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Psychological Disorders: An Introduction

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Psychological Disorders: An Introduction Defining Disorder Psychological Disorders Psychopathology scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Disorders: An Introduction


1
Psychological DisordersAn Introduction
2
Defining Disorder
3
Psychological Disorders
  • Psychopathologyscientific study of the origins,
    symptoms, and development of psychological
    disorders
  • Psychological disorder - a pattern of behavioral
    and psychological symptoms that causes
    significant personal distress, impairs the
    ability to function in one or more important
    areas of daily life, or both

4
Psychological Disorder
  • A harmful dysfunction in which behaviors are
    maladaptive, unjustifiable, disturbing, and
    atypical

5
MUDA
  • A mnemonic device used to remember the four
    attributes of a psychological disorder
  • Maladaptive
  • Unjustifiable
  • Disturbing
  • Atypical

6
Maladaptive
  • An exaggeration of normal, acceptable behaviors
  • Destructive to oneself or others

7
Unjustifiable
  • A behavior which does not have a rational basis

8
Disturbing
  • A behavior which is troublesome to other people

9
Atypical
  • A behavior so different from other peoples
    behavior that it violates a norm
  • Norms vary from culture to culture

10
Understanding Disorders
11
Early Views of Mental Illness
  • In ancient times, mental illness was usually
    explained through a supernatural model the
    person was possessed or a sinner
  • During the Middle Ages treatment methods were
    inhumane and cruel

12
Philippe Pinel (1745-1826)
  • French physician who worked to reform the
    treatment of people with mental disorders
  • Encouraged more humane treatment

13
Understanding DisordersThe Medical Model
14
The Medical Model
  • Diseases have physical causes that can be
    diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured.
  • Psychological disorders can be diagnosed based on
    their symptoms and treated or cured through
    therapy.
  • Psychological disorders are similar to a physical
    illness.

15
Understanding DisordersThe Bio-Psycho-Social
Model
16
Bio-Psycho-Social Model
  • Perspective of mental illness which assumes that
    biological, psychological, and sociocultural
    factors combine and interact to produce
    psychological disorders

17
Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective
18
Classifying Disorders
19
DSM-IV
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders Fourth Edition
  • Published by the American Psychiatric Association
  • The text of the DSM-IV revised, hence TR (text
    revision) at the end
  • Lists and describes all the currently accepted
    specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for
    250 specific psychological disorders
  • DSM 5 is set to be released in May 22, 2013

20
Diagnosis
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)describes specific symptoms
    and diagnostic guidelines for psychological
    disorders
  • Provides a common language to label mental
    disorders
  • Comprehensive guidelines to help diagnose mental
    disorders

21
DSM-IV-TR
  • Divides mental disorders into 17 major categories
  • Includes the symptoms but not the causes of each
    disease
  • Has changed significantly since the first edition

22
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25
Labeling Stigmas
  • Studies show a clear bias against people
    diagnosed with mental disorders.
  • Rosenhan Study normal people pretended to
    hear voices and checked into a mental health
    facility then acted normally. Their normal
    actions taken to be abnormal once they were
    labeled schizophrenic.

26
Prevalence
  • Approximately 48 of adults experienced symptoms
    at least once in their lives
  • Approximately 80 who experienced symptoms in the
    last year did NOT seek treatment
  • Many people who could benefit from mental health
    treatment do not seek it.
  • Most people seem to deal with symptoms without
    complete debilitation
  • Women have higher prevalence of depression and
    anxiety
  • Men have higher prevalence of substance abuse and
    antisocial personality disorder

27
Gender Differences for Disorders
28
Prevalence of Mental Disorders Worldwide
29
Americans with disorders
30
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32
Are People with a Mental Illness as Violent as
the Media Portrays Them?
  • People with mental disorders are often depicted
    on TV as helpless victims or evil villains who
    are unpredictable, dangerous, and violent.
  • One study indicated that, overall, former mental
    patients did not have a higher rate of violence
    than a matched comparison group.
  • People with severe mental disorders who are
    experiencing bizarre delusional ideas and
    hallucinated voices do have a slightly higher
    level of violent and illegal behavior than do
    normal people.
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