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Psychological Disorders

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Title: Introduction to Psychology Author: Preferred Customer Last modified by: Karen Knoth Deal Created Date: 7/7/1998 3:26:24 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Disorders


1
Psychological Disorders
  • Psychological Disorder
  • a harmful dysfunction in which behavior is
    judged to be
  • atypical--not enough in itself
  • disturbing--varies with time and culture
  • maladaptive--harmful
  • unjustifiable--sometimes theres a good reason

2
Historical Perspective
  • Perceived Causes
  • movements of sun or moon
  • lunacy--full moon
  • evil spirits
  • Ancient Treatments
  • exorcism, caged like animals, beaten, burned,
    castrated, mutilated, blood replaced with
    animals blood

3
Historical Perspective
  • Trephination

4
Psychological Disorders
  • Medical Model
  • concept that diseases have physical causes
  • can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases,
    cured
  • assumes that these mental illnesses can be
    diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and
    cured through therapy, which may include
    treatment in a psychiatric hospital

5
Psychological Disorders
  • Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective
  • assumes that biological, sociocultural, and
    psychological factors combine and interact to
    produce psychological disorders

6
Psychological Disorders
7
Psychological Disorders--Etiology
  • DSM-V
  • American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and
    Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth
    Edition)
  • a widely used system for classifying
    psychological disorders

8
5 Levels of the DSM-V Axes
  • DSM-V
  • American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and
    Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth
    Edition)
  • a widely used system for classifying
    psychological disorders

9
5 Levels of the DSM-V Axes
  • DSM-V
  • American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and
    Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth
    Edition)
  • a w

10
Anxiety Disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders (5 Types)
  • distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive
    behaviors that reduce anxiety
  • 1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • person is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of
    autonomic nervous system arousal

11
Anxiety Disorders
  • 2. Panic Disorder
  • marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread
    in which a person experiences terror and
    accompanying chest pain, choking, or other
    frightening sensation

12
Anxiety Disorders
  • 3. Phobia
  • persistent, irrational fear of a specific object
    or situation

13
Anxiety Disorders
  • Common and uncommon fears

14
Anxiety Disorders
  • 4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or
    actions (compulsions)

15
Anxiety Disorders
16
Anxiety Disorders
  • 5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal,
    jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that linger for 4
    weeks or more after a traumatic experience
  • Combat veterans
  • Accident/disaster survivors
  • Violent assaults
  • Sexual assaults

17
Understanding Anxiety Disorders
  • 1. Learning Perspective
  • A. Fear Conditioning
  • Stimulus generalization
  • Reinforcement
  • Escaping the feared situation reduces anxiety
  • B. Observational Learning

18
Understanding Anxiety Disorders
  • 2. Biological Perspective
  • A. Natural Selection
  • B. Genes influence level of neurotransmitters
  • C. Brain an over-arousal of brain areas
    involved in impulse control and habitual behaviors

19
Understanding Anxiety Disorders
20
Mood Disorders
  • Mood Disorders
  • characterized by emotional extremes
  • Major Depressive Disorder
  • a mood disorder in which a person, for no
    apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of
    depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and
    diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

21
Mood Disorders
  • Manic Episode
  • a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly
    optimistic state
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • a mood disorder in which the person alternates
    between the hopelessness and lethargy of
    depression and the overexcited state of mania
  • formerly called manic-depressive disorder

22
Mood Disorders-Depression
23
Mood Disorders-Depression
  • Canadian depression rates

24
Mood Disorders- Suicide
25
Mood Disorders-Bipolar
  • PET scans show that brain energy consumption
    rises and falls with emotional switches

26
Mood Disorders-Depression
  • Altering any one component of the
    chemistry-cognition-mood circuit can alter the
    others

27
Mood Disorders-Depression
  • The vicious cycle of depression can be broken at
    any point

28
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative Disorders
  • conscious awareness becomes separated
    (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts,
    and feelings
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • rare dissociative disorder in which a person
    exhibits two or more distinct and alternating
    personalities
  • formerly called multiple personality disorder

29
Schizophrenia
  • Schizophrenia
  • literal translation split mind
  • a group of severe disorders characterized by
  • disorganized and delusional thinking
  • disturbed perceptions
  • inappropriate emotions and actions

30
Schizophrenia
  • Delusions
  • false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur,
    that may accompany psychotic disorders
  • Hallucinations
  • sensory experiences without sensory stimulation

31
Schizophrenia
32
Schizophrenia
33
Schizophrenia
34
Schizophrenia
35
Personality Disorders
  • Personality Disorders
  • disorders characterized by inflexible and
    enduring behavior patterns that impair social
    functioning
  • usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions

36
Personality Disorders
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • disorder in which the person (usually man)
    exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing,
    even toward friends and family members
  • may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con
    artist

37
Personality Disorders
  • Boys who were later convicted of a crime showed
    relatively low arousal

38
Personality Disorders
  • PET scans illustrate reduced activation in a
    murderers frontal cortex

39
Personality Disorders
40
Rates of Psychological Disorders
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