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PSYCHOLOGY

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Title: PSYCHOLOGY


1
PSYCHOLOGY
  • THE SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF BEHAVIOR AND EXPERIENCE

2
Why do we study psychology?
  • To describe
  • To predict
  • To change our behavior and experience
  • To make sound decisions
  • To help people

3
GOALS
  • To challenge common sense
  • To gain understanding and tolerance
  • To prepare for times that will be both good and
    bad, and all points between

4
We all know that
  • If it doesnt kill us it will just make us
    stronger.
  • We would never do that!
  • We know the difference between red and blue.
  • Our emotions impair our reasoning.
  • Couples should stay together for the kids.
  • Nice guys finish last.

5
The systematic study of behavior and experience
  • Wide scope
  • Emphasis on evidence acquired using the methods
    of science
  • What we do and how we feel about it

6
How about animals?
  • Do animals think?
  • Are they smart?
  • Do they feel emotions?

7
How important is psychology?
  • Abu Ghraib

8
Why psychology?
  • Katrina victims

9
  • Special Education

10
  • Enhancing performance

11
Big Questions
  • Do we have Free Will?
  • Do we really make decisions or are we just
    playing out a script?
  • Chaos
  • Sin
  • Crime

12
Another Big Question.
  • Mind vs. brain
  • Is there anything more than just physics and
    chemical reactions?
  • Do we have a soul?

13
And finally
  • Nature vs. nurture
  • Are our personalities and capabilities a result
    of
  • a) how and where we were
    raised or
  • b) what we inherited from
    our parents?

14
What do psychologists do?
  • Explore the connection between psychology and
    biology.
  • Hormones
  • Drugs
  • Genetics
  • Evolutionary influences
  • Brain trauma
  • Neurotransmitters

15
Study our cognitive capabilities and processes.
  • How do we think and acquire knowledge?
  • How can we treat learning disabilities?
  • How can we control our self talk?

16
Study human development
  • When should we able to perform various tasks?
  • What is the process of our development- from
    conception to death.
  • What causes things to go wrong

17
Social psychology
  • The study of the influences we exert on one
    another.
  • Persuasion.
  • The intersection of law and psychology.
  • the jury system
  • the death penalty

18
Clinical psychologists
  • Counselors who listen and treat
  • Psychiatrists who can prescribe
  • Psychoanalysts who analyze

19
Industrialorganizational
  • Using psychology in the work setting
  • How do employers select, train and pay their
    employees
  • NFL combine
  • Ergonomics- making products that the average
    person can use safely and efficiently
  • Compatibility- meeting expectations

20
  • School psychology
  • special education
  • bullies and victims
  • the gifted
  • Enrichment- helping captive animals eliminate
    undesirable behaviors and increase natural
    behaviors so that society will respect them and
    work to preserve their natural habitats

21
  • Forensic
  • specialists with sophisticated knowledge of
    psychological and legal issues profilers
  • Health
  • coping with stress maximizing our
    potential
  • Environmental
  • making sustainable choices

22
Psychology as a Major?
  • Suitable for many purposes
  • Employment Without a Masters
  • With a Masters
  • P.H.D. programs
  • Women - the new majority?
  • Professional schools
  • Typical classes

23
The history of psychology
  • From the dawn of time ..
  • The Bible Proverbs
  • The Greeks
  • tragedies
  • Aristotle- observation and
    rational analysis

24
History cont.
  • The Scientific Method applying the rigor of the
    physical sciences to behavior and consciousness
  • 1880 Wilhelm Wundt
  • The fist lab devoted to psychology
  • Ran experiments, collected data
  • Studied consciousness with little success

25
History Cont.
  • 1880 William James
  • Stark contrast to Wundt
  • Focus on utility
  • The Principles of Psychology
  • Inspirational, timeless
  • But no research

26
History iv
  • Darwin and the concept of evolution
  • Can studying animal intelligence tell us about
    humans?
  • Attempts to scale and rank
  • animal intelligence

27
History v
  • The search to understand human intelligence
  • First attempts- Galton in 1870
  • Lost in nature vs. nurture
  • Albert Binet 1905
  • Why did kids fail at school?
  • The IQ test
  • First valid test and more

28
History vitwo geniuses
  • Pavlov- 1905, Moscow
  • The discovery of Classical Conditioning and the
    dawn of behaviorism
  • Freud- 1900, Vienna
  • The birth of psychodynamic theory
  • Personality and behavior are controlled by
    unconscious forces stemming from our childhood
  • Dominated treatment and personality theory

29
History-behaviorism
  • Experience? Thoughts? Emotions?
  • Who cares?!?
  • In response to frustration with animal IQ studies
    and the vague nature and unsettling assumptions
    of psychodynamics
  • GOAL to observe and quantify without inferences
  • FOCUS use animals to uncover the basic laws of
    learning and behavior

30
History of behaviorism ii
  • Outlined by Pavlov, but
  • Systematized by John Watson
  • Laid out methods and
  • underlying principles
  • Dominated psychology,
  • particularly in the U.S. for years
  • Scandal then success

31
History of psychology beyond behaviorism
  • Albert Ellis the power of
  • Irrational thinking self talk
  • I must be approved or loved
  • by every significant person in
  • my community
  • If Im not thoroughly compe-
  • tent in everything I do, Im
  • worthless.
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