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Psychological Disorders

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Psychological Disorders Psychological behaviors run a continuum from very mild to extreme. Everyone has these behaviors to one degree or another. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Disorders


1
Psychological Disorders
  • Psychological behaviors run a continuum from very
    mild to extreme. Everyone has these behaviors to
    one degree or another.
  • It is not until a behavior or feeling interferes
    with your quality of life that they become a
    disorder.

2
Psychological Order
  • Self-acceptance understanding yourself and
    accepting the good and bad parts of yourself.
  • Positive relationships with others ability to
    form good trusting interpersonal relationships.
  • Autonomy self-controlled and able to resist peer
    pressure.

3
Psychological Order
  • Environmental masters internal locus of control
    master of your domain.
  • Purpose in life goals and sense of direction
    not diffused.
  • Personal Growth see yourself growing and
    expanding self knowledge self actualization.

4
Psychological Disorders are
  • Atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and
    unjustifiable behavior.

5
Psychological Disorders Causes
  • Are not usually caused by a single factor. The
    medical model is probably not correct where you
    can take a pill to rid yourself of a disorder.
  • The bio-psycho-social school most disorders are
    caused by a biological predisposition,
    physiological state, psychological dynamics, and
    social circumstances.

6
Defining Disorders
  • DSM IV-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual vol. 4.
    attempts to describe psychological disorders,
    without explaining the causes, predicts the
    future course, and suggests treatments.
  • Categorizes 230 disorders, in 17 categories.

7
Dangers of Labeling
  • Labeling someone with a disorder can create
    self-fulfilling prophesies, where the label
    creates the behavior.
  • Also, if a professional hears a person has a
    disorder, they may look back at that persons
    history and see things that caused those
    behaviors, which might not be accurate.

8
Anxiety Disorders
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Persistent
    symptoms of an excited sympathetic, nervous
    system sweating, heart racing, dizziness,
    shakiness, accompanied by persistent negative
    feelings and fearnot triggered by specific
    events.

9
Anxiety Disorders
  • Panic Disorder unpredictable, minutes long
    intense anxiety attack, as if you're going to be
    killed any second, but no specific, real threat
    is apparent.
  • Phobias persistent, irrational fear of a
    specific object of situation. Very common.
    Spiders, snakes, heights, water, enclosed spaces
    are all very common phobias.

10
Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • Obsessions intrusive thoughts or fears.
  • Compulsions repetitive behaviors that soothe the
    fears

11
Anxiety DisordersDifferent perspectives would
ascribe different causes
  • Psychoanalytic repressed feelings during
    childhood symbolized by trigger.
  • Behavioral learned fear, which has been
    reinforced, or social learning, imitating others
    who have fear, like parents. May be generalized
    from other learned experiences one dog to all
    dogs.
  • Biological predisposed genetically to be afraid
    of things that can cause death snakes, spiders,
    height, enclosed places, disease.

12
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • PTSD--Caused by prolonged or intensely stressful
    situations, like war or rape.
  • Symptoms difficulty sleeping, nightmares
    anxiety attacks or GAD intrusive memories Guilt
    associated with event
  • Some psychologists dismiss this disorder pointing
    to those who do not get it after experiencing
    similar trauma
  • That probably has more to do with biological
    predisposition than to lack of evidence that PTSD
    exists

13
Multiaxial Classification in DSM-IV
Is a Clinical Syndrome (cognitive, anxiety, mood
disorders 16 syndromes) present?
Axis I
Is a Personality Disorder or Mental Retardation
present?
Axis II
Is a General Medical Condition (diabetes,
hypertension or arthritis etc) also present?
Axis III
Are Psychosocial or Environmental Problems
(school or housing issues) also present?
Axis IV
What is the Global Assessment of the persons
functioning?
Axis V
14
Mood Disorders
  • Some types Major, Clinical Depression Dysthymic
    Depression Bipolar disorder
  • Mood disorders are the most common psychological
    disorders called the common cold of disorders
  • Depression among the young is on the rise more
    diagnosis or more cases?

15
Major Depressive Disorder
  • Major Depressive Disorder
  • 2 or more weeks of depressed mood, intense
    feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness and
    diminished interest in things that were once
    considered pleasurable.
  • People feel like they are in a deep black hole
    with no way to get out. The hopeless feeling
    often prevents them from seeing any reason to try
    to get out. Very dangerous illness.

16
Symptoms for Major Depressive Disorder
  • Symptoms include
  • discouraging feelings about the future
  • life dissatisfaction
  • isolation from others
  • difficulty sleeping OR sleeping a lot
  • inability to concentrate
  • lethargy feelings of worthlessness
  • loss of interest in friends or family activities

17
Dysthymic Depression Symptoms
  • Dysthymic Depression
  • Down-in-the-dumps mood that lasts from months to
    years the feelings aren't as intense, but they
    last longer
  • Difficult to detect because of the lack of
    intensity but takes a large toll on body and
    psychology systems

18
Treatments for Depression
  • Cognitive Therapy is effective, coupled with
    antidepressants trying to change internal
    sentences. Because depressed people see the world
    through dark glasses, their thoughts intensify
    the feelings leading to a downward spiral.
  • Medical now treated with classes of Selective
    Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. SSRIs. They keep
    serotonin in the synapse longer, elevating mood.
    (some well-known brands--Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil,
    Lexapro)

19
Treatment for Dysthymic Depression
  • College students with dysthymic or moderate
    depression responded far better to aerobics than
    other treatments.

20
Depression Facts
  • Facts Major Depression usually lasts less than
    three months may or may not return often
    triggered by stressful events, although not
    necessarily caused by it (biological
    predisposition)
  • Dysthymic depression lasts two years or longer.
  • Women are twice as likely to have it as men
  • Depression is a whole body disorder with
    biochemical and psychological roots, therefore
    generally requires both therapy and
    antidepressant treatment.

21
Depression facts
  • Those who are depressed often become socially
    isolated as they withdraw from friends and
    friends withdraw from them as their old self
    changes.
  • The depressed person is likely to blame
    themselves with negative self speak which
    exacerbates the depression
  • Reciprocal Determinism

22
Bipolar Disorder (formerly manic-depression)
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • alternates between hopelessness and lethargy of
    depression and over-excited manic state.

23
Bipolar Disorder (manic-depression) Some
Symptoms
  • Manic state typically over-talkative
    overactive little or no sleep highly impulsive,
    loud, flighty, hard to interrupt, sexually less
    inhibited. Grandiose optimism and self-esteem.
    May be very irritable.
  • People then fall back to either a normal state,
    or into a major depressed state

24
Treatment for Bipolar Disorder
  • TreatmentIn depressed state high levels of
    neurotransmitter Norepinephrine.
  • Treatment usually with Lithiummood
    stabilizer--for the manic state and
    antidepressants for the depression.
  • Treatment is very effective if patients continue
    using medication.

25
Somatoform Disorders
  • Characterized by physical symptomspain,
    paralysis, blindness, or deafness W/OUT any
    demonstrated physical cause
  • Differs from psychosomatic (tension headaches,
    ulcers, heart problems brought on by stress)
  • as no physical damage is done

26
Somatoform Disorders5 types
  • 1.)Somatization disorder characterized by many
    somatic symptoms that cannot be explained
    adequately based on physical and laboratory
    examinations. Specific characteristics include
    the following
  • Onset of unexplained medical symptoms in persons
    younger than 30 years
  • Multiple and chronic complaints of unexplained
    physical symptoms

27
Somatoform Disorders Somatization Symptoms contd
  • Multiple pain symptoms involving multiple sites,
    such as the head, neck, back, stomach, and limbs
  • At least 2 or more unexplained gastrointestinal
    symptoms, such as nausea and indigestion
  • At least 1 sexual complaint and/or menstrual
    complaint
  • At least 1 pseudoneurological symptom, such as
    blindness or inability to walk, speak, or move

28
2 more Somatoform Disorders
  • 2.) Conversion Disorderused to be known as
    hysterialoss of function (becoming blind, deaf,
    or paralyzed) w/out physical damage to the
    affected organs nor their neural connections
  • 3.) Hypochondriasisperson unrealistically
    interprets physical signspains, lumps, or
    irritationsas evidence of serious disease

29
Somatoform Disorders
  • 4. Pain disorder somatoform disorder
    characterized by a focused pain complaint that
    cannot be entirely attributed to a specific
    medical disorder. Specific symptoms of pain
    disorder include the following
  • Pain in 1 or more anatomical sites producing a
    predominant clinical focus
  • Psychological factors (felt to play an important
    role in the onset, severity, or course of pain)
  • Pain symptom that is not feigned or intentionally
    produced

30
Somatoform Disorders
  • 5.) Body Dysmorphic Disorder somatoform disorder
    characterized by a focus on a physical defect
    that is not evident to others. Specific
    characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder
    include the following
  • Preoccupation with an imagined defect in
    appearance
  • May be associated with multiple, frantic, and
    unsuccessful attempts to correct imagined defect
    by cosmetic surgery

31
Somatoform Disorders--Causes
  • No definitive causes for most of the somatoform
    disorders have been established.
  • Genetic and environmental influences appear to
    contribute to somatization.
  • Children raised in homes with a high degree of
    parental somatization may model somatization.
  • Sexual abuse may be associated with an increased
    risk of somatization later in life.
  • Poor ability to express emotions (alexithymia)
    may result in somatization.

32
Somatoform Disorders--Treatment for specific
somatoform disorders
  • Somatization disorder Patients may resist
    suggestions for individual or group psychotherapy
    because they view their illness as a medical
    problem.
  • Patients who accept psychotherapy may be able to
    reduce health care utilization.
  • Psychosocial interventions that focus on
    maintaining social and occupational function
    despite chronic medical symptoms may be helpful.

33
Somatoform Disorders--Treatment
  • Conversion disorder Limited studies about
    specific psychotherapy exist for conversion
    disorder.
  • Behavior therapy or hypnosis may be effective.
    Symptoms often resolve spontaneously.

34
Somatoform DisordersTreatment contd
  • Hypochondriasis Physicians should attempt to
    answer questions and reduce the patient's fear of
    a specific illness.
  • Group psychotherapy may provide social support
    and reduce anxiety.
  • Cognitive therapy strategies may help by focusing
    on distorted disease-related cognitions.
  • Individual insight-oriented psychotherapy has not
    been proven effective.

35
Somatoform DisordersTreatment contd
  • Pain disorder Behavior therapy, including
    biofeedback, can be helpful.
  • Hypnosis also may be considered for chronic pain
    syndromes.
  • Some outcome data supports the effectiveness of
    individual psychotherapy.
  • Exploration of interpersonal effects of chronic
    pain may reduce social complications of pain.

36
Schizophrenia and Symptoms
  • A group of severe psychotic disorders
    characterized by disorganized thought and
    delusional thinking disturbed perceptions and
    inappropriate emotions and actions. Onset often
    occurs in late adolescence.
  • Delusion-irrational, unjustifiable, grandiose,
    usually paranoid, belief of persecution by an
    unseen entity.
  • Hallucinations the perception of non-existent,
    external stimuli, usually auditory.

37
4 Types of Schizophrenia
  • Paranoid preoccupations with delusions and
    hallucinationspositive symptoms
  • Catatonic immobility or excessive purposeless
    movements.---negative symptoms flat affect
  • Disorganized disorganized speech or behavior,
    inappropriate emotions. Word Salads scrambled or
    nonsensical speech.
  • Undifferentiated symptoms, but doesn't fit above
    models.

38
2 Levels of Schizophrenia
  • 1.) Chronic slowly develops over time,
    prognosisbad.
  • 2.) Acute reaction to life stresses, quick
    onset, good prognosis.
  • Schizophrenic thinking may be seen as an
    uncontrolled rapid change of selective attention,
    where the mind rapidly shifts from one thought to
    another.

39
Causesof Schizophrenia
  • Psychology triggering experiences, genes
    predisposed but some react to traumatic triggers
    (stressors) by developing schizophrenia. They
    vary.
  • Biochemical 6 times the normal amount of
    Dopamine receptors that increase brain activity
    to manic levels. Thus dopamine blockers reduce
    symptoms.

40
Causes of Schizophrenia
  • It is also thought to perhaps be triggered or
    caused by the introduction of a prenatal virus
    that affects brain development, possibly in the
    thalamus.
  • People conceived in Winter months are more apt to
    develop schizophrenia in Northern hemisphere,
    while the reverse is true in the Southern.

41
Rule of Thirds
  • About 1/3 of people who develop schizophrenia
    only have one episode, 1/3 have reoccurring
    episodes, and 1/3 are chronic with unremitting
    symptoms.

42
Causes of Schizophrenia contd.
  • Amphetamines and cocaine sometimes intensify
    symptoms.
  • Dopamine is also associated with physical
    movement, disruption of is associated with
    schizophrenia(excess dopamine receptors)
  • Brain anatomy they have abnormal brain tissue,
    low frontal lobe activity.
  • Thalamusstructure is smaller than normal and is
    reactive--that may cause brain over -stimulation.
  • People exposed to certain flu viruses during
    prenatal development have higher incidences.

43
Genetic factors of Schizophrenia
  • Definite genetic link the closer you are
    genetically to someone with Schizophrenia, the
    more likely you are to get it.
  • 1 in 100 people get it.
  • 1 in 10 of siblings
  • 1 in 2 identical twins, even if raised apart

44
Treatment for Schizophrenia
  • Psychopharmaceuticals
  • Antipsychotic Medication OR Neuroleptics
  • Haldol, Clozaril, Thorazinedecreases
    hallucinations, lessen agitated behavior
  • Negative side effects because the drugs are
    Dopamine blockers
  • Tardive Dyskinesiaproblems walking, drooling,
    involuntary muscle movements

45
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociation is the feeling that you are outside
    of yourself, looking at yourself. That your mind
    is separate from body.
  • Person has separated parts of their personality
    or memory for consciousness.

46
Dissociative Identity Disorder Multiple
Personality Disorder
  • This is a disorder in which your mind partitions
    itself into two or more distinct personalities
    that may or may not know about each other. One
    personality emerges to handle stressful
    situations that the whole psyche or other parts
    cannot handle.
  • Caused by traumatic event or events where the
    mind represses parts of itself that cant handle
    the pain. Repressed from a psychoanalytical
    point of view.

47
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Skeptics believe that people are either lying,
    are fantasy-prone, or have had this disorder
    suggested to them by therapists.
  • It only seems to occur in places, like here,
    where people know about it through books like the
    Sybil and the Three Faces of Eve.

48
Dissociative Amnesia
  • Selective memory loss of a specific traumatic
    event. The amnesia vanishes as abruptly as it
    begins and rarely reoccurs.

49
Dissociative Fugue
  • In this type of dissociation, the person just
    leaves their home and starts on new life, with no
    memory of their past life. The memory may
    reoccur and the person may return home, only to
    leave again.

50
Personality Disorders
  • Personality consists of enduring traits or
    characteristicsso personality disorderspersisten
    t traits or characteristics that are atypical,
    disturbing, maladaptive and unjustified.
  • Prognosis for treatment (intensive psychotherapy)
    for many is not very good.

51
Personality Disorders-6 Types
  • 1.) Antisocial most common, person has no
    conscience. Lacks a sense of wrongdoing, even
    toward friends or family members.
  • Usually a man thing.
  • Usually emerges before 15
  • Person may be aggressive and/or ruthless.
    Deceiving or conning others or be aggressive
    sexuallyany all with no remorse. Psychopaths,
    serial killers, sociopaths.

52
Personality Disorders
  • 2.) Histrionic displays shallow,
    attention-getting behaviors, feeling
    uncomfortable when not the center of attention.
  • Acting in an aggressive, sexual way that makes
    others uncomfortable.
  • Rapid shifting of emotions. Dressing
    provocatively to gain attention, speaks in
    dramatic tones.

53
Personality Disorders
  • 3.) Narcissistic Preoccupied with themselves and
    an exaggerated sense of their own importance.

54
Personality Disorders
  • 4.) Schizoid
  • either desires nor enjoys close relationships,
    including being part of a family
  • Almost always chooses solitary activities
  • Has little, if any, interest in having sexual
    experiences with another person
  • Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
  • Lacks close friends or confidants other than
    first-degree relatives
  • Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of
    others
  • Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or
    flattened affectivity
  • (Source MayoClinic.com)

55
Personality Disorders contd.
  • 5.) Avoidant
  • Avoids occupational activities that involve
    significant interpersonal contact, b/c of fears
    of criticism or rejection.
  • Is unwilling to get involved w/people unless
    certain of being liked.
  • Shows restraint w/in intimate relationships b/c
    of the fear of being shamed or ridiculed.
  • Is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected
    in social situations.
  • Is inhibited in new interpersonal situations
    because of feelings of inadequacy.
  • Views self as socially inept, personally
    unappealing, or inferior to others.
  • Is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or
    to engage in any new activities because they may
    prove embarrassing. (DSM-IV)

56
Personality Disorders
  • 6.) Borderline
  • unstable sense of self
  • rapidly changing affect will be clingy one
    minute and then hostile the next
  • try to pull people close and then do things to
    drive them away
  • very manipulative to gain attention unstable
    relationships
  • Very poor prognosis for recovery, so some
    therapists wont treat them
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