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General Psychology

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Part of being sane is being a little bit crazy. Janet Long There is no great genius without some touch of madness. Seneca General Psychology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Psychology


1
General Psychology
  • Part of being sane is being a little bit crazy.
  • Janet Long
  • There is no great genius without some touch of
    madness.
  • Seneca
  • General Psychology
  • Psychological Disorders
  • L. Kato

2
Psychological Disorders
3
Psychological Disorders
  • Normal or Abnormal Behavior? You decide

4
The Many Myths of Mental Illness
  • Common Myths
  • The mentally are violent or dangerous
  • no more violent than is someone suffering from
    cancer or any other serious disease
  • The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (2003)
  • People with mental illnesses all live in the
    street or in mental hospitals
  • over two-thirds of Americans who have a mental
    illness live in the community and lead productive
    lives
  • most hospitalizations are brief
  • The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (2003)

5
Introduction to Mental Illness
6
Psychological Disorder
  • The presence of a constellation of symptoms that
    create significant distress or impair work,
    school, family, relationships, or daily living.

7
Psychological Disorder
  • Three factors
  • Distress
  • Disability (or Impairment)
  • Danger

8
Psychological Disorders
  • Worldwide
  • 450 million people suffer from psychological
    disorders
  • psychological disorders rank 2nd among diseases
    leading to death and disability
  • 25 of Americans have symptoms that meet criteria
    for a psychological disorder
  • for every 100 workers, 3.7 days are lost due to
    psychological disorders

9
Deviant Behavior and Abnormality
  • Importance of context
  • Social norms
  • Cultural beliefs
  • Religious practices

10
Fig. 16.5 The Mad Hatter, from Lewis Carrolls
Alices Adventures in Wonderland. History
provides numerous examples of psychosis caused by
toxic chemicals. Carrolls Mad Hatter character
is modeled after an occupational disease of the
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In that era,
hatmakers were heavily exposed to mercury used in
the preparation of felt. Consequently, many
suffered brain damage and became psychotic, or
mad (Kety, 1979).
11
Deviant Behavior and Abnormality
  • Psychosis
  • an obvious impairment in the ability to perceive
    and comprehend events accurately
  • Hallucinations
  • mental images so vivid that they seem real
  • Delusions
  • entrenched false believes

12
Explaining Abnormality
  • How do we explain abnormal behavior?
  • Ancient Greece imbalance
  • 17th century New England devil
  • 20th century Freud

13
Explaining Abnormality
  • Multiple Factors Contribute to Abnormal Behavior
  • Brain Neurological and Biological Factors
  • Person Maladaptive Learning, Thoughts, and
    Biases
  • Group Social and Cultural Factors

14
Explaining Abnormality
  • Biopsychosocial Model
  • consider the biological, psychological, and
    social aspects underlying psychological disorders

15
Explaining Abnormality
  • Diathesis-Stress model
  • diathesis predisposition to the disorder
  • specific factors (stress)

16
Explaining Abnormality
  • Diathesis
  • Genes
  • Abnormal Brain Structure or Function
  • Neurotransmitter Imbalance

Vulnerability to Psychological Disorders
  • Stress
  • Noxious Physical Stress
  • Trauma, Neglect, Abuse
  • Relationships- loss, turbulence
  • Culture-related stress

Psychological Disorders
17
Exam Questions
  • The definition of a psychological disorder takes
    into account ________.
  • William's identical twin, Fred, has
    schizophrenia. According to the diathesis-stress
    approach will William become schizophrenic too?

18
Categorizing Disorders
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders
  • Manual of mental disorders designed to diagnose
    and treat patients

19
Categorizing Disorders
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR)
  • Axis I clinical disorders
  • Axis II personality disorders and mental
    retardation
  • Axis III general medical conditions
  • Axis IV psychosocial and environmental problems
  • Axis V global assessment of functioning

20
Mood Disorders
  • Mood disorders are conditions marked by
    persistent or episodic disturbances in emotion
    that interfere with normal functioning in at
    least one realm of life.

21
Mood Disorders
  • Major depressive disorder
  • 2 weeks depressed mood
  • loss of interest in nearly all activities
  • four additional symptoms

22
Mood Disorders
  • Major depressive disorder
  • the most common disorder in the U.S.
  • Lifetime prevalence
  • Women 10 - 25
  • Men 5 to 12

23
Mood Disorders
  • Suicide
  • 31,000 depressed people commit suicide each year
  • 11th leading cause of death in the US
  • Dysthymia
  • Lifetime prevalence 6
  • depressed mood for most of the day (2 years)
  • two other symptoms of depression

24
Mood Disorders
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Mania
  • Hypomania
  • Manic episode
  • Prodromal phase
  • Often cycles with depression
  • Formerly called manic depression
  • Lifetime prevalence 1

25
Bipolar Disorder
26
Explaining Mood Disorders
  • The brain
  • Hereditary factors
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Frontal lobe
  • Amygdala
  • The person
  • Attributional style
  • The group
  • Social support network

27
Anxiety Disorders
  • Anxiety disorder is a state characterized by
    extreme fear and extreme anxiety.
  • experience intense or pervasive anxiety or fear
    or extreme attempts to avoid these feelings
  • experiences create exceptional distress that can
    interfere with the ability to function normally
  • Generalized anxiety disorder
  • 3 of the population

28
Anxiety Disorders
  • Panic disorder
  • Panic attacks
  • Agoraphobia
  • Lifetime prevalence 3

29
Anxiety Disorders
  • Panic disorder
  • Anxiety sensitivity
  • locus coeruleus is the seat of an alarm system

30
Anxiety Disorders
  • Phobias
  • Social phobia
  • Lifetime prevalence 13
  • Specific phobia
  • Animal fears
  • Blood-injection-injury fears
  • Natural environment fears
  • Situation fears
  • Miscellaneous fears
  • Lifetime prevalence 12

31
Anxiety Disorders
32
Anxiety Disorders
  • Specific Phobias
  • Ailurophobia cats
  • Anthophobia flowers
  • Aquaphobia water
  • Phrenophobia insanity
  • Trichophobia hair

33
Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  • Obsession
  • Compulsion
  • Checking
  • Washing
  • Ordering
  • Lifetime prevalence 3

34
Anxiety Disorders
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Traumatic event
  • Fear and helplessness
  • Symptoms
  • Re-experience event
  • Avoidance and emotional numbing
  • Heightened arousal
  • Lifetime prevalence 8 (among Americans)
  • Prevalence strongly affected by environment

35
Schizophrenia
  • Positive Symptoms
  • Delusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Disordered behavior
  • Disorganized speech
  • Negative Symptoms
  • Flat affect
  • Alogia
  • Avolition
  • Lifetime prevalence 1

36
Beautiful Minds
37
Schizophrenia
  • Four subtypes
  • Paranoid
  • Disorganized
  • Catatonic
  • Undifferentiated

38
Explaining Schizophrenia
  • The brain
  • Hereditary
  • Ventricle size
  • Neurotransmitters
  • The person
  • Cognitive Difficulties
  • The group

39
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative Disorders disruption in the usually
    integrated functions of consciousness, memory, or
    identity, often caused by a traumatic or
    stressful event
  • Dissociative identity disorder
  • two or more distinct personalities take control
    of the individuals behavior

40
Eating Disorders
  • Eating Disorders
  • severe disturbances in eating behavior
  • 90 female
  • Lifetime prevalence 0.5-4

41
Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • refusal to maintain even a low normal weight
  • intense fear of gaining weight

42
Eating Disorders
43
Eating Disorders
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by
    some attempt to prevent weight gain

44
Eating Disorders
45
Eating Disorders
  • Factors
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Gender
  • Cultural factors

46
Personality Disorders
  • stable personality traits that are inflexible and
    maladaptive
  • cognition
  • affectivity
  • interpersonal functioning
  • impulse control

47
Personality Disorders
  • Personality Disorders are
  • deeply rooted and firmly established
  • not always under significant distress
  • often those around them are more distressed
  • attribute problems to aspects of their
    environment
  • do not feel they need clinical treatment

48
Personality Disorders
  • wide range of situations (personal and social)
  • significant clinical distress
  • stable long in duration
  • adolescence or early adulthood
  • not accounted for by another mental disorder
  • not related to substance abuse or medical
    condition

49
Personality Disorders
  • Antisocial personality disorder
  • a pattern of disregard or violation of the rights
    of others

50
Personality Disorders
  • Avoidant personality disorder
  • a pattern of social discomfort, feelings of
    inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative
    evaluation

51
Personality Disorders
  • Borderline personality disorder
  • a pattern of instability in interpersonal
    relationships, self image, affects, and marked
    impulsivity

52
Personality Disorders
  • Dependent personality disorder
  • a pattern of clingy, submissive behavior due to
    an extreme need to be taken care of

53
Personality Disorders
  • Histrionic personality disorder
  • a pattern of excessive attention seeking and
    expression of emotion.

54
Personality Disorders
  • Narcissistic personality disorder
  • a pattern of an exaggerated sense of self
    importance, need for admiration, and lack of
    empathy

55
Personality Disorders
  • Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
  • a pattern of preoccupation with orderliness,
    perfectionism, and control

56
Personality Disorders
  • Paranoid personality disorder
  • a pattern of suspiciousness and distrust of
    others to the extent that other peoples motives
    are interpreted as ill-intentioned

57
Personality Disorders
  • Schizoid personality disorder
  • a pattern of detachment from social relationships
    and a narrow range of displayed emotion

58
Personality Disorders
  • Schizotypal personality disorder
  • a pattern of extreme discomfort in close
    relationships, odd or quirky behavior and
    cognitive or perceptual distortions
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