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Psychological Disorders

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Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders IM: Dissociative Amnesia and Dissociative Fugue Activity * IM: Dissociative Identity Disorder Activity * IM: Symptoms of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Disorders


1
  • Chapter 15
  • Psychological Disorders

2
Chapter Preview
  • Defining/Explaining Abnormal Behavior
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Mood Disorders
  • Dissociative Disorders
  • Schizophrenia
  • Personality Disorders
  • Psychological Disorders and Health and Wellness

3
Abnormal Behavior
  • Behavior that is
  • deviant (atypical)
  • maladaptive (dysfunctional)
  • personally distressing (despair)

4
Theoretical Approaches
  • Biological Approach Medical Model
  • disorders with biological origins
  • Psychological Approach
  • experiences, thoughts, emotions, personality
  • Sociocultural Approach
  • social context
  • Biopsychosocial Model
  • interaction of biological, psychological and
    sociocultural factors

5
DSM-IV Classification System
  • Advantages
  • provides a common basis for communication
  • helps clinicians make predictions
  • naming the disorder can provide comfort
  • Disadvantages
  • stigma (shame, negative reputation)
  • medical terminology implies internal cause
  • focus on weaknesses ignores strengths

6
Psychological Disorders Real or Myth?
  • Szasz Cruise
  • phrase mental illness is presumptuous
  • medication of mental illnesses is presumptuous
  • Response of Medical Professionals
  • mental illnesses are real medical conditions
  • drugs effectively alleviate symptoms
  • ADHD over-diagnosed or non-medical?
  • should prescription drugs be used to treat ADHD?

7
DSM-IV-TR Axes
  • Multiaxial System
  • Axis I and II Psychological Disorders
  • Axis III General Medical Conditions
  • Axis IV Psychosocial/Environmental Problems
  • Axis V Current Level of Functioning

8
Anxiety Disorders
  • uncontrollable fears that are
  • disproportionate and disruptive
  • generalized anxiety disorder
  • panic disorder
  • phobic disorder
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • post-traumatic stress disorder

9
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Diagnosis and Symptoms
  • persistent anxiety for at least 6 months
  • inability to specify reasons for the anxiety
  • Etiology
  • biological factors
  • - genetic predisposition, GABA deficiency,
    respiration
  • psychological and sociocultural factors
  • - harsh self-standards, critical parents,
    negative
  • thoughts, trauma

10
Panic Disorder
  • Diagnosis and Symptoms
  • recurrent, sudden onsets of intense terror that
    often occur without warning
  • Etiology
  • biological factors genetic predisposition
  • psychological factors misinterpret arousal
  • sociocultural factors gender differences

11
Phobic Disorder
  • Diagnosis and Symptoms
  • an irrational, overwhelming, persistent fear of a
    particular object or situation (e.g., social
    phobia)
  • Etiology
  • biological factors genetic disposition
  • psychological factors learned

12
Examples of Phobic Disorders
13
Social Phobias in the U.S.
14
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Diagnosis and Symptoms
  • persistent anxiety-provoking thoughts and/or
    urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic
    behaviors to prevent or produce a situation
  • Etiology
  • biological factors genetic predisposition
  • psychological factors life stress

15
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Diagnosis and Symptoms
  • Symptoms develop as a result of exposure to a
  • traumatic event, oppressive situation, natural or
  • unnatural disasters
  • - flashbacks
  • - constricted ability to feel emotions
  • - excessive arousal
  • - difficulties with memory and concentration
  • - feelings of apprehension
  • - impulsive outbursts

16
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Etiology
  • trauma
  • - combat and war-related
  • - sexual abuse and assault
  • - natural and unnatural disasters
  • vulnerability
  • - previous history of trauma
  • - genetic predispositions

17
Mood Disorders
  • disturbance of mood that affects entire
    emotional state
  • Symptoms may include
  • cognitive, behavioral, or physical symptoms
  • interpersonal difficulties
  • Types
  • major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder
  • bipolar disorder

18
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
  • Diagnosis and Symptoms
  • significant depressive episode that lasts for at
    least two weeks
  • defined by presence of at least 5 out of 9
    symptoms
  • daily functioning is impaired

19
Dysthymic Disorder (DD)
  • Diagnosis and Symptoms
  • chronic depression
  • - unbroken depressed mood lasting at least two
    years (adult) or one year (child)
  • fewer symptoms than MDD
  • - defined by presence of 2 out of 6 symptoms

20
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
  • Etiology
  • biological factors genetic disposition
  • - underactive prefrontal cortex
  • - regulation of neurotransmitters
  • psychological factors
  • - learned helplessness
  • - ruminating on negative, self-defeating thoughts
  • - pessimistic attribution
  • sociocultural factors
  • - poverty
  • - gender differences

21
Childhood Depression
  • Developmental Psychopathology
  • risk factors for depression
  • - parental psychopathology
  • - genetics
  • protective factors
  • - supportive adult role model, or strong
  • extended family
  • - genetics

22
Bipolar Disorder
  • Characterized by extreme mood swings
  • Bipolar I and Bipolar II
  • Frequency and separation of episodes
  • usually separated by 6 months to a year
  • Etiology
  • strong genetic component
  • swings in metabolic activity in cerebral cortex
  • levels of neurotransmitters

23
Suicide
  • Prevalence
  • over 32,000 in year 2004
  • one completion for every 8 to 25 attempts
  • 3rd leading cause of death in early adolescence

24
Suicide
  • Biological factors
  • low levels of serotonin
  • poor health
  • Psychological Factors
  • mental disorders
  • trauma (recent/immediate and highly stressful)
  • substance abuse
  • Sociocultural Factors
  • chronic economic hardship
  • cultural and religious norms
  • gender differences

25
When Someone is Threatening Suicide
26
Dissociative Disorders
  • sudden loss of memory or change in identity
  • Dissociation
  • protection from extreme stress or shock
  • problems integrating emotional memories
  • Types
  • dissociative amnesia
  • dissociative fugue
  • dissociative identity disorder (DID)

27
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative Amnesia
  • individuals experience extreme memory loss caused
    by extensive psychological stress
  • Dissociative Fugue
  • individuals experience amnesia, unexpectedly
    travel away, and sometimes assume a new identity

28
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Diagnosis and Symptoms
  • the same individual possesses two or more
    distinct personalities
  • each personality has unique memories, behaviors,
    and relationships
  • only one personality is dominant at a time
  • personality shifts occur under distress
  • Etiology
  • extraordinarily severe abuse in early childhood
  • social contagion
  • mostly women
  • runs in families

29
Schizophrenia
  • highly disordered thought
  • split from reality (psychotic)
  • typically diagnosed in early adulthood
  • high suicide risk

30
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Positive Symptoms
  • hallucinations and delusions
  • thought disorders and disorders of movement
  • Negative Symptoms
  • flat affect
  • Cognitive Symptoms
  • attention difficulties and memory problems
  • impaired ability to interpret information and
    make decisions

31
Etiology of Schizophrenia
  • Biological Factors
  • genetic predisposition
  • structural brain abnormalities
  • regulation of neurotransmitters
  • Psychological Factors
  • diathesis-stress model
  • Sociocultural Factors
  • influence how disorder progresses

32
Personality Disorders
  • chronic maladaptive cognitive-behavioral
    patterns
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Diagnosis and Symptoms
  • - guiltless lawbreaking, violence, deceit
  • - impulsive, irritable, reckless, irresponsible
  • Etiology
  • - biological factors (genetic, brain, and ANS
    differences)

33
Personality Disorders
  • Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Diagnosis and Symptoms
  • instability in interpersonal relationships
    self-image
  • impulsive, insecure, unstable extreme emotions
  • Etiology
  • genetic
  • childhood abuse
  • irrational belief one is powerless, unacceptable,
    and that others are hostile

34
Psychological Disorders andHealth and Wellness
  • Stereotypes and Stigma
  • Rosenhans study - fake psychiatric patients
  • negative attitudes toward mentally ill
  • physical health risk
  • successfully functioning individuals with mental
    illness reluctant to come out

35
Chapter Summary
  • Discuss the characteristics, explanations, and
    classifications of abnormal behavior.
  • Distinguish among the various anxiety disorders.
  • Compare the mood disorders and specify risk
    factors for depression and suicide.
  • Describe the dissociative disorders.
  • Characterize schizophrenia.
  • Identify behavior patterns typical of personality
    disorders.
  • Explain the impact of the stigma associated with
    mental illness.

36
Chapter Summary
  • Abnormal Behavior
  • deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressing
  • Theoretical Approaches
  • biological, psychological, and sociocultural
  • biopsychosocial
  • Classifying Abnormal Behavior
  • DSM-IV-TR Axes
  • advantages and disadvantages

37
Chapter Summary
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • generalized anxiety disorder
  • panic disorder
  • phobic disorder
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • post-traumatic stress disorder

38
Chapter Summary
  • Mood Disorders
  • major depressive disorder
  • dysthymic disorder
  • bipolar disorder
  • suicide
  • Dissociative Disorders
  • dissociative amnesia
  • dissociative fugue
  • dissociative identity disorder

39
Chapter Summary
  • Schizophrenia
  • positive, negative and cognitive symptoms
  • etiology (biological, psychological,
    sociocultural)
  • Personality Disorders
  • antisocial personality disorder
  • borderline personality disorder
  • Psychological Disorders and Health Wellness
  • stigmas and stereotypes
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