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THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY

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THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 22 June 2019
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Title: THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY


1
Sociocultural
Behavioral
Psychoanalytic
APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY
Humanistic
Biological
Cognitive
2
What is Psychology?
  • The scientific study of behavior and mental
    processes (humans and animals)
  • Covers what we..
  • Think
  • Feel
  • Do
  • Largest association of Psychologists worldwide

3
Why Study Psychology?
  • Application to everyday life
  • Gain insight into behavior (yours and others)

4
Why Study Psychology?
  • Dispel myths about human behavior

5
Goals of Psychology
  • Describe behavior
  • Explain behavior
  • Predict behavior
  • Influence behavior

6
History of Psychology
Phrenology Examining bumps on the skull to
determine intellect and character traits (19th
century)
Past attempts at understanding human behavior
(weird or not) have led to what we know today and
shaped the current Approaches to Psychology
7
Wilhelm Wundt
  • Father of psychology
  • Started 1st lab to study humans (1879)
  • Established Psychology as formal field of study
  • Introspection self observation, report
    thoughts and feelings

8
William James
  • Father of MODERN Psychology or
    Father of Psychology in the U.S.
  • Principles in Psychology 1st Psychology Textbook

9
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Behavioral
  • Humanistic
  • Cognitive
  • Biological
  • Sociocultural

10
PSYCHOANALYTIC
  • Key ideas
  • childhood experiences
  • unconscious forces
  • Sigmund Freud (1856 1939)
  • Unconscious motivations are responsible for human
    behavior
  • Techniques
  • Free association
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Dream analysis

11
BEHAVIORAL
  • Key ideas
  • Observable Behavior
  • Conditioning/Learning
  • Prior experience
  • John Watson (1878 1958)
  • Behavior the result of conditioning We are
    what we learn to be
  • B.F. Skinner (1904 1990)
  • Reinforcement

12
HUMANISTIC
  • Key ideas
  • Self-directed
  • Uniqueness
  • Potential to develop

13
COGNITIVE
  • Key ideas
  • How we .. Process, Store, Retrieve information
  • Thought patterns
  • Problem solving
  • Behavior results from memories, expectations

14
BIOLOGICAL
  • A.k.a. Behavioral neuroscience
  • Key ideas
  • How the brain, nervous system, hormones, genetics
    influence behavior

15
SOCIOCULTURAL
  • Key ideas
  • Cultural influence on behavior
  • Gender
  • Socioeconomic status

16
Eclecticism
  • By combining information from all of the
    approaches, psychologists stand a better chance
    of describing, explaining, predicting, and
    controlling behavior.

17
Psychology as a Profession
  • Psychologist
  • Observe, analyze, evaluate behavior
  • Doctorate degree
  • Psychiatrist
  • Medical degree training in psychiatric medicine

18
  • Clinical Psychologist
  • diagnoses and treats people with emotional
    disturbances
  • Counseling Psychologist
  • help people deal with problems of everyday life
  • Developmental Psychologist
  • Study changes that occur throughout life

19
  • Educational Psychologist
  • helps students learn
  • Industrial/Organizational Psychologist
  • employed by businesses to boost production,
    improve working conditions, make the workplace a
    more satisfying environment

20
Research v. Applied Psychology
  • Research Psychologists study origins, causes,
    results of behavior
  • Applied Psychologists make direct use of the
    findings of research psychologist deal directly
    with clients

21
Methods of Research
  • Naturalistic Observation
  • Observe subjects in a natural setting without
    interfering
  • Natural behavior
  • Case Study
  • Intensive investigation of one or more
    participants
  • long-term observations, diaries, tests,
    interviews

22
  • Survey
  • Interviews, questionnaires, or both
  • asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
  • Longitudinal Study
  • Data is collected over a number of years
  • Development
  • time-consuming
  • Cross-sectional Study
  • Different age groups same time compare

23
Longitudinal vs. Cross-Sectional
24
Psychological Experiments
25
  • Double-Blind Experiment
  • Neither participants nor experiment knows which
    received medication
  • keeps researcher unbiased
  • Placebo effect
  • change in illness/physical state from knowledge
    and perception of treatment
  • believing it will have an effect
  • fake medication
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