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The Story of Psychology Prologue

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Title: The Story of Psychology Prologue


1
The Story of Psychology Prologue
2
The Story of Psychology
  • What is Psychology?
  • Psychologys Roots
  • Psychological Science Develops

3
Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychologys Biggest Question
  • Psychologys Three Main Levels if Analysis
  • Psychologys Subfields

4
Psychology
  • With hopes of satisfying curiosity, many people
    listen to talk-radio counselors and psychics to
    learn about others and themselves.

http//www.photovault.com
http//www.nbc.com
Dr. Crane (radio-shrink)
Psychic (Ball gazing)
5
Psychological Science is Born
Wundt and psychologys first graduate students
studied the atoms of the mind by conducting
experiments at Leipzig, Germany, in 1879. This
work is considered the birth of psychology as we
know it today.
Wundt (1832-1920)
6
Psychological Science is Born
James (1842-1910)
Mary Calkins
American philosopher William James wrote an
important 1890 psychology textbook. Mary Calkins,
Jamess student, became the APAs first female
president.
7
Psychological Science is Born
Freud (1856-1939)
Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, and his
followers emphasized the importance of the
unconscious mind and its effects on human
behavior.
8
Psychological Science is Born
Psychology originated in many disciplines and
countries. It was, until the 1920s, defined as
the science of mental life.
9
Psychological Science Develops
  • Behaviorists

Skinner (1904-1990)
Watson (1878-1958)
Watson and later Skinner emphasized the study of
overt behavior as the subject matter of
scientific psychology.
10
Psychological Science Develops
  • Humanistic Psychology

Maslow (1908-1970)
http//facultyweb.cortland.edu
Rogers (1902-1987)
http//www.carlrogers.dk
Maslow and Rogers emphasized current
environmental influences on our growth potential
and our need for love and acceptance.
11
Psychology Today
  • We define psychology today as the scientific
    study of behavior (what we do) and mental
    processes (inner thoughts and feelings).

12
Contemporary Psychology
  1. Psychologys Biggest Question
  2. Psychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis
  3. Psychologys Subfields

13
Nature verses Nurture
  • Controversy over the contribution of biology
    (nature) and experience (nurture)
  • Do our traits develop through experience or are
    we born with them?
  • Today, we see traits and behaviors arising from
    the interaction of nature and nurture.

14
Psychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis
15
Psychologys Current Perspectives
Perspective Focus Sample Questions
Neuroscience How the body and brain enables emotions? How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?
Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of ones genes? How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?
Behavior genetics How much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences? To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?
16
Psychologys Current Perspectives
Perspective Focus Sample Questions
Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts? How can someones personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?
Behavioral How we learn observable responses? How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?
17
Psychologys Current Perspectives
Perspective Focus Sample Questions
Cognitive How we encode, process, store and retrieve information? How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving?
Social-cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures? How are we as Africans, Asians, Australians or North Americans alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?
18
Psychologys Subfields Research
Psychologist What do they do?
Biological Explore the links between brain and mind.
Developmental Study changing abilities from womb to tomb.
Cognitive Study how we perceive, think, and solve problems.
Personality Investigate our persistent traits.
Social Explore how we view and affect one another.
19
Psychologys Subfields Research
Data APA 1997
20
Psychologys Subfields Applied
Psychologist What do they do?
Clinical Studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Counseling Helps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges.
Educational Studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings
Industrial/ Organizational Studies and advises on behavior in the workplace.
21
Psychologys Subfields Applied
Data APA 1997
22
Psychological Associations Societies
  • The American Psychological Association is the
    largest organization of psychology with 160,000
    members world-wide, followed by the British
    Psychological Society with 34,000 members.

23
Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry
  • A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies,
    assesses, and treats people with mental health
    concerns with psychotherapy.
  • Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical
    professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like
    medication and psychotherapy to treat people with
    mental health issues.
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