Abnormal Psychology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Abnormal Psychology PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 721de1-OWY4N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Abnormal Psychology

Description:

Abnormal Psychology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:291
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 78
Provided by: jaim122
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Abnormal Psychology


1
Abnormal Psychology
2
What is abnormal?
3
Abnormal Psychology
  • The area of psychological investigation concerned
    with understanding the nature of individual
    pathologies of mind, mood, behavior

4
Abnormal Psychology
  • Determining if someone has a disorder is
    typically based on an evaluation of the
    individuals behavioral functioning
  • by people with some special/professional
    authority

5
Abnormal Psychology
  • What helps psychologists to determine a disorder
    is a classification scheme called
  • DSM-IV-TR classifies, defines, describes 200
    mental disorders ? emphasizes the description of
    patterns/symptoms (changed and updated by
    committees of psychologists often)

6
Abnormal Psychology
  • Criteria Used to label behavior as abnormal
  • 1. Distress or Disability-
  • experiences personal
  • distress or disabled
  • functioning ? produces
  • risk of psychological deterioration or loss of
    freedom (ie. agoraphobia)

7
Abnormal Psychology
  • 2. Maladaptiveness- acts in ways that hinder
    goals, doesnt contribute to personal well-being,
    interferes with goals of others (ie. drinking
    heavily ? cant hold a job

8
Abnormal Psychology
  • 3. Irrationality- acts/talks in ways that are
    irrational or incomprehensible to others (ie.
    responding to voices that others cannot hear)

9
Abnormal Psychology
  • 4. Unpredictability- behaves unpredictably or
    erratically (ie. smashing a window for no reason)

10
Abnormal Psychology
  • 5. Unconventionality and Statistical Rarity-
    individual behaves in ways that are statistically
    rare does not necessarily lead to abnormality
    (ie. low intelligence- rare undesirable a
    genius- rare, but desirable)

11
Abnormal Psychology
  • 6. Observer discomfort- a person creates
    discomfort in others by making them feel
    threatened, or distressed in some way (ie. woman
    walking in the middle of the street talking to
    herself)

12
Abnormal Psychology
  • 7. Violation of Moral Ideal Standards-
    individual violates expectations of how one ought
    to behave with respect to societal norms

13
Abnormal Psychology
  • The more extreme prevalent the indicators are,
    the more confident we can be that they point to
    an abnormal condition
  • None of these are a necessary condition shared by
    all cases of abnormality

14
Abnormal Psychology
  • No single criterion by itself is a sufficient
    condition that distinguishes all cases of
    abnormal behavior from normal variations in
    behavior
  • The distinction between normal abnormal is a
    matter of degree to which a persons actions
    resemble a set of agreed-upon criteria of
    abnormality

15
Problem of Objectivity
  • To declare/decide someone has a psychiatric
    disorder is a judgment about behavior
  • GOAL to make these judgments objectively- w/o
    bias
  • Some disorder judgments are more easily made w/o
    bias (depression schizophrenia)

16
Problem of Objectivity
  • Once an individual has obtained an abnormal
    label people are inclined to interpret later
    behavior to confirm that judgment

17
Problem of Objectivity
  • Ex- Rosenhans experiment- several people faked
    hallucinations to get placed into a psych
    hospital ? once there they acted in a sane manner
    ? kept there for 3 weeks, not one was
    identified as sane ? finally released with help
    from spouses/colleagues

18
History of Mentally Ill
  • 1. For most of history, humans feared the
    mentally ill associated them with evil they
    were in some cases imprisoned or killed

19
History of Mentally Ill
  • 2. 1700s- idea emerges ? those suffering from
    psychological problems are sick and suffering
    from illness rather than being possessed or
    immoral.
  • - Reforms evolved in the way the ill were cared
    for/classified/diagnosed (Pinel Kraepelin)

20
History of Psychopathology
  • 2. Psychological- various approaches perceive
    personal experiences, trauma, conflicts, and
    environmental factors, as the root of disorders
  • - 3 Psychological Models of Abnormality

21
History of Mentally Ill
  • 3. Late 1700s-Early 1800s- emergence of
    psychological reasons for mental illness, b/c
    people began to use techniques like hypnosis that
    seemed to cure people of hysteria

22
History of Mentally Ill
  • 4. Modern versions combine aspects of both
    medical and psychological models of mental illness

23
Etiology of Psychopathology
  • Biological- psychological disturbances are
    directly attributable to biological factors
    (structural abnormalities in the brain,
    bio-chemical process, and genetic influences)
  • - Ex.- neurotransmitters, brain injury,
    infection

24
Etiology of Psychopathology
  • A. Psychodynamic- cause of psychopathology is
    located inside the person symptoms have their
    roots in the unconscious conflict thoughts
  • - if the unconscious is conflicted tension
    filled ? person will be plagued by anxiety
  • - conflict comes from struggle between Id, Ego,
    Superego

25
Etiology of Psychopathology
  • B. Behavioral- abnormal behaviors acquired thru
    learning reinforcement
  • - focus on current behavior conditions or
    reinforcements that sustain the behavior NOT
    internal psychological phenomena or early
    childhood
  • - symptoms arise b/c person learned ineffective
    ways of behaving

26
Etiology of Psychopathology
  • C. Cognitive- agree w/ behaviorists, but w/ a
    twist what matters is the way people
    perceive/think about themselves about their
    relations w/ people the environment
  • - suggests psych. problems are result of
    distortions in perceptions of reality of a
    situation, faulty reasoning, or poor problem
    solving

27
Etiology of Psychopathology
  • D. Sociocultural- emphasizes role culture plays
  • - particular cultural circumstances in which
    people live, may define an environment that helps
    bring about distinctive types or subtypes of
    psychopathology

28
Non-Psychotic Psychotic Disorders
29
Anxiety Disorders
30
Anxiety Disorders
  • Causes
  • Biological- phobias are evolutionary (shared
    across cultures) ability of certain drugs to
    relieve anxiety shows a possible biological
    cause genetic basis- (twin study) for
    predisposition of 4 to 5 disorders

31
Anxiety Disorders
  • 2. Psychodynamic- symptoms of anxiety come from
    unconscious conflicts/fear symptoms are trying
    to protect the individual from pain
  • - panic attacks ? result of unconscious
    conflicts bursting into consciousness
  • - Panic Attacks

32
Anxiety Disorders
  • 3. Behavioral- focus on the way symptoms are
    reinforced/conditioned
  • - phobias- classically conditioned fears ?
    previously neutral stimuli become a frightening
    experience
  • - OCD compulsive behaviors tend to reduce
    anxious thoughts ? reinforcing the compulsive
    behavior

33
Anxiety Disorders
  • 4. Cognition- person may overestimate
    nature/reality of threat or underestimate ability
    to cope w/ threat
  • - people w/ anxiety may interpret their own
    distress as a sign of impending disaster ?
    vicious cycle

34
Mood Disorders
35
SWBAT
  • Examine a video of psych patients at Bellevue
    Hospital
  • Analyze and discuss the patients according to
    their symptoms

36
Video
  • After viewing the video of patients at Bellevue
    Hospital, write a ½ page reaction, which will be
    discussed at the beginning of tomorrows class

37
SWBAT
  • Discuss Bellevue video reactions
  • Identify multiple perspectives of the causes of
    mood disorders
  • Analyze the difference between depression and
    bipolar disorder

38
Mood Disorders
  • Major Depressive Disorder- feeling of
    sadness/despair usually appears before age 40
    loss of previous source of pleasure lasts avg.
    of 5 mos
  • Bipolar Disorder- episodes of severe depression
    and manic episodes onset age 20-29

39
Mood Disorders
  • Causes
  • Biological- levels of serotonin
    norepinephrine ? depression levels
    ? mania
  • - evidence of genetic factors (twin studies)
    influencing mood
  • - some evidence that depressed people have small
    hippocampus

40
Mood Disorders
  • 2. Psychodynamic-
  • - hostile feelings unconscious conflicts
    originated in childhood
  • - depression is anger turned inward toward the
    self anger tied to intense dependent childhood
    relationship where needs were not met

41
Mood Disorders
  • 3. Behavioral- an effect of the amount of
    positive reinforcement punishment ? depression
    (not enough positive too much punishment)
  • - also a connection between lack of social
    skills depression

42
Mood Disorders
  • 4. Cognitive
  • a) - negative view of self
  • - negative view of ongoing experience
  • - negative view of future
  • can lead to paralysis of will no motivation
    to pursue goals

43
Mood Disorders
  • b) - explanatory style depressed people cant
    control future outcomes that are important to
    them
  • - pessimistic view
  • - learned helplessness ? expectancy that nothing
    they can do matters
  • Manic Depressive/Bipolar Disorder

44
Mood Disorders
  • Gender Differences in Depression
  • - women- 2x more affected, esp. in adolescence
    due to puberty
  • - why? more thoughtful response style
    tendency to focus obsessively on problems
  • - men- actively distract themselves from
    feeling depressed by focusing on something else

45
Mood Disorders
  • Suicide
  • - most depressed people dont commit suicide
    50-80 of suicides are attempted by depressed
    people
  • - women attempt suicide 3xs more than men ? men
    are more successful b/c of methods used

46
Mood Disorders
  • - since 1960, youth suicide white males
    are the highest
  • - most youth suicides have given signs

47
Knowledge Check!
  • Answer the T/F and Application questions on your
    own
  • When finished, hand in your sheet, and Ill tell
    you what the answers were ?
  • Were your answers correct?

48
Personality Dissociative Disorders
49
SWBAT
  • Explain the 5 types of personality disorders
  • Identify the causes of personality disorders
  • Analyze the Dissociateive Identity Disorder (DID)
    in Inside Karens Crowded Mind

50
Personality Disorders
  • Read, Inside Karens Crowded Mind and be
    prepared to discuss

51
Personality Disorders
  • Chronic, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of
    perceiving, thinking, or behaving
  • Personality traits are excessive in degree
    rigid
  • Usually recognized by adolescence or early
    adulthood
  • Difficult to diagnose b/c of overlap between
    disorders

52
Personality Disorders
  • 5 Examples of Personality Disorders
  • 1. Paranoid- distrust/suspicious suspect others
    are trying to harm them often jealous but unable
    to accept criticism themselves

53
Personality Disorders
  • 2. Histrionic- excessive emotionally attention
    seeking flamboyant, dramatic, seductive,
    manipulative 2x-3x greater in women

54
Personality Disorders
  • 3. Narcissistic- grandiose sense of self
    importance, need for admiration problems in
    interpersonal relationships tend to exploit
    others have difficulty recognizing
    experiencing how others feel

55
Personality Disorders
  • 4. Antisocial- pattern of irresponsible, unlawful
    behavior (starts early) that violates social
    norms dont experience shame/remorse disrupting
    class, getting into fights, running away from
    home involved in crime (but not always)

56
Personality Disorders
  • - indifference to the rights of others
  • - impulsive, manipulative, aggressive
  • - more apparent in males (3-6x)
  • - lack of conscience by age 15
  • - aka sociopath/psychopath

57
Personality Disorders
  • 5. Borderline- 126 criteria, very complicated to
    diagnose treat out of control emotions
    clingy, hypersensitive to abandonment history
    of hurting self mood instability unstable
    personal relationships more in women

58
Personality Disorders
  • CAUSES
  • - genetic component, 67 of identical twins
    share the same disorder
  • - research also points to environmental
    circumstances
  • a) dysfunctional/physically abusive/neglectf
    ul families
  • b) neurological damage prenatally

59
Dissociative Disorders
  • Disturbance in the integration of identity,
    memory, or consciousness
  • Dissociate/disown part of themselves
  • Dissociative amnesia- selective memory loss due
    to psychological reasons (major trauma)

60
Dissociative Disorders
  • DID/Multiple Personality Disorder
  • - 2 distinct personalities
  • exist w/in same individual
  • - one personality is dominant
  • - personalities often contrast
  • w/ original self

61
Dissociative Disorders
  • - developed b/c they tried to escape from their
    life ? many have history of on-going sexual
    physical abuse
  • - very controversial ? some believe it doesnt
    exist, patients make it up therapists
    coach/help them

62
Schizophrenia
63
Schizophrenia
  • Means split mind
  • Most serious type of disorder
  • Personality disintegrates ? thoughts
    perceptions are distorted emotions are
    dulled/flat
  • Thinking becomes illogical disorganized

64
Schizophrenia
  • Hallucinations occur
  • Delusions false beliefs
  • Incoherent language ? word salad
  • Sometimes neglect personal hygiene
  • Difference between mood disorders schizophrenia
    disturbed thinking

65
Schizophrenia
  • 2 Phases
  • - Positive symptoms (aka acute/active)- symptoms
    very apparent (hallucinations, delusions, bizarre
    behavior, wild ideas)
  • - Negative symptoms- flattened emotions,
    withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention

66
Schizophrenia
  • 4 Types of Schizophrenia
  • 1. Disorganized- incoherent patterns of thinking
    language, bizarre behavior, emotions are flat
    or inappropriate to the situation delusions,
    aimless, babbling giggling

67
Schizophrenia
  • 2. Catatonic- (not very common) disruption of
    motor activity, seem frozen, or motionless or
    at other times ? excessive motor activity

68
Schizophrenia
  • 3. Paranoid- often comes
  • later in life, hallucinations
  • - delusions focus around
  • a) being persecuted
  • b) delusions of grandeur (God, millionaire)
  • c) jealousy- mate is unfaithful

69
Schizophrenia
  • 4. Undifferentiated- (fairly common) mixture of
    symptoms, disorganized thinking
  • 5. Residual- suffered from schizophrenia in the
    past, but its now dormant or in remission

70
Schizophrenia
  • CAUSES
  • - seem to have high levels of dopamine (Dopamine
    Hypothesis)
  • - tends to run in families genetic factors put
    people at risk, but environmental factors also
    must present themselves ? diathesis-stress
    hypothesis

71
Schizophrenia
  • - family interaction can be an environmental
    stressor
  • - research shows that reducing criticism,
    hostility, and intrusiveness can help reduce
    reoccurrence of symptoms
  • - often family behavior may not stop disorder,
    but can help manage it

72
Schizophrenia
  • - Brain functions/structure might be different ?
    scans during hallucinations show increased
    activity in amygdala lower activity in the
    frontal lobe

73
Schizophrenia
  • Neuro-developmental hypothesis- prenatal exposure
    delivery complication increase vulnerability ?
    low birth weight oxygen deprivation
  • Maternal virus during pregnancy (esp. the flu)
    can increase probability

74
Schizophrenia
  • Most believe its the high level of dopamine or
    genetic

75
Schizophrenia
  • TREATMENT
  • - medication works to either block dopamine
    receptors OR prevent the release of dopamine
  • - risks/side effects- tremors, seizures, slow
    mental functioning, drowsiness

76
Schizophrenia
  • - Generally appears in adolescence or early
    adulthood
  • - Patient falls into 3 Types
  • 1. treated successfully ? recover
  • 2. partial recovery, but w/ frequent relapse
  • 3. endure chronic illness generally
    permanently hospitalized

77
Schizophrenia
  • Janny's World
  • Janny's Interns
  • Janny's Ranch
About PowerShow.com