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UNITED NATIONS AND GLOBAL CONFLICTS

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Title: UNITED NATIONS AND GLOBAL CONFLICTS


1
UNITED NATIONS AND GLOBAL CONFLICTS
  • MADAN YADAV
  • DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE,MAC

2
AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
  • The United Nations is an international
    institution founded in 1945.
  • It is currently made up of 193 Member States.
  • The UN is an association of sovereign states who
    have bound themselves by a charter to maintain
    global peace and security.
  • UN is an instrumentality which the victorious
    nations in Second World War established in 1945
    having view several high goals and aspirations.
  • The UN is a political experiment on the largest
    possible scale and of the greatest complexity and
    difficulty after WW-II in global politics.
  • The Delegates of 50 governments convened on April
    25, 1945 in the Opera House in San Francisco,
    they expected to create a new world organization.
  • League of Nations emerged from the First World
    War, so the United Nations is product of the
    Second World War.

3
  • League of Nation was the brain child of the
    President Woodrow Wilson of the U.S, which was
    based on the 14 points.
  • League of Nation was founded in 1919, it was
    assumed that all of the states in the world would
    join and membership would be universal.
  • Both the failure to obtain universality of
    membership and unwillingness of some states to
    renounce war as a means of policy conflicted with
    the fundamental principles of league.
  • League lacked the cooperation of some of the
    major powers.
  • The next major step towards international
    organistaion consisted of of a joint declaration
    by the adherence to the Atlantic Charter, plus
    China, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and
    some Latin American states.

4
  • Signed by 26 governments, this Declaration of
    the United Nations stated that the Atlantic
    Charter would be viewed as a common programme for
    the allied states.
  • Its signatories pledged to give each other full
    support in the war efforts and not to conclude a
    separate peace or armistice.
  • Groping towards the details of new international
    institutions intensified during 1943. The
    Declaration of Moscow by foreign ministers of
    US, UK, and Soviet Union as significant step, it
    was later signed by China.
  • The new international organistaion got focal
    point at the Tehran Conference, 1943. This was
    attended by Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt.
  • Dumbarton Oask Conference (Washington), the
    most significant planning effort took place from
    August to October 1944. During this conference,
    where plans made in the U.S Department of State
    furnished the basis of discussion, the principles
    of the United Nations.
  • Today, We know as United Nations , were
    formulated and approved by the U.S, the UK, the
    USSR and China.

5
  • Yalta Conference in February 1945, agreed to a
    system of trusteeship. It was dealt by Churchill,
    Roosevelt and Stalin.
  • The United Nations Conference on International
    Organization opened on 25th April 1945, in San
    Francisco and ended on 26 July 1945, with
    agreement on the United Nations Charter, the
    constitutional document of the new institution.
  • The United Nation is global organization and has
    different organs and a number of specialized
    agencies. The purposes of the UN, as given in
    the Charter in Artcle-1 are four, -
  • Maintenance of international peace and security
  • Development of the friendly relations among
    nations
  • International cooperation in solving problems of
    economic, social, cultural and humanitarian
    character, promotion and encouragement of respect
    for human rights and fundamental freedom, and
  • Centre for harmonizing the action of nations to
    achieve the above ends.

6
  • The United Nation is global organization and has
    different organs and a number of specilaised
    agencies, all of which will be found in ultimate
    analysis directly and indirectly contributing
    towards the maintenance of world peace. The
    purposes of the UN, as given in the Charter in
    Artcle-1 are four,
  • Maintenance of international peace and security
  • Development of the friendly relations among
    nations
  • International cooperation in solving problems of
    economic, social, cultural and humanitarian
    character, promotion and encouragement of respect
    for human rights and fundamental freedom, and
  • Centre for harmonizing the action of nations to
    achieve the above ends.

7
PRINCIPLES AND OBJECTIVES
  • The power realities of the post war were
    reflected in the UNO in 1945, at the same time as
    the Charter purposes and principles allowed for
    living institution to adopt itself to dynamic
    world. It was bipolar world led by US and USSR
    had agreed to cooperate through prescriptions of
    documents which reflected the traditional concert
    system.
  • The first declared objective of the UN is to
    save succeeding generations from the scourge of
    war, which twice in our lifetime has brought
    untold sorrow to mankind and towards this end
    to unite our strength to maintain international
    peace and security, and to ensure, by the
    acceptance of principles and institution of
    methods, that armed forces shall not be used,
    save in common interests To attain these
    goals, the Charter laid down some prescriptions
    and set up an enforcement machinery.B.S Murty.

8
STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS
  • The main organs of the UN are the General
    Assembly, The Security Council, the Economic and
    Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, The
    International Court of Justice and the UN
    Secretariat. All were established in 1945.All
    specialized agencies ILO,UNESCO, WHO, UNICEF,
    UNDP, UNEP,UNHCHR and the UN program and funds.

9
GENERAL ASSEMBLY
  • Every member of the UN has a seat and one vote in
    the General Assembly. It hold regular sessions
    each year between September, and many meet at the
    other times in special or emergency session.
  • According to Article 10 of the Charter, the
    General Assembly may discuss any matter within
    scope of the Charter, itself broad constitutional
    document, or matters relating to the powers and
    functions of any other organ including
    maintenance of international peace and security,
    Budgetary matters and admission of new members
    etc.

10
SECURITY COUNCIL
  • It has 5 permanent members (P-5) (US, UK, France,
    Russia, and China) and 10 non permanent members.
  • Under UN charter, Permanent members have primary
    responsibility to maintain global peace and
    security.
  • The Security Council has both conciliatory and
    coercive powers.
  • Article 33 has provided privilege to try to find
    settlement by means of negotiations, enquiry,
    mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial
    settlement, or regional organizations as well as
    other peaceful means of their choice.
  • Under Chapter VI of the Charter, the Security
    Council may help in such conciliatory efforts and
    may take initiatives in making recommendations
    for settlements when a dispute is put before it
    as an issue that, if not resolved , may threaten
    to peace.

11
  • The Security Council may legally take stronger
    action under Chapter VII of the Charter.
  • It may recommended provisional measures or move
    directly to call on member states to apply
    diplomatic and economic sanctions (Article 40 and
    41).
  • The Veto power P-5 has veto power

12
THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
  • It is principal body for coordination, policy
    review, policy dialogue, and recommendation on
    economic, social and environmental issues.
  • It has 54 members, elected by General Assembly
    for overlapping three years terms.
  • ECOSOC has very broad jurisdiction related to
    the general welfare, and the underlying
    conditions of peace.
  • It has power to make recommendations to the UN
    members, other organizations,, and to the
    specialized agencies associated with the UN.
  • It reports to the General Assembly annually, and
    send most of its resolutions to that organ for
    approval.

13
  • ECOSOC has right to initiate the formation of new
    international organizations to promote the
    general welfare and it intended to coordinate the
    work of such specialized agencies, including some
    of that had been founded under the auspices of
    the League of Nations.
  • It concludes agreements with such agencies as
    Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and WHO.
  • It is also UNs central platform for reflection,
    debate, innovative thinking on sustainable
    development.

14
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
  • International Court of Justice established by the
    Charter of the United Nations as the principal
    judicial organ.
  • Its seat is at the Peace Palace in
    Hague(Netherland).
  • It began work in 1946, when it replaced the
    Permanent Court of International Justice which
    had functioned in the Peace Palace since 1922.
  • The Court has dual role to settle in accordance
    with international law the legal disputes
    submitted to it by states , and to give advisory
    opinions on legal questions referred to it by
    duly authorized international organs and
    agencies.
  • The Court is composed of 15 judges elected to
    nine years terms of office by the United Nations
    General Assembly and Security Council sitting
    independently of each other.
  • Elections are held every three years for one
    third of the seats.
  • Members of the Court do not represent their
    government but are independent magistrates.

15
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION
  • ILO is special organization of the UN that
    regulates labor relations.
  • The ILO was created in the 1919, as part of the
    Treaty of Versailles that ended WW-I, based in
    Geneva since 1920.
  • ILO is devoted to promoting Social Justice and
    internationally recognized human and labor
    rights.
  • The main objectives are-
  • Promote and realize standards and fundamental
    principles and right at work
  • Create greater opportunities for women and men to
    decent employment and income.
  • Strengthen tripartism and social dialogue.

16
UNESCO
  • UNESCO, the United Nations Educational,
    Scientific and Cultural Organization, is
    specialized agency of the United Nation System
    that promotes collaboration among members
    countries,
  • Its Constitution stated that Since wars begin in
    the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that
    the defenses of peace must be constructed.
  • The constitution was adopted by London Conference
    in November 1945, and entered into effect on the
    4th November 1946 when 20 states had deposited
    instruments of acceptance. Its headquarters in
    Paris.
  • The main objective of UNESCO is to contribute to
    peace and security in the world by promoting
    collaboration among nations through education,
    science, culture, and communication in order to
    further universal respect for justice and rule
    of law and for the human rights and fundamental
    freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of
    the world, without distinction of race, sex,
    language or religion.

17
WHO
  • When diplomats met to form UN in 1945, one of the
    things they discussed was setting up global
    health organization. WHOs constitution came into
    force on 7th April 1948- a date celebrate every
    year as World Health Day.
  • WHO is working in more than 150 country offices,
    in 6 regional offices and headquarter based in
    Geneva.
  • Health is a state of complete physical, mental,
    and social well being and not merely the absence
    of disease or infirmity-WHO Constitution.
  • The overall objectives and goals of WHO are -
  • Human survival and healthy livelihoods are the
    ultimate goal and true measures of success of
    humanitarian assistance.
  • To restore the delivery and access to preventive
    and curative health care quickly as possible
    and in the sustainable manner.

18
UNICEF
  • UNICEF, United Nations International Children
    Emergency Fund is one of best noted global
    institution as a well administered, streamlined
    organization of the UNO.
  • UNICEF was established by the General Assembly in
    1946, to provide special aid to children, who has
    suffered from WW-II.
  • UNICEF supports governments and civil society in
    some 155 countries to implement UN Convention on
    the Rights of Child and other global standards,
    headquarter based in New York.
  • UNICEFs rule of law work includes support to
    child rights legislative reforms, justice for
    children, disarmament, demobilization, and
    reintegration of children associated with armed
    forces and armed groups. monitoring and
    reporting of grave violations against children as
    per Security Council resolution 1612 and
    protection against abuse, exploitation, and
    violence including trafficking and sexual and
    gender based violence etc.

19
UNDP
  • UNDP-United Nations Developing Programme is
    the UNs global development network- an
    organization advocating for change and connecting
    countries to knowledge, experience and resources
    to help people to build a better life.
  • UNDP works to assist national counterparts on
    their own solutions to global and national
    development challenges, considering rule of law
    an indispensible factor for the enhancement of
    human development challenges and reduction of
    conflict, poverty and insecurity.
  • UNDP has focused on the supporting strategic
    planning for successful justice and security
    reforms, including through developing guidance on
    assessing needs and capacities and measuring
    impacts.
  • UNDPs global programme Accelerating Access to
    justice for human development (lunched in 2009)
    focus on strengthening nad expanding UNDPs
    ongoing engagements and contribution to rule of
    law and access to justice services particularly
    for poor and vulnerable people.

20
UNEP
  • As a result of the Stockholm Conference (1972),
    the General Assembly established the United
    Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) to monitor
    significant changes in environmental practices.
  • The UNEP is leading global environmental
    authority that sets the global environmental
    agenda, promotes the coherent implementation of
    the environmental dimension of sustainable
    development within United Nations system.
  • It headquarter in Nairobi.
  • UNEP played a major role in making ozone
    protection. Environmental policy is immensely
    complicated
  • The main goals of UNEP to provide leadership and
    encourage partnership in caring for the
    environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling
    nations and peoples to improve their quality of
    life without compromising that of future
    generations.
  • UNEP focus in the filed of Climate change,
    Disaster sand Conflicts, Eco system managements,
    Environmental governance, minimize the impacts
    of Chemical Waste, Resource efficiency and
    Green Economy Initiatives (GEI).

21
UNHCR
  • UNHCR The Office of the United Nations High
    Commissioner for Refugee was established on 14th
    December 1950 by UN General Assembly.
  • It was positive outcome to creation of
    international standard for the treatment of human
    beings around the world.
  • Concern with human rights became an integral part
    of the new United Nations System. The UN made its
    first milestone step of practical implications of
    human rights with adoption of the Universal
    declaration of Human Rights on 10 December 1948.
  • The main objectives of UNHCR is to safeguard the
    rights and well beings of refugee. Using 1951
    Geneva Refugee Convention as its major tool to
    ensure the international protection of uprooted
    people worldwide.
  • UNHCR promotes international Refugee agreements,
    helps states established asylum structures and
    acts as an international watchdog over refugee
    issues.

22
PEACE KEEPING, PEACE MAKING,AND ENFORCEMENT AND
PEACE BUILDING AND RESPONSBILTY TO PROTECT
  • There has been a tacit transition from the
    concept of collective security, as set out in
    Chapter VII of the UN Charter to a more realistic
    idea of peace keeping. The idea that conventional
    military methods or, to put it bluntly, war can
    be used by or on behalf of the United Nations to
    counter aggression and secure peace, seems now to
    be rather impractical.( UN Secretary General U.
    Thant, 1963).
  • The UN represents an attempt to create the most
    effective instrument ever designed to maintain
    international peace and security. Peacekeeping
    operation make up part of what Hammarskjold
    called preventive diplomacy. Peacekeeping
    involves interventions by the UN in conflicts
    that were marginal to Cold War and also continued
    in the different part of the world after post
    Cold War era.

23
  • Peace keeping operations are operations of a
    military, Para military or non military
    character, which are to be conducted by UN for
    maintenance of international peace and security
    with the exception of enforcement action under
    Chapter VII. These operations undertaken at the
    invitation of and with the consent of the
    parties to the crisis. There is no obligation on
    other member states to give contributions in the
    form of personnel or money.
  • Uniting for peace resolution was first applied to
    the Korean Issue that impelled its creation. The
    peacekeeping forces grew out of the Swez crises
    in 1956.

24
MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALs
  • MDGs- The leaders of 189 countries signed the
    historic millennium declaration at the UN
    Millennium Summit in 2000, at that time eight
    goals that called MDGs with measurable target
    and clear deadlines for improving lives of the
    worlds poorest people.
  • The 8 MDGs were set to target achievement date
    of 2015 1)Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger,
    2) Achieve Universal Primary Education, 3)Promote
    Gender Equality and Empower Women, 4) Reduce
    Child Mortality, 5) Improve Maternal Health,
  • 6) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
    diseases, 7) Ensure Environmental Sustainability
    and 8) Develop a global partnership for
    development.

25
  • The Programe were formulated at the country
    level to adress national MDG and related
    development priorities that form part of the UN
    Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), the
    common strategic framework that guides
    operational activities of the UN system at the
    country level.
  • More than 25 UN Agencies were involved in the
    formulation and implementation of MDGs joint
    Programme. This methodology stimulated more
    effective and comprehensive approach that build
    on the value added of each specialized Agencies.

26
MAJOR GLOBAL CONFLICTS SINCE WW-II
  • KOREAN WAR
  • VIETNAM WAR
  • AFGHANISTAN WAR
  • BALKANS SERBIA AND BOSNIA

27
KOREAN WAR
  • Korean War (1950-1953) was the first major armed
    clash.
  • The Invasion of South Korea by North Korea was
    the first international crisis since the WW-II
    and the first crisis since the United Nations was
    created.
  • The Korean War set the precedent for future
    disputes and credible future role of UN.
  • UN Security Council passed the Korean resolution
    but China more than USSR encouraged North Korea
    to go to war. However they perceived war
    differently.
  • The Security Council had decided under Article 39
    that a breach of the peace had occurred and
    called upon North Korea to withdraw its forces.
  • But, in reality it was the President Truman
    planned to send American troops to support South
    Korea without approval of Congress.

28
  • China, USSR and US were sending military aid
    before the UN resolution. US was sending more
    aid to South Korea than USSR and China
    together .
  • Resolution was passed due to Britain and France
    supported to US. but, China, North Korea and US
    were really pro war.
  • It is interesting facts that USSR did not veto
    the UN resolution calling for measures against
    Korea, especially Stalin did not war(Khruschchev
    claimed later) . This shows that his contempt for
    the UN was greater than his desire to avoid war.
  • The Soviet Union and US were already supplying
    Korea before resolution was passed. therefore,
    situation was very dangerous because of this ,and
    as the League of Nation had proved the
    international organization was not important for
    countries!

29
VIETNAM WAR
  • The Vietnam war was the longest and most
    unpopular war.
  • The Vietnam war was protracted and bloody. The
    Hanoi govt. estimates that in 21 years of
    fighting , 4 million civilian killed across North
    and South Vietnam, and 1.1 million Communist
    fighter died.
  • The period that American refers to as the
    Vietnam War and Vietnamese calls the
    American War was the US military interventions
    from 1965 to 1973.
  • U.S was driven by Cold War concerns about the
    ideological pattern of communism, particularly
    Domino Theory idea that if one Asian nation
    fell to the leftist ideology, others would
    quickly follow.
  • The resolution was never passed on Vietnam
    War in UN Security Council, as both China and US
    has no respect for UN.

30
AFGHANISTAN WAR
  • Afghanistan hit world headlines in 1979.
  • Russian paratroops landed in Kabul on 25th
    December 1979, installing puppet regime.
  • Babrak Kamal installed as ruler, backed by USSR.
    But, opposition intensifies with various
    mujahedeen fighting Soviet forces.
  • US, China, Pakistan, Iran and Saudi Arabia supply
    money and arms to mujahedeen in Afghanistan in
    early1980s.
  • U.S begins supplying Stinger Missiles to rebel
    mujahedeen, enabling them to shoot down Soviet
    helicopter gunships. Barack Kamal replaced by
    Najibullah as head of Soviet backed regime.
  • UN Security Council consider a response to Soviet
    intervention, but draft resolution was not passed
    ,because USSR used Veto in early 1980.
  • UN General Assembly held an Emergency Special
    Session on Afghnaistan from 10th January to 14
    January 1980.

31
  • UN General Assembly adopted a series of
    resolutions for end of the conflict throughout
    1980s.
  • UN General Assembly also began separate
    consideration of human rights situations in
    Afghanistan in 1985. The first annual resolution
    on human rights and fundamental freedoms in
    Afghanistan was adopted on 13 December 1985.
    (resolution 40/137).
  • USSR, Afghanistan, US and Pakistan signed peace
    accord and USSR begins pulling out in 1988.
  • Red Army (Soviet troops) leave in 1989, but
    civil war continues.
  • Najibullahs government toppled , but devastating
    civil war follows in Afghanistan in 1992.

32
BALKANS SERBIA AND BOSNIA
  • The formor Yugoslavia was torn by a brutal war
    (1991-1995) between the different ethnic groups
    contending for dominance in a post Communist
    world.
  • It was civil war between Orthodox Serbs, Catholic
    Croats, and Muslim Bosniacs.
  • The War started because the Bosnian Croats
    wanted to live in Croatia, the Bosnian Muslims
    in a sovereign Bosnia, and the Bosnian Serbs in
    Serbia, the number of people in each ethnic group
    that wanted and wants otherwise is negligible.
  • The failure of the UN to stop killing in
    Bosnia seriously compromised its credibility as
    its 50th anniversary in 1995.
  • The UN already had UNPROFOR (United Nation
    Protection Force) troops in Sarajevo at the
    outset of war because it was their base of
    operation for the UN mission in Croatia.

33
  • The UN hoped that their presence would discourage
    the spread of conflicts from Croatia to Bosnia.
    But, when Sarajevo came under attack by Serb
    artillery in April 1992,the UN forces pulled out
    to avoid causalities., leaving behind only a
    small and lightly armed contingent peacekeepers
    to discourage the attacks by Serbians
    nationalists. There to was clearly no peace to
    keep.
  • As the situation deteriorated , creating a
    humanitarian nightmare, the UN struck a deal with
    the Serbs to control the Sarajevo airport. In
    reality, the Serbs only allowed the UN to use the
    airport under de facto Serb control.
  • The UN personnel were well aware of massive
    violations of human rights and humanitarian law
    committed by Bosnians Serbs nationalist, yet did
    nothing.
  • Wrenching scenes were broadcast around the
    world showing hundreds of emancipated men and
    women behind barbed wire, their eyes hollows
    from hunger and despair. They never succeed in
    protecting civilians from attack, the UN took
    seriously its obligation to investigate the war
    crimes, genocides, and crime against humanity in
    the former Yugoslavia and established the ICJ.

34
UNO REFORMS AND PROCESS OF REFORMS
  • The UN is numero uno institution in global
    politics. The global scenario has changed after
    Cold War in international relations.
  • Change is inevitable process. Reforms is
    essential part of growth and dynamic process of
    any credible global institutions
  • The objectives of UN is the global cooperation.
    There is big scope for democratic reforms and
    revitalization of UN system in 21st century.
  • The attitudes of great powers i.e P-5 need to be
    taken into account because whether or not the
    reforms involve formal charter amendments, the
    P-5 votes in Security Council count.
  • The quest foe efficiency, viability and cost
    effectiveness has been a continuing process from
    the very inception of the UN system.
  • The Demand for reforms and reorganization is need
    of hour in the era of interdependence and
    interconnected world in 21st century.

35
  • The objective analysis indicates that the
    framework of the UN is based on the hard
    realities of international politics and not on
    fallacious notions as an expert ignoramus
    would have us believe.
  • The International community, as represented in
    the UN , is standing today at crossroads.
  • Growing North South conflict has significant
    impact on reforms and reorganization of UNO.
  • It is regrettable that most of the studies on the
    current crisis of the UN system have failed to
    extend due recognisation of the real questions-
    the equitable sharing of international economic
    management etc.
  • The crisis of the existing new global (dis) order
    is clearly apparent. But , the shape of the new
    order is still out of sight?
  • Privatized peacekeepers and outsourcing war have
    significantly growing in international relations
    of global conflicts. But, the role of UNO system
    is marginalized?

36
  • THANK YOU
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