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Psychology

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Psychology s Big Issues & Approaches – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychology


1
Psychologys Big Issues Approaches
2
Philosophical Developments
BIG
  • THE Question Nature vs. Nurture
  • Inherited vs. Environment
  • Are our physical and mental abilities determined
    by our genes or our experiences?
  • What has the biggest effect on behavior?
  • What are the interactions between genetics and
    environment?
  • NURTURE WORKS ON WHAT NATURE ENDOWS

3
Psychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis
4
Psychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis
5
Psychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis
6
Bio-Psycho-Social ModelAnalysis
7
PsychologicalApproaches
8
Psychological Perspectives
  • Each view behavior from a particular perspective
  • Method of classifying a collection of ideas
  • Also called schools of thought
  • Also called psychological approaches

9
Cognitive Perspective
  • Focus On how people think and process
    information
  • Behavior is explained by how a person interprets
    the situation
  • How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered,
    and used to guide behavior?
  • Influences include
  • Piaget studied intellectual development
  • Chomsky studied language
  • Cybernetics science of information processing

10
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11
Biological Perspective
  • Focus How our biological structures and
    substances underlie a given behavior, thought, or
    emotion
  • Behavior is explained by brain chemistry,
    genetics, glands, etc.
  • Focus may be at various levels
  • individual neurons
  • areas of the brain
  • specific functions like eating, emotion, or
    learning
  • Interest in behavior distinguishes biological
    psychology from many other biological sciences

12
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13
Social-Cultural Perspective
  • Focus How thinking and behavior change depending
    on the setting, situation or culture
  • Behavior is explained by the influence of other
    people present

14
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15
BehavioralPerspective
  • Focus How we learn through rewards, punishments,
    and observation
  • View of behavior based on experience or learning
  • Classical conditioning - Pavlov
  • Operant conditioning Skinner
  • Founded by James Watson

16
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17
Humanistic Perspective
  • Focus How healthy people strive to reach their
    full potential
  • Behavior is explained as being motivated by
    satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.),
    with the goal of reaching ones full potential
    once basic needs are met.
  • Developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
  • behavior reflects innate actualization
  • focus on conscious forces and self perception
  • more positive view of basic forces than Freuds

18
Positive Psychology
  • Modern Humanistic Psychology
  • Focus To study and promote optimal human
    functioning
  • Help people discover their human potential and
    fullfillment
  • Martin E.P. Seligman is a major advocate
  • Should promote building positive qualities of
    people rather than focus on whats wrong with
    people

19
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20
PsychodynamicPerspective
  • Focus How behavior is affected by unconscious
    drives and conflicts
  • Behavior is explained through unconscious
    motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from
    ones childhood.
  • Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective
    (Sigmund Freud)

21
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22
Evolution
  • Darwins Theory of Evolution with the process of
    Natural Selection influenced Psychology.
  • The most adaptive traits will survive due to
    natural selection
  • Focused on how ones environment might cause one
    to adapt physically, behaviorally
    psychologically to insure the success of future
    generations.

23
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Influenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate,
    adaptive behavior patterns
  • Combines aspects of biological, psychological,
    and social perspectives
  • Behavior is explained by how the behavior may
    have helped our ancestors survive long enough to
    reproduce successfully.

24
Perspectives Timeline
25
Psychologys Subfields
26
Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist
  • Counseling Psychologist help people with crises
    life problems (academic, job related, family)
  • Clinical Psychologist treats disorders
  • Psychiatrist medical doctor that can prescribe
    drugs to treat physical causes of disorders

27
Basic vs. Applied Research
  • Applied Research Providing solutions to
    problems
  • Industrial/organizational psychologists
  • Human factors psychologists
  • Counseling psychologists
  • Clinical psychologists
  • Psychiatrists
  • Positive psychology
  • Community psychologists
  • Basic Research Discovering concepts and
    processes
  • Biological psychologists
  • Developmental psychologists
  • Cognitive psychologists
  • Educational psychologists
  • Personality psychologists
  • Social psychologists

28
Definition Slides
29
Biological Psychology
  • the scientific study of the links between
    biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and
    psychological processes.
  • Some biological psychologists call themselves
  • behavioral neuroscientists,
  • neuropsychologists,
  • behavior geneticists,
  • physiological psychologists, or
  • biopsychologists.

30
Cognitive Psychology
  • the scientific study of all the mental
    activities associated with thinking, knowing,
    remembering, and communicating.

31
Evolutionary Psychology
  • the study of the evolution of behavior and
    mind, using principles of natural selection.

32
Psychodynamic Psychology
  • a branch of psychology that studies how
    unconscious drives and conflicts influence
    behavior, and uses that information to treat
    people with psychological disorders.

33
Social-Cultural Psychology
  • the study of how situations and cultures affect
    our behavior and thinking.

34
Psychometrics
  • the scientific study of the measurement of
    human abilities, attitudes, and traits.

35
Developmental Psychology
  • a branch of psychology that studies physical,
    cognitive, and social change throughout the life
    span.

36
Educational Psychology
  • the study of how psychological processes affect
    and can enhance teaching and learning.

37
Personality Psychology
  • the study of an individuals characteristic
    pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

38
Social Psychology
  • the scientific study of how we think about,
    influence, and relate to one another.

39
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychologists
  • the application of psychological concepts and
    methods to optimizing human behavior in
    workplaces.

40
Human Factors Psychologists
  • an I/O subfield that explores how people and
    machines interact and how machines and physical
    environments can be made safe and easy to use.

41
Counseling Psychology
  • a branch of psychology that assists people with
    problems in living (often related to school,
    work, and marriage) and in achieving greater
    well-being.

42
Clinical Psychology
  • a branch of psychology that studies, assesses,
    and treat people with psychological disorders.

43
Community Psychology
  • a branch of psychology that studies how people
    interact with their social environments and how
    social institutions affect individuals and groups.
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