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Psychological Disorders

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Myers PSYCHOLOGY Psychological Disorders L. Gonzalez Create a Time Line Chart BC, AD, Century, Now Anxiety Disorders Common Obsessions and Compulsions Among People ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Disorders


1
Myers PSYCHOLOGY
  • Psychological Disorders
  • L. Gonzalez
  • Create a Time Line Chart
  • BC, AD, Century, Now

2
Set Up Time Line
3
Historical Perspectives on Abnormal behavior
  • The Ancient World
  • China (200 BC) Chung Ching stated that both organ
    pathologies stressful psychological situations
    were causes of mental disorders.
  • Greece
  • Hippocrates (377-460 BC) believed mental illness
    was the result of natural, as opposed to
    supernatural, causes.
  • Galen (130-200 AD) divided the causes of mental
    disorders into physical and psychological
    explanations.

4
Middle Ages (500-1500 AD)
  • Islamic countries- a. mental hospitals were
    established (792 AD)b. Persian doctor Sina wrote
    the Canon of Medicine(medications).
  • Europe abnormal behavior was most frequently
    viewed as demonic possession.
  • treatment entailed prayer exorcism.

5
The Renaissance AD
  • Spanish nun Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)
    established the conceptual framework that the
    mind can be sick.
  • Both Johann Weyer (1515-1588) of Germany and Scot
    (1538-1599) of England used scientific skepticism
    to refute the concept of demonic possession.

6
Humanitarian Reforms (18th-19th century)
  • In France, Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) pioneered a
    compassionate medical model for the treatment of
    the mentally ill established a hospital in
    Paris.
  • In England, William Tuke (1732-1822) introduced
    trained nurses for the mentally ill helped to
    change public attitudes regarding their
    treatment.
  • In US, Benjamin rush (1745-1813) founder of
    American Psychiatry, encouraged humane treatment
    of the mentally ill hospitals.

7
Scientific Advances of the 20th Century
  • Development in technology such as MRI and PET
    scans have added to our knowledge of the
    biological bases of psychological disorder.
  • MRI PET
  • Development in pscycho-pharmacology have provided
    effective treatment for many psychological
    disorder.

8
Article Nearly 500,000 -- mentally ill men and
women are serving time in U.S. jails and prisons.
  • Paraphrase on your own

9
Abnormal Behaviors Perspectives Diagnoses
10
Abnormal Behavior Definition
  • The behavior that is disturbing (socially
    unacceptable), distressing, maladaptive (or
    self-defeating), and often the result of
    distorted thoughts (cognitions).

11
Videos Set up your notes
  • Definitions of Disorders-What does it mean?
  • Rosenhans Experiment-What did it entail?
  • Evolution of the DSM What is it?
  • 5 AXES Write examples for each
  • 1. Clinical Disorders
  • 2. Intellectual Disabilities Personality
    Disorders
  • 3. Medical conditions and physical disorders
  • 4. Social Environmental Factors
  • 5. The Global Assessment of Functioning

12
Frontline Documentary
  • http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/video/flv/
    generic.html?sfrol02s496q73continuous1

13
Behavior Disorders Perspectives
  • Create Chart on back of time-line

14
Create Perspective Chart
  • Perspective
  • Explanation
  • Treatment
  • Example
  • Illustration

15
Medical Perspective
  • Explanation
  • Focus on biological and physiological factors as
    causes of abnormal behavior .
  • Treated as a disease, or mental illness, and is
    diagnosed through symptoms and cured through
    treatment.
  • Treatment Hospitalization and drugs are often
    preferred methods of treatment rather than
    psychological investigation.
  • Example Schizophrenia needs medication to quiet
    voices, hallucinations and level dopamine.

16
Psychodynamic Perspective
  • Explanation Evolved from Freudian psychoanalytic
    theory, which contends that psychological
    disorders are the consequence of anxiety produced
    by unresolved, unconscious conflicts(childhood).
  • Treatment focuses on identification and
    resolution of the conflicts.
  • Example Child neglected, no love will grow up to
    not love him/herself or others

17
Behavioral/Learning Perspective
  • Explanation Results from faulty or ineffective
    learning and conditioning.
  • Treatments are designed to reshape disordered
    behavior and, using traditional learning
    procedures, to teach new, more appropriate, and
    more adaptive responses.
  • For example, a behavioral analysis of a case of
    child abuse might suggest that a father abuses
    his children because he learned the abusive
    behavior from his father and must now learn more
    appropriate parenting tactics

18
Cognitive Perspective
  • Explanation People engage in abnormal behavior
    because of particular thoughts and behaviors that
    are often based upon their false assumptions.
    This is how the information is being decoded and
    retrieved (interpreted or memory issues).
  • Treatments are oriented toward helping the
    maladjusted individual develop new thought
    processes and new values.
  • Therapy is a process of unlearning maladaptive
    habits and replacing them with more useful ones.
  • Example Anger issues from low road to high road

19
Social-Cultural Perspective
  • Explain Abnormal behavior is learned within a
    social context ranging from the family, to the
    community, to the culture.
  • Treatment Introducing and teaching the
    individual about in abnormal behavior within the
    culture by comparing and contrasting.
  • Example Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are
    psychological disorders found mostly in Western
    cultures, which value the thin female body

20
Biological Perspective
  • Views abnormal behavior as arising from a
    physical cause, such as genetic inheritance,
    biochemical abnormalities or imbalances,
    structural abnormalities within the brain, and/or
    infections
  • Agrees that physical causes are of central
    importance but also recognizes the influence of
    biological, psychological, and social factors in
    the study, identification, and treatment of
    psychological disorders

21
Bio-Psych-Social Perspective
  • States Psychologists contend that ALL behavior,
    whether called normal or disordered arises from
    the interaction of nature and nurture.
  • The bio-psycho-social perspective is a
    contemporary perspective which assumes that
    biological, sociocultural, and psychological
    factors combine and interact to produce
    psychological disorders.

22
Frontline Documentary Part 2 3
23
Abnormal Behavior Disorders pairs of 3/computer
lab Wednesday-Turn in outline/present Friday to
peers
  1. What is the disorder?
  2. Explain the disorder.
  3. What causes it? (age)
  4. Symptoms
  5. Treatment
  6. An example of a case with someone having the
    disorder
  7. Common or not?

24
Mood Disorders-Bipolar
  • PET scans show that brain energy consumption
    rises and falls with emotional swings

25
Anxiety Disorders
  • PET Scan of brain of person with Obsessive/
    Compulsive disorder
  • High metabolic activity (red) in frontal lobe
    areas involved with directing attention

26
Psychological Disorders- Etiology
  • DSM-IV
  • American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and
    Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth
    Edition)
  • a widely used system for classifying
    psychological disorders
  • Hand out

27
Take out disorder sheet
  • add Borderline Personality disorder

28
Mental disorders
29
Schizophrenia
  • Schizophrenia
  • literal translation split mind
  • a group of severe disorders characterized by
  • disorganized and delusional thinking
  • disturbed perceptions
  • inappropriate emotions and actions

30
Schizophrenia
  • Delusions
  • false beliefs, often of torture or greatness,
    that may accompany psychotic disorders
  • Hallucinations
  • false sensory experiences such as seeing
    something without any external visual stimulus

31
Test next class period
  • A few more points to consider for the

32
Schizophrenia
33
Schizophrenia
34
Psychological Disorders- Etiology
  • Neurotic disorder (term seldom used now)
  • usually distressing but that allows one to think
    rationally and function socially
  • Freud saw the neurotic disorders as ways of
    dealing with anxiety
  • Psychotic disorder
  • person loses contact with reality
  • experiences irrational ideas and distorted
    perceptions

35
Anxiety Disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive
    behaviors that reduce anxiety
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • person is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of
    autonomic nervous system arousal
  • Phobia
  • persistent, irrational fear of a specific object
    or situation

36
Anxiety Disorders
  • Common and uncommon fears

37
Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts
    (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
  • Panic Disorder
  • marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread
    in which a person experiences terror and
    accompanying chest pain, choking, or other
    frightening sensation

38
Anxiety Disorders
39
Mood Disorders
  • Mood Disorders
  • characterized by emotional extremes
  • Major Depressive Disorder
  • a mood disorder in which a person, for no
    apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of
    depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and
    diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

40
Mood Disorders
  • Manic Episode
  • a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly
    optimistic state
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • a mood disorder in which the person alternates
    between the hopelessness and lethargy of
    depression and the overexcited state of mania
  • formerly called manic-depressive disorder

41
Mood Disorders-Depression
42
Mood Disorders-Depression
43
Mood Disorders- Suicide
44
Mood Disorders-Suicide
  • Increasing rates of teen suicide

45
Mood Disorders-Depression
  • Altering any one component of the
    chemistry-cognition-mood circuit can alter the
    others

46
Mood Disorders-Depression
  • A happy or depressed mood strongly influences
    peoples ratings of their own behavior

47
Mood Disorders-Depression
  • The vicious cycle of depression can be broken at
    any point

48
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative Disorders
  • conscious awareness becomes separated
    (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts,
    and feelings
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • rare dissociative disorder in which a person
    exhibits two or more distinct and alternating
    personalities
  • formerly called multiple personality disorder

49
Personality Disorders
  • Personality Disorders
  • disorders characterized by inflexible and
    enduring behavior patterns that impair social
    functioning
  • usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions

50
Personality Disorders
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • disorder in which the person (usually man)
    exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing,
    even toward friends and family members
  • may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con
    artist

51
Personality Disorders
  • PET scans illustrate reduced activation in a
    murderers frontal cortex

52
Personality Disorders
53
Rates of Psychological Disorders
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