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Psychological Disorders

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Title: Psychological Disorders


1
Psychological Disorders
2
What are Psychological Disorders?
  • Behavior patterns or mental processes that cause
    serious suffering or interfere with a persons
    ability to cope with everyday life.
  • Usually exaggerations of normal behavior

3
Criteria for Symptoms
  • Typicality How normal is the behavior compared
    to others?
  • Maladaptivity Does the behavior impair
    functioning in everyday life?
  • Emotional Discomfort Does it cause the
    individual emotional discomfort?
  • Socially Unacceptable Does the behavior violate
    that societys norms?
  • Culture-Bound syndromes

4
Classifying Psych. Disorders
  • DSM IV-TR
  • Published by APA
  • Classified by SYMPTOMS
  • Flexible (ex. PTSD)
  • 6 Classifications Anxiety, Dissociative,
    Somatoform, Mood, Schizophrenia, Personality

5
Anxiety Disorders
  • General state of dread or
  • uneasiness that occurs in
  • response to vague or
  • imagined danger.

6
Symptoms
  • Trembling, sweating, increased heart rate and
    breathing
  • Overactive what?

7
Types
8
Phobic Disorder
  • Simple Phobia Most common. Persistent,
    excessive, irrational fear of a particular object
    / situation.
  • Social Phobia Persistent fear of social
    situations in which one may be exposed to
    scrutiny by others and be embarrassed or
    humiliated

9
Panic Disorder Agoraphobia
  • Panic disorder Have recurring and unexpected
    panic attacks.
  • Panic attacks Relatively short periods of
    intense fear/discomfort. Includes shortness of
    breath, dizziness, rapid heart beat, shaking,
    choking, sweating, nausea

10
  • Agoraphobia Fear of being in places /
    situations in which escape could be difficult or
    impossible.

11
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Excessive / unrealistic worry about life
    circumstances that lasts at least 6 months.

12
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Obsessions Unwanted thoughts, ideas, mental
    images that occur over and over. Subjects try to
    ignore or suppress.
  • Realize thoughts are irrational Not delusions
  • Compulsions Repetitive ritual behaviors, often
    involving checking or cleaning something.

13
Stress Disorders
  • PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) Intense,
    persistent feelings of anxiety that are caused by
    a traumatic experience.
  • - Symptoms Flashbacks, nightmares,
  • numbness,
  • Acute Stress Disorder Short-term.

14
Explaining Anxiety Disorders
  • Psychoanalytic Anxiety is a result of forbidden
    childhood urges that have been repressed.
  • Learning Learned in childhood by experience or
    modeling

15
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociation Separation of certain
  • personality components / mental
  • processes from conscious thought.

16
Types
17
Dissociative Amnesia
  • Sudden loss of memory, usually following a
    particularly stressful / traumatic event
  • Usually events around the stressful event
  • NOT biological

18
Dissociative Fugue
  • Forgetting personal info and past events. Then,
    suddenly relocating and taking on a new identity
  • When it comes to an end, subjects dont remember
    the fugue state

19
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Existence of 2/more personalities that may or may
    not be aware of one another. At least 2 take
    turns controlling
  • Personalities may be different in various ways

20
Depersonalization
  • Feelings of detachment from ones mental
    processes and body. Outside of body observing
    at a distance.

21
Explaining Dissociative Disorders
  • Psychoanalytic Repression of unacceptable
    childhood urges
  • Learning Learn not to think about discomforting
    events
  • No cognitive or biological explanation at this
    time

22
Somatoform
  • Somatization Expressing
  • psychological distress through physical
  • symptoms.

23
Types
24
Conversion
  • A change in or loss physical functioning of the
    body for which there is no medical explanation.
  • Lack of concern

25
Hypochondriasis
  • Unrealistic preoccupation with thoughts that
    he/she has a serious disease.

26
Mood Disorders
  • Experience of mood changes that are
  • inappropriate or inconsistent with the
  • situation.

27
Types
28
Depression
  • Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness,
    worthlessness, guilt, great sadness
  • Major Depression At least 5 of nine symptoms
    (pg. 423), Depressed mood most of the day,
    Present for at least 2 weeks, Occurs nearly
    everyday.

29
Bipolar
  • A cycle of mood changes from depression to wild
    elation and back again.
  • Mania Extreme excitement (hyperactivity,
    irritability, chaotic behavior). A mood that is
    persistently and abnormally elevated.
  • Depression

30
Schizophrenia
  • A loss of contact with reality
  • Most severe
  • Young adulthood
  • 1 of population

31
Symptoms
  • Hallucinations Most common auditory
  • Delusions Grandeur (Superior to others),
    Persecution (Being pursued)

32
  • Thought disorders Problems in organization of
    content of mental processes. Topic to topic in
    illogical way.
  • Decreased ability to function Withdrawal, loss
    of social skills, loss of emotional
    responsiveness
  • Catatonic stupor Immobile, expressionless, coma
    like state

33
Types
34
Paranoid
  • Have delusions / hallucinations relating to the
    same theme
  • Often agitated, confused, afraid

35
Disorganized
  • Incoherent in thought and speech and disorganized
    in behavior.
  • Delusions and hallucinations are present, but
    they are fragmentary and unconnected.
  • Emotionless or inappropriate emotions
  • May Neglect appearance and hygiene, lose control
    of bladder / bowels

36
Catatonic
  • Disturbance of movement. Activity may slow to a
    stupor and them switch suddenly to agitation

37
Undifferentiated
  • Symptoms do not fit into the above types

38
Explaining Schizophrenia
  • Prenatal virus
  • Genetics
  • Enlarged ventricles
  • Small frontal lobe

39
Personality Disorders
  • Patterns of inflexible traits that disrupt
    social
  • life or work and/or distress the affected
  • individual.

40
How is this different?
  • Personality disorders are a part of the
    personality

41
Types
42
Paranoid
  • Distrustful and suspicious of others
  • Tend to be argumentative, cold, isolated

43
Schizoid
  • No interest in relationships with others
  • Lack normal emotional responsiveness, No tender
    feelings, no attachment

44
Antisocial
  • Persistent behavior pattern of disregard for and
    violation of others rights.
  • No guilt, remorse
  • Childhood signs Lying, stealing, hurting
    animals
  • Adulthood Aggressive, reckless

45
Avoidant
  • Desire for relationships with others but cant
    form them b/c of fear of disapproval

46
Others
  • Borderline - unstable
  • Histrionic - Excessive emotionality, need for
    attention
  • Narcissistic - Need for admiration
  • Dependent - Submissive and clinging
  • Obsessive-Compulsive - Orderly and Controlling

47
Explaining Personality Disorders
  • Psychoanalytic Problem in development of the
    superego
  • Learning Children are not reinforced for good
    behavior and get attention only when bad.
  • Cognitive They interpret others actions as
    threatening when not
  • Biological Genetic factors are involved.
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