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Introduction to Psychology


Introduction to Psychology Ms. Kramer Psychology A – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology
  • Ms. Kramer
  • Psychology A

What weve talked about so far
  • Personality
  • A solid core of traits reflecting the unique
    essence of a particular human being
  • That core of thoughts and feelings inside you
    that tells you how to conduct yourself.
  • Your personality is more than just an attitude.
    It is what causes you to act and react the way
    you do.

What weve talked about so far
  • The Color Code Test
  • Red Power
  • Blue Intimacy
  • White Peace
  • Yellow - Fun
  • Reds and Blues spend their lifetimes trying to
    control others. Whites and Yellows spend their
    lifetimes refusing to be controlled.
  • This year 85 of employees who lose their jobs
    can attribute it personality conflict.

Common strengths (left) and weaknesses (right)
for each color
  • Red
  • Leader, focused, responsible, committed
  • Blue
  • Loyal to people, sincere, honest, moral
  • White
  • Tolerant, patient, cooperative, good listener
  • Yellow
  • Positive, friendly, optimistic, open
  • Red
  • Arrogant, bad listener, tactless, critical of
  • Blue
  • Judgmental, unforgiving, suspicious, irrational
  • White
  • Timid, lazy, dependent, directionless
  • Yellow
  • Uncommitted, inconsistent, self-centered,

What weve talked about so far
  • Birth Order
  • Oldest/Only
  • Treated like an adult, given more responsibility,
    an example, independent.
  • Middle
  • Peacemaker, work hard for attention, calm and
    even-tempered, good/average student.
  • Youngest
  • Spoilt, strives for attention, matures quickly,
    easy-going about school, irresponsible

Chapter One Introduction, History, and Research
  • Read introduction on page three.
  • What is psychology?
  • The science of behavior and mental processes.
  • Science because psychologist use scientific
    research in their studies to understand more.
    They collect data and analyze it.
  • Behavior mental processes the scope of what
    psychologists study is so vast.
  • All observable behaviors can be studies as well
    as mental processes including thoughts, feelings
    and dreams.

Psychologys founding fathersWilhelm Wundt
  • The Father of psychology.
  • 1879 first lab devoted to psychological

Psychologys founding fathers
  • 1892 G. Stanley Hall founds the American
    Psychological Association (APA).
  • 1905 Mary Whiton Calkins becomes first woman
    President of APA.
  • 1905 Alfred Binet develops the first
    intelligence test.

Can any one psychological perspective answer all
of psychologys questions?
Psychological Perspectives
  • Psychological perspectives, schools of thought,
    and psychological approaches are all synonyms for
    ways psychologists classify collections of ideas.
  • Ex Look at this real life possibility Do you
    help the person who spilled their bags of
    groceries? Why do some people help when others
  • Each perspective has an explanation.
  • And there are six different ones

1 The Cognitive Perspective (pg. 11)
  • Popular since the 1960s.
  • School of thought that focuses on how we take in,
    process, store and retrieve information.
  • Focuses on how people think!
  • People involved Titchener, James, etc.
  • Ex Helping the person with the groceries is a
    function of how we think about or interpret a
  • We may choose to help the shopper because we
    think it will make us look good to others or
    wont because we think helping might make us look

Psychologys founding fathers E.B. Titchener
  • Student of Wundts.
  • Introduced Structuralism
  • First prominent system for organizing
    psychological beliefs.
  • Structuralists try to understand the structure of
    conscious experience by analyzing the intensity,
    clarity, and quality of its basic parts.
  • Opened the door to psychological theory.
  • Not widely accepted anymoreb/c you know your own
    thoughts, but how is someone else supposed to
    determine why you think them? Too abstract.

Psychologys founding fathersMax Wertheimer
  • Gestalt (German for configuration) psychology
  • Psychological perspective the emphasized our
    tendency to integrate pieces of information into
    meaningful wholes.
  • Adding the individual elements of an experience
    together creates something new and differentthe
    whole is different from the sum of its parts.
  • Ex a song the notes are different separately
    and create a new tune when put together.
  • Disagrees with structuralist approach.

Psychology's founding fathersWilliam James
  • Disagreed with structuralist approach.
  • 1st American psychologist.
  • 1st psych textbook author 1890.
  • Functionalism
  • Goal of psychology was to study the functions of
    consciousness, the ways consciousness helps
    people adapt to their environment.

Psychologys founding fathersJean Piaget
  • Worked on how children develop their thinking
  • Developmental and cognitive psychologist.

2 Biological Perspective
  • School of thought to focuses on the physical
    structures and substances underlying a particular
    behavior, thought, or emotion.
  • People involved
  • Ex Could remind us that levels of a naturally
    occurring feel good chemical in our brain that
    could affect helping behavior.
  • Those lacking in this element could feel
    depressed and not help the person with their

3 Socio-cultural Perspective
  • School of thought that focuses on how thinking or
    behavior changes in different settings or
  • People involved
  • Ex Helping is more likely to occur if youre
    with a couple of friends and 50 feet from your
    front door and less likely if youre in a
    crowded, big-city movie theatre lobby where few
    faces are familiar.

4 Behavioral Perspective
  • School of thought that focuses on how we learn
    observable responses.
  • Believe people learn certain responses through
    rewards, punishments, and observation.
  • People involved Pavlov and Watson
  • Ex a person who helps has previously observed
    someone being rewarded for helpful behavior.
  • Like yall and bonus cards?

Psychologys Founding FathersIvan Pavlov
  • 1906 Pavlovs dogs
  • He studied animal learning and fueled a move in
    psych toward interest in observable behavior and
    away from the self-examination of inner ideas and

Psychologys founding fathersJohn B. Watson
  • Launched behaviorism, most dominant perspective
    of the 20th century.
  • Behaviorist perspective
  • Studied only observable and objectively
    describable acts.
  • Dont waste time studying unconsciouscant see
  • Made science more objective and scientific.
  • Today behaviorism focuses on learning through
    rewards and observation.

5 Humanistic Perspective
  • School of thought that focuses on the study of
    conscious experience, the individuals freedom to
    choose, and capacity for personal growth.
  • Healthy people strive to reach their full
  • People involved Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
  • Ex A person who has met their safety/physiologica
    l needs (hunger, thirst, shelter) would be able
    to reach out socially and help another person in

More on Humanistic
  • Humanistic psychology (1960), 3rd force.
  • Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
  • Emphasized conscious experience as the proper
    focus for psychology.
  • Humans have free will and will strive for full
    potential by making smart decisions.
  • Rejected that humans are controlled by rewards
    and reinforcements.
  • Maslows Hierarchy ?

6 Psychodynamic Perspective
  • Contemporary name formerly known as
    psychoanalytic perspective.
  • School of thought that focuses on how behavior
    springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.
  • People included Freud
  • Ex Helpful behavior results from an unfulfilled
    childhood wish to have ones mother accept ones
    offer to help.

Psychologys Founding FathersSigmund Freud
  • Stereotypic therapist, with a pen and pencil
    listening to a patient on the couch.
  • Freud Facts
  • 1900, introduced first complete theory of
    personality psychoanalysis.
  • Publishes The Interpretation of Dreams.

Freuds Psychoanalytic Perspective
  • Differed from other perspectives
  • Focused on abnormal behavior, which Freud
    attributed to unconscious drives and conflicts,
    often stemming from childhood.
  • Relied on personal observation and reflection
    instead of controlled laboratory experimentation
    as its means of discovery.

Problems with Psychoanalysis
  • Claimed to be scientific, but relied on
    self-reported reflectionsnot scientific methods.
  • Died in 1939, many theories have since been
    disproved and some out of date.
  • But some of his ideas are still with us
  • Freudian slip
  • Anal-retentive
  • Psychodynamic Theory
  • Our unconscious thoughts, inner conflicts, and
    childhood experiences significantly affect our
    personality and behaviors.

New Areas of Psychology!
  • Behavior Genetics
  • Focuses on how much our genes and our environment
    influence our individual differences and
  • Combo of biology and behaviorism.
  • A psychologist interested in behavior genetics
    might ask two questions Is there a helpfulness
    trait? If so, is it triggered into action by
    growing up in a family that promotes and values
    helping those in need?
  • Yes? and you have the trait and a family that
    promotes it, you will be helpful.
  • Thus, helping behavior is a product of learning
    and an inherited genetic trait.

New Areas of Psychology!
  • Evolutionary Psych
  • Study behaviors that helped our ancestors survive
    long enough to reproduce successfully.
  • Positive Psych
  • Focus to study and promote original human
  • Martin Seligman
  • Promotes building positive qualities of people,
    not repairing the worst things.

Careers in Psychology
  • Basic research
  • Pure science or research
  • Research for the sake of finding new information
    and expanding the knowledge base of psychology.
  • Clinical Psychologies
  • Diagnose and treat patients with psychological
  • Largest number of professional psychologists.

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Careers in Psychology
  • Applied Research
  • Research designed to solve specific practical
  • Marriage counselors, education counselors,
    organizational counselors, etc.

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