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Psychological Disorders/ Abnormal Psychology


Psychological Disorders/ Abnormal Psychology Mods 45 thru 49 Pgs. 623 665 It almost never appears earlier than adolescence or early adulthood. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Disorders/ Abnormal Psychology

Psychological Disorders/Abnormal Psychology
  • Mods 45 thru 49
  • Pgs. 623 665

What is normal?
  • If someone is too depressed to get out of bed for
    weeks, do they have a disorder?
  • What if they just experienced a severe loss?
  • How long is okay?
  • What if, the day after experiencing a severe
    loss, they went out partying? Is that wrong too?

  • Most abnormals depicted on TV with severe
    problems are usually inaccurate.
  • Only a handful of the disturbed are dangerous.
  • The average mental patient is confused, withdrawn
    and will bother no one.
  • Statistically, mental patients are less violent
    than the general public.

  • If you choose an emotionally disturbed person at
    random, odds are that they wont be much
    different from you or your friends in most areas
    except for an exaggeration in certain areas.
  • Medical Students Syndrome there are many
    instances when reading about lung collapses that
    med students get pains in their chest. Dont let
    this happen to you here.

How can we define psychological disorders?
  • Does being different from everybody else make one
    have a disorder?
  • Not necessarily but, being atypical is part of
    the definition of a disorder.

To be considered disordered, other people must
find the atypical behavior disturbing.
  • These standards vary depending on cultural and
    historical context.
  • Killing during wartime vs. peace.
  • Burping at the end of a meal is a compliment in
    some countries.
  • 200 years ago, everyone walked around England and
    America with white wigs on.
  • If youre afraid of a tiny mouse and jump on
    tables screaming, its ok if you have
    agoraphobia (fear of public places) you have a

  • Would you agree that there is something abnormal
    in all of us? There must be something youve
    done that you would rather not have others know
  • Winning!
  • Historically, madness supernatural forces

Disorders are behaviors that are maladaptive.
Like when a smokers nicotine dependence produces
physical damage.
  • Abnormal behavior is most likely to be considered
    disordered when others find it rationally
  • If you can justify it or no one is disturbed
    by it, its acceptable.
  • shes an entertainer

  • So, mental health workers label behavior
    psychologically disordered when they judge it 1.
    atypical, 2. disturbing, 3. maladaptive and 4.
  • Manson Clip - Saved
  • http//

  • The current authoritative scheme for classifying
    psychological disorders is the American
    Psychiatric Associations (APA) Diagnostic and
    Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders --
  • DSM IV-R
  • Most health insurance companies require a DSM IV
    diagnosis before paying for therapy.

Anxiety Disorders
  • We all feel it at one time or another
  • Before the game, match, show or event.
  • Looking down from a ledge.
  • Speaking in front of people, etc.
  • But, for some people, two thirds of whom are
    women, anxiety becomes so distressing and
    persistent that they suffer an anxiety disorder.

3 Types
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder in which a person
    feels unexplainably tense and uneasy.
  • Phobic Disorder in which a person feels
    irrationally afraid of a specific object of
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in which a person
    is troubled by repetitive thoughts and/or actions.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Sufferers are continually tense and jittery,
    apprehensive about bad things that might happen,
    and experiencing all the symptoms of autonomic
    nervous system arousal (racing heart, clammy
    hands, stomach butterflies).

  • One of the worst characteristics of GAD is that
    the person cannot identify, and therefore cannot
    avoid, its cause.

Panic Attack
  • For no apparent reason, the anxiety may at times
    suddenly escalate into a terrifying panic attack
    an episode of intense dread, usually lasting
    several minutes. Chest pain, choking or
    smothering sensations, trembling, dizziness, or
    fainting typically accompany the panic.
  • The experience is unpredictable and so
    frightening that the sufferer may then avoid
    situations where the attacks have occurred.
  • Anxiety attack on plane
  • http//
  • How not to help a person having an anxiety attack
  • http//

Phobic Disorders
  • Phobic anxiety focuses on some specific object,
    activity or situation. Phobias are irrational
  • List of phobias -- http//
  • Deliberately forcing a person to overcome their
    fears can be very dangerous. Throwing a person
    in the ocean who has thalassophobia can be
  • Phobia clip 332 Saved
  • http//
  • Pop up phobia book

  • Fear of open places and/or public situations.
  • How can it start?
  • Perhaps suffering a panic attack in a specific
    place will trigger a fear of being in that
    situation again.
  • More agoraphobics are women. Society?
  • Most have a specific boundary they cannot cross,
    whether it be the doorway, a certain street, the
    town border etc.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/OCD
  • At times, we may all be obsessed with senseless
    or offensive thoughts that will not go away.
  • We sometimes engage in rigid behavior like
    rechecking the locked door, stepping over cracks
    in the sidewalk, lining up our books and pencils
    just right before studying or whatever..

  • Obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors cross
    the fine line between normality and disorder when
    they become so persistent that they interfere
    with the way we live or when they cause distress.
  • Obsession an endless preoccupation with an urge
    or thought.
  • Ex. What happens when you hear a song just as
    youre leaving your house or car.
  • Multiply that 100x when thoughts will not leave
    the person alone.

  • A ritualized behavior that a person must act out.
    Each time he/she does so, anxiety is decreased.
  • A compulsive handwasher is obsessed with
  • The compulsion is the action, the obsession is
    the thought.
  • Howie Manel clip 218
  • http//
  • As Good As It Gets clip 107
  • http//

Explaining Anxiety Disorders
  • Dont write, just read.
  • Psychoanalytic perspective assumes that,
    beginning in childhood, intolerable impulses,
    ideas and feelings get repressed.
  • Repetitive hand washing, for instance, may help
    suppress anxiety over ones dirty urges.
  • Learning perspective links general anxiety with
    learned helplessness. Some fears arise from
    stimulus generalization. Fear of heights may
    lead to a fear of airplaines without ever being
    on a plane.
  • Biological perspective explains our
    anxiety-proness in evolutionary, genetic and
    physiological terms. Maybe a lack of serotonin?

  • Brain scans of people with obsessive compulsive
    disorder reveal unusually high activity in an
    area of the frontal lobes just above the eyes.
    Antidepressant drugs control OC behavior by
    dampening this activity

Somatoform Disorders
  • Psychological issues are expressed in bodily
    symptoms, but there is no actual physical
  • We all feel a little worse when life isnt going
    so well, but this is dramatic.
  • 2 types
  • 1. Conversion Disorder another name is
    hysterical blindness. (More common in Freuds
    day than now)
  • Ex. A person who has witnessed a terrible human
    torture or slaughter (the Holocaust) may have
    their visual system shut down.
  • Or, a person who was in a car accident was unable
    to help others because of fear may develop a
    sort of paralysis.
  • These people are not faking it. Doctors would
    stick them with needles and they have no
  • http//
    modetruepersist_safety_mode1 Band Brothers

  • 2. Hypochondriasis Less unusual. Overly
    concerned about their health.
  • A slight headache is interpreted as brain cancer,
    or the sniffles as pneumonia.
  • Often, when children only got attention and
    support from other people when they were sick.

Dissociative Disorders (rare)
  • When a person experiences a sudden loss of memory
    or change in identity.
  • Part of ones life become disconnected with other
  • Only when these experiences are severe and
    prolonged do they suggest a dissociative disorder.

  • 1. Amnesia
  • The failure to recall events, can be caused by
    head injury or alcoholic intoxication. But
    psychogenic amnesia usually begins as a response
    to intolerable psychological stress.
  • The memories are still inside of the person, but
    they are cut off from consciousness.
  • Patients usually exhibit Selective Forgetting
    remembering how to drive, talk, type etc.
  • Combat soldiers blot out certain parts of the
    horror, but still remember childhood memories.

  • 2. Psychogenic Fugue (complicated)
  • Also involves forgetting, but it also involves
    fleeing ones home and identity for days, months
    or years.
  • When awakening from a fugue state, people
    remember their old identities but typically deny
    remembering what occurred during the fugue.
  • Can also be caused by severe stress. Maybe
    conflict with spouse.

  • 3. Multiple Personality Disorder
  • Controversial. Massive dissociation of self from
    ordinary consciousness.
  • Instead of forgetting events, they forget a
    portion of themselves. That portion begins to
    live a life of their own.
  • Usually a good and bad person. Possibly caused
    by a history of escaping from problems.
  • Perhaps a history of severe child abuse or
    traumatic experience.
  • There have been cases where the different
    personality would write with the opposite hand,
    be able to play an instrument or speak a
    different language.
  • Sybil

Mood Disorders
  • The mood of an individual is his/her emotional
    state angry, depressed, happy etc.
  • A mood disorder is an exaggerated up mood,
    depressed state, or an alternation between up and
  • There is a mild disorder called dysthymic
    disorder which is the common cold of mental
  • A moderate depression and can clear up without
    treatment. Lack of energy, unhappiness, loss of
    interest in activities, no sense of humor etc.
  • In many cases, as in the loss of a loved one, it
    serves a purpose. If it appears out of nowhere,
    there may be a problem.

Mood disorders come in two principal forms
  • 1. Major Depression the person experiences the
    hopelessness and lethargy of prolonged depression
    until eventually rebounding to normalcy.
  • Feelings of worthlessness, slow speech, thoughts
    of death or suicide.
  • Many patients have trouble with everyday tasks.
    Some can lie motionless for hours.
  • Usually there is a great deal of anger inside
    (sometimes directed at the self)
  • Affects many more women than men.
  • http//

  • Mania is the opposite of depression.
  • Extreme up moods. Doesnt seem so bad. But this
    is restlessness, no concentration, very rapid
  • Thoughts are moving so quickly, they get out of
    control and get confused.
  • Ex. I went to the store where I kept the
    containers of milk which all babies should have
    in order to survive which not everyone can do
    because of the threat of nuclear war between
    countries which are divisions of various parts of
    the land which is filled normally with rock and
  • Grandiose optimism and self esteem.

  • 2. Bipolar Disorders swings between ups and
    downs -- mania and depression.
  • Used to be called manic depression.
  • Causes 80-90 of the time, they disappear by
    themselves within six months. However, they
    usually reoccur.
  • Maybe a lifetime of loss, setbacks, poor self
  • Chemical imbalance serotonin, norepinephrine.
  • Possibly inherited. Depression is also
    contagious. Constantly being around people that
    are down or depressed will affect you. Vicious
  • Combination of psychological factors, physical
    factors and chemical factors.

Schizophrenic Disorders
  • A major/serious disorganization of the thought
    process. Distorted perceptions of the world.
    Roses are red
  • 4 Major Symptoms all four need not be present,
    but at least two.
  • 1. Thought disorder distortion of the thinking
  • 2. Hallucinating seeing or hearing things that
    are not there.
  • http//
    bok (oral hallucinations link)
  • 3. Delusions inaccurate beliefs. Prophets or
    avenging angels etc.
  • 4. Inappropriate emotional response no rsponse
    to something interesting. Then laugh at tragic
    events. They dont really think its funny, they
    are confused, a malfunction of the brain.
  • Affects 1 of the population.

  • It almost never appears earlier than adolescence
    or early adulthood. So it is probably caused by
    a chemical imbalance.
  • It may not be psychologically caused because
    psychological problems occur at any age.
  • They speak in what is called word salad.
    Incoherent, no sense and often try to rhyme words.

Types of Schizophrenia
  • Catatonic schizophrenia disturbance of
    movement. Usually say very little. Wont move
    for hours.
  • Paranoid Schizophrenia feelings of
    suspiciousness or the opposite grandiose
  • In and out of Psychotic Episodes schizophrenics
    are not out of touch with reality all of the
    time. They go in and out of episodes.
  • One chemical key to schizophrenia is the
    neurotransmitter dopamine. Too much of it.
  • May be genetic.
  • http//

Personality Disorders
  • Originally called psychopaths or sociopaths.
  • Inflexible and enduring patterns of behavior that
    impair ones social functioning sometimes
    coexist with one of the other psychological
    disorders, but need not involve anxiety,
    depression or loss of contact with reality.
  • Typically a male whose lack of conscience becomes
    plain before the age 15, as he begins to lie,
    steal, fight or display unrestrained sexual
  • In adulthood, he may be unable to keep a job, be
    irresponsible as a spouse and parent, and be
    assaultive or otherwise criminal.

  • They may be intellectual and charming.
  • Most criminals show responsible concern for their
    family and friends antisocial personalities feel
    little and fear little.
  • Clip 1000 Mind of a Psychopath saved.
  • No concern, guilt or anxiety.
  • Drugs and/or psychological treatment do not help.
  • They will want to help and cooperate, but as soon
    as theyre out, they repeat behavior.
  • Manson 12
  • http//
  • Many have a history of rough family treatment,
    abuse or neglect.
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