of serious
illnessmisinterprets minor aches, pains, etc.
as something very serious.
Hypochondriacs, such as the character Felix
Unger in the Odd Couple.
Dissociative Disorders
A person experiences alterations in memory,
identity, or consciousness 3 types
Dissociative amnesia cannot recall important
personal events or information
Escape problems by blotting them out, often
resulting from a traumatic event
Dissociative fugue amnesia plus flight
Dissociative Disorders
Depersonalization Disorder
The sensation that mind and body have separated
(also known as out-of-body experiences) Externa
l observers in own bodies or feel like in a
dream OCD and personality disorders often
accompany this condition
Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative identity disorder a person
exhibits two or more personality states, each
with its own patterns of thinking and behaving.
Primarily a problem of cognition, rather than a
problem of emotion
Considerable loss of contact with reality
Emotions blunted
Thoughts bizarre language strange twists
Memory may become fragmented
Breaks the unity of the mindsends the victim on
meaningless mental detours
Confused verbalizations (word salads)
Lives life as an unreal dream
No single cause or single cure
A collection of symptoms that indicates an
individual has serious difficulty in meeting
the demands of life
Half of the patients in U.S. mental hospitals
Confused disordered thoughts and perceptions
Many experience delusions false beliefs
maintained in the face of contrary evidence
Many experience hallucinations sensations in the
absence of appropriate stimulation
Some experience incoherencea marked decline in
thought process
Some experience disturbances of affectemotions
that are inappropriate for circumstances
Some experience a marked decline in previous
levels of functioningserious productivity
decline at work
Some experience diverted attention often caused
by cognitive flooding inability to focus
Disorganized schizophrenia incoherent
language, inappropriate emotions, giggling
for no apparent reason, generally disorganized
motor behavior, delusions and hallucinations
Catatonic schizophrenia
Motionless for long periods, exhibiting waxy
flexibility limbs in unusual positions may
take a long time to the resting, or relaxed,
Undifferentiated schizophrenia hallucinations
and delusions, scrambled speech and thought
Paranoid Schizophrenia
Delusions, including grandeur, or persecution
Residual individuals who have suffered from a
schizophrenic episode in the past but currently
have no major symptoms rather, their thinking is
mildly disturbed or emotional lives impoverished
Personality Disorders
Typical symptoms chronic history of poor
judgment, disordered thinking, emotional
disturbances, disrupted social relationships, or
lack of impulse control
Personality Disorders
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Personality Disorders
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for
admiration and lack of empathy Five or more of
following Grandiose sense of self-importance Preo
ccupied with fantasies of unlimited success,
power, etc. Believes is special and uniqueonly
associate with other high-status people Requires
excessive admiration Sense of entitlement
Personality Disorders
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Interpersonally exploitive Lacks empathy Often
envious of others or believes others are
envious of him/her Shows arrogant or haughty
behaviors or attitudes
Personality Disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Long-standing pattern of disregard
  • for other peoples rights
  • Occurred since age 15
  • Majority of following symptoms
  • Failure to conform to social norms
  • Deceitfulness
  • Impulsivity
  • Irritability aggressiveness
  • Reckless disregard for safety
  • Consistent irresponsibility
  • Lack of remorse

Personality Disorders
Avoidant Personality Disorder
  • Long-standing complex pattern
  • of feelings of inadequacy
  • Extreme sensitivity to what others
  • think about them
  • Social inhibition
  • Majority of following
  • Avoids occupational activities
  • involving interpersonal contact
  • Unwilling to get involved with
  • people
  • Restraint within intimate relationships
  • Preoccupied with being criticized
  • Views self as socially inept
  • Usually reluctant to take personal risks

Unibomber, Ted Kaczynski
Personality Disorders
Borderline Personality Disorder
Labile interpersonal relationships
char- acterized by instability
labile \LAY-byl\, adjective Constantly or
readily undergoing chemical, physical, or
biological change or breakdown unstable.
Paris Hilton
May exhibit impulsive or unstable
behaviors unpredictable moods stormy
interpersonal relationships little tolerance for
frustration (substance abuse, promiscuity,
gambling, binge eating, reckless driving, etc.)
Personality Disorders
Borderline Personality Disorder
Majority of following Frantic efforts to avoid
real or imagined abandonment Pattern of
unstable intense interpersonal relationships,
characterized by alternating between extremes
of idealization devaluation Identity
disturbance Impulsivity in at least two of the
following spending, sex, substance abuse,
reckless driving, binge eating Recurrent suicidal
behavior, threats, etc.
Personality Disorders
Borderline Personality Disorder
Affective instability Chronic feelings of
emptiness Inappropriate, intense anger or
difficulty controlling anger Transient,
stress-related paranoid ideation or severe
dissociative symptoms
Personality Disorders
Dependent Personality Disorder
Long-standing need to be taken care of plus a
fear of being abandoned or separated from
important individuals Clinging
behavior Majority of following Difficulty
making everyday decisions without an excessive
amount of advice Need others to assume
responsibility Difficulty expressing
disagreement Difficulty initiating
projects Excessive lengths to gain nurturance
Personality Disorders
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Pattern of excessive emotionality attention
seeking Five or more of following Uncomfortable
if not center of attention Interaction often
characterized by inappropriate sexually
seductive or provocative behavior Rapidly
shifting shallow expression of
emotions Consistently uses physical appearance
to draw attention to self Impressionistic style
of speech lacking detail
Personality Disorders
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Self-dramatization and exaggerated expression of
emotion Easily influenced by others Considers
relationships to be more intimate than they
actually are
Shes madly in love with me!.
What a weirdo!