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Psychology What is Psychology? study of how and why humans act as they do Instead of studying how humans function in cultures or societies, psychology focuses on the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychology

What is Psychology?
  • study of how and why humans act as they do
  • Instead of studying how humans function in
    cultures or societies, psychology focuses on the
    individual, and the personal and unique
    experiences that influence how the individual
    acts and thinks

Types of Psychology
  • Experimental Psychology
  • The branch of the discipline that sets up
    experiments to see how individuals act in
    particular situations
  • Question - Would you help a complete stranger
    that was being threatened with violence from
    another person?

The Case of Kitty Genovese
  • The Case of Kitty Genovese - Kitty was murdered
    on the street outside her New York City apartment
    after loud shouting was heard - 38 people
    witnessed the murder but did nothing to stop it
  • Psychologists have long been interested in our
    unwillingness to get involved in uncomfortable
    situations even if someones personal safety is
    at risk
  • People have a tendency see themselves as
    bystanders in such situations rather than as
  • ACTORS are people who become active participants
    in a situation
  • The Bystander Effect - Kitty Genovese

When Bystanders Join In
  • 4 years after Genovese was murdered, two
    psychologists, John Darley and Bibb Latane,
    wanted to identify the factors that influence
    bystanders decisions to get involved in public
  • Experiment What would affect whether or not
    people would get involved in a Frisbee game with
  • Conclusions?
  • Relation to Genovese case?

Clinical Psychology
  • CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY is the branch of the
    discipline that develops programs for treating
    individuals suffering from mental illnesses and
    behavioural disorders
  • Eg. Psychologists treat dangerous offenders in
    federal prisons in an attempt to prevent them
    from reoffending on release

Psychological Schools of Thought
  • Like the other social sciences, psychology
  • has been divided into a number of schools
  • of thought
  • Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Behaviouralism
  • Learning Theory

Mini SGA
  • Create a small role play / skit on one of the
    following famous psychologists. Highlight his /
    her main theories, applications and conclusions
    to psychology in your skit!
  • Sigmund Freud p. 19
  • John B. Watson and Benjamin Spock p.20
  • Ivan Pavlov p. 20
  • B.F. Skinner p. 20, 54
  • Alfred Bandura p. 21
  • Carl Jung p. 55
  • Abraham Maslov p. 58
  • Marion Woodman p. 58

Psychoanalytic Theory
  • The mind is divided into two parts the conscious
    (aware of ) and the unconscious (not aware of)
  • According to psychologists, our unconscious mind
    has more influence than our conscious mind on our
    personalities and behaviour

The Unconscious Mind
  • The Unconscious mind is divided into three
  • Id which encourages us to seek physical
  • Superego prompts us to do the moral thing, not
    the one that feels best
  • Ego the referee between the two and deals with
    external reality, this is our most conscious self

Sigmund Freud
  • The founder of psychoanalytic theory
  • He believed our early childhood experiences,
    usually involving our relationships with parents
    and family, are stored in our unconscious mind
  • While we are normally unaware of these memories,
    they can have a powerful influence on the way we
  • Those that live with a general sense of
    frustration, our behaviour may become neurotic
    and connected with anxiety or obsessiveness which
    can be treated using dream analysis, hypnosis and
    individual counseling
  • Freud felt that individual sexual satisfaction or
    frustration was the key element in personality

Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
  • Adler believed that difficulties people
    encounter in gaining self-esteem and recognition,
    if not overcome by the normal means lead to
    compensatory behaviour and resultant personality
    disorders which are now widely referred to as an
    inferiority complex.

Carl Jung (1875-1961)
  • Responsible for the identification of the
    Extroverted (outward-looking outgoing rely on
    others for sense of well being) and Introverted
    (inward-looking emotionally self sufficient
    well being comes from within) personality types.
  • Worked closely with Freud but split later in
    their careers
  • The other aspect of Jung's work which has been
    very influential is his approach to the analysis
    of dreams.

  • Behaviourists believe that psychologists can
    predict and control or modify human behaviour by
    identifying the factors that motivate it in the
    first place
  • Behaviourists placed particular stress on the
    early childhood years, and the rules or practices
    parents use to raise their children because they
    believe these methods have a huge influence on
    the character of individuals even into adulthood

Charles B. Watson (1878-1958)
  • The founder of behaviourism
  • He used animal experiments to determine whether
    strict of flexible learning patterns are more
  • Wrote book Psychological Care of the Infant and
    Child concluded that children should be brought
    up using a scientific, strictly scheduled,
    rules-based model.

Benjamin Spock (1903-1998)
  • He believed that a permissive approach to child
    rearing, rather than a strict one, would result
    in successful, well-adjusted adults.
  • He encouraged parents to be loving, flexible and
  • Wrote book Baby and Child Care

Learning Theory
  • Learning Theorists agree that humans are born
    with little instinct but much learning potential
  • They believe that most human behaviour is
    learned, especially in child and youth
  • By controlling the way in which humans learn
    behavious, society can have a great influence on
    their ultimate personalities
  • Believe that children who were brought up in
    loving families would grow up to become secure
    and loving adults, but only if parents provided
    clear and consistent expectations for good
    behaviour, and swift but fair consequences for
    bad behaviour

Psychological Questions
  • Focus on peoples behaviours (what they do) and
    attitudes (what they think)
  • Key Questions-what must people do to
    successfully change their behaviours-what
    factors make behaviour-modification programs
    successful?-do most people need help changing
    behaviour, or can they be self changers?
  • Example Consider an individual who has been
    convicted three times for driving under the
    influence. Is it necessary to change a persons
    attitude about drinking before he or she will
    stop drinking and driving?

Theory of Attitude Change
  • Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  • Six Stages of Change (Behaviour
    Modification)-Pre-contemplation (denial,
    refusal)-Contemplation (questioning)-Preparatio
    n (investigation)-Action (commitment)-Maintenanc
    e (transition)-Termination (completion)
  • Positive and Negative Reinforcement

B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
  • Skinner proved that pigeons could be trained to
    peck at a particular coloured disk to get food
  • Rats received food rewards for pressing specfic
    levers in a complicated sequence leading many
    theorists to believe that learning was a
  • He believed that if the subject is correctly
    stimulated it will give the appropriate response
  • Theory of OPERANT CONDITIONING learning can be
    programmed by whatever consequences follows a
    particular behaviour

Abraham Maslov (1908-1970)
  • Analysis of human needs organized into a
    hierarchy ranging from basic survival through to
    the need for love, security and esteem
  • Highest level was self actualization
    (integration of the self gt making the personality
  • Maslovs theories had most profound impact on
    industrial psychology (making workplace a
    satisfying experience by raising morale of
    workers to improve performance)

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
  • Pavlovs experiments with dogs showed that is was
    possible to get a dog to associate the sound of a
    bell with the imminent arrival of food
  • At the sound of a bell, the dog would salivate in

Alfred Bandura (Born in 1925)
  • Bandura concluded that learning is largely a
    modeling experience and more complicated than a
    mere stimulus-response effect
  • When humans observe behaviour either acceptable
    or unacceptable they are more likely to
    practice it
  • Experiment- Bobo
  • Question What does this mean to us? What
    applications can be made to today?
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Activity Dream Analysis
  • The following is a Jungian dream analysis method.
    The method is based on the belief that objects
    and people in a dream have a personal meaning to
    the dreamer, and that the dreamer (not an
    analyst) is best able to understand his/her own
    dream. Often people and objects in our dreams
    represent parts of ourselves, or ways we would
    like (or are afraid) to be. For instance, if you
    dream of your very outgoing friend, Tom, and you
    feel wonderful in the dream, it might be your
    unconscious encouraging you to become more
  • Start by recalling a dream you have had, jotting
    down as many details as you can. (Choose a dream
    youll feel comfortable discussing with others.)
    Then, working with a small group of students,
    take turns revealing your dreams while others in
    the group ask the following sets of questions

  • 1. What is the setting or settings?
  • What does each place remind you of or make you
    think of?
  • What does it feel like to be in these settings?
  • What is the mood of the dream (scary, funny,
    light, peaceful ...)?
  • How does this mood affect you?
  • 2. Who are the people in the dream? (Discuss each
    person individually.)
  • What is the main characteristic of each what
    is each person like? (Jung would ask, What is
    the essence of each person?) For example,
    organized, funny, worldly....?
  • How do you feel about each person in the dream?
  • If a person is unknown, what kind of person
    would you imagine him/her to be given the way
    s/he looks and acts in the dream?
  • What is each person doing in the dream?
  • How do their actions make you feel?
  • Does a person remind you of anything or anyone
    in your life?
  • Is there some part of you that is like this
    person, or would like to be more like this
    person, or reacts strongly against him/her?

  • 3. Describe the objects in your dream as you
    would to someone from another planet.
  • What are they used for? How do they work?
  • Do you like or dislike them?
  • Do they remind you of anything, any part of
    yourself, or anyone in your life?
  • 4. What are the major actions and events in the
  • How do you react to them in the dream?
  • How do they make you feel?
  • Do they remind you of any situations in real
  • 5. Considering all the different thoughts that
    came to mind as you discussed your dream, how do
    you understand your dream now?
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