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Decolonization, Nationalism, and The Rise of New Nations

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Global Events Leading Up to Decolonization Imperialism Growing Nationalism World War I World War II Cold War How WWI? ... Algeria and Southern Africa, Vietnam) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Decolonization, Nationalism, and The Rise of New Nations


1
Decolonization, Nationalism, and The Rise of New
Nations
  • The 20th Century

2
Global Events Leading Up to Decolonization
  • Imperialism
  • Growing Nationalism
  • World War I
  • World War II
  • Cold War

3
How WWI?
  • Promises of self-determination
  • Use of colonial soldiers in trenches
  • Locals filled posts left by colonial powers
    during war
  • Financial strain on empire
  • Treaty of Versailles

4
How WWII?
  • Increased nationalist uprisings following WWI and
    as a result of the global depression
  • Costs of empire
  • US support of anti-colonial liberation movements
  • Atlantic Charter (1941) right of all people to
    choose the form of government under which they
    live
  • Soviets condemned colonialism

5
How the Cold War?
  • Provided inspiration a blend of capitalist and
    socialist economies and agendas.
  • Provided arms to those who sided with one or the
    other (proxy wars and arms races).
  • Encouraged violent recourse for some as a result
    of the power politics of cold war competition.

6
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7
Process of Decolonization and Nation-Building
  • Surge of anti-colonial nationalism after 1945.
    Leaders used lessons in mass politicization and
    mass mobilization of 1920s and 1930s.
  • Three patterns
  • Civil war (China)
  • Negotiated independence (India and much of
    Africa)
  • Incomplete de-colonization (Palestine, Algeria
    and Southern Africa, Vietnam)

8
China
  • Japanese invasion interrupted the 1920s and 1930s
    conflict between the Communists (Mao Zedong) and
    the Guomindang (Chiang Kai-shek)
  • During the war, CCP expanded peasant base, using
    appeals for women (health care, divorce rights,
    education access, graduated taxes, cooperative
    farming).
  • Growth of party during the war in part through
    use of anti-Japanese propaganda.
  • Resumption of civil war after Japanese surrender.
  • 1949 Great Peoples Revolution- Mao Nationalist
    leaders fled to Taiwan.

9
Outline
  • GMD-CCP Civil War (1946-1949)
  • Recovery and Socialism (1949-1956)
  • Rethinking the Soviet model (1956-1957)
  • Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)
  • Recovery growing elite division (1962-5)
  • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)

10
Anti-Japanese War (1937-1945)
11
Civil War (1946 1949)
  • GMD Guomindang (Nationalist Party)
  • Chiang Kai-shek (President)
  • CCP Chinese Communist Party
  • Mao Zedong

12
War of Liberation
13
Mao Zedong
  • A revolution to remove 3 big mountains
  • imperialism
  • feudalism
  • bureaucrat-capitalism
  • A United Front of
  • workers
  • peasants
  • petty bourgeoisie and national bourgeoisie

14
Peoples Republic of China
  • 1949-10-01, PRC, Beijing
  • Chairman Mao Zedong
  • 5-Star Red Flag
  • Republic of China government retreated to Taiwan

15
Economic Reconstruction 1950s
  • Soviet Union model and assistance
  • land reform (eliminate landlord class)
  • heavy industry (state-owned enterprises)
  • First National Peoples Congress (1954)
  • PRC Constitution
  • Zhou Enlai
  • Premier
  • Foreign Minister

16
Great Leap Forward (1958-1960)
  • abandon the Soviet model of economic development
  • Soviet scientific planning
  • mass mobilization
  • peoples communes

17
Great Leap Forward (1958-1960)
  • unrealistic output targets
  • industry
  • agricultural and human disaster

18
Growing Division (1962-1965)
  • Mao Zedong vs. Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping
  • charismatic leadership vs. bureaucracy

19
Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
  • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
  • commitment to revolution and class struggle
  • power struggle to succeed Mao
  • Phase I the rise and fall of red guards
  • Phase II the rise and fall of Lin Biao
  • Phase III the rise and fall of the Gang of Four

20
Phase I Red Guards (1966-69)
21
Phase I Red Guards (1966-69)
  • Purge of party cadres
  • Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping
  • Purge of intellectuals

22
Phase II Lin Biao (1969-71)
  • the putative successor to Mao Zedong
  • the cult of personality around Mao
  • In 1971 Lin allegedly tried but failed
  • to assassinate Mao
  • to flee to Soviet Union (9.13)
  • 9.13 eroded the credibility
  • of the entire leadership
  • of the Cultural Revolution

23
Phase III the Gang of Four
  • 1972 1976
  • power struggle between
  • the radical Gang of Four, led by Jiang Qing,
    Maos wife
  • the moderates, led by Premier Zhou Enlai
  • the fate of Deng Xiaoping

24
Diplomatic Breakthrough
  • 1971, PRC became the representative of China in
    UN (replaced ROC)

25
Diplomatic Breakthrough
  • 1972, President Nixon visited Beijing

26
Mao and Zhou Died in 1976
  • Turning point in Chinas postwar era
  • Gang of Four were arrested
  • End of the Cultural Revolution

27
Maos legacies
28
Reforms and Opening up
  • The 3rd Plenum of the 11th CCP Central Committee
    in 1978
  • Deng Xiaopings ascendancy
  • economic modernization became focus
  • US-PRC diplomatic relations in 1979

29
China since 1945
  • Mao dies in 1976 and Deng Xiaoping comes to
    power.
  • Deng institutes the Four Modernizations, which
    focuses on improving agriculture, industry,
    science and technology as well as defense.
  • Deng was in power until his death in 1997

30
Government in China Today
  • Currently known as the Peoples Republic of China
    (PRC).
  • It is a single-party socialist republic (one
    party, in favor of the working class)
  • The Communist party holds power
  • The current president is Hu Jianto
  • Beijing is the capital city

31
Review of Chinas Population
  • Over 1.3 billion people (1/5 of the worlds
    population)
  • 56 recognized ethnic groups. The Han are the
    largest (92)
  • Large population can be attributed to Mao

32
Population in China
  • Efforts were made to limit the population
  • Only 2 children per family law
  • One Child Policy
  • Policies did not work that well
  • Rural families did not comply
  • Males regarded more highly than females

33
Negotiated Independence in India and Africa
  • Independence with little bloodshed in India and
    much of colonial Africa in decades following
    World War II.
  • Why? At what cost?

34
India
  • India and other Asian colonies were the first to
    establish independence movements.
  • Western-educated minorities organized politically
    to bring about the end of modification of
    colonial regimes.

35
Mohandas Mahatma Gandhi
  • Passed English bar - lawyer for Indian merchants
    in South Africa.
  • Gandhis answer to a spiritual theory of social
    action Satyagraha - soul force. A tactic
    using nonviolent resistance or civil
    disobedience.

36
A Revolution in Indian politics
  • Gandhis Satyagraha -
  • What do you think? Wherein in courage required
    in blowing others to pieces from behind a cannon,
    or with a smiling face to approach a cannon and
    be blown to pieces?...Believe me that a man
    devoid of courage and manhood can never be a
    passive resister.

37
Gandhi in India
  • 1915 back in India - Dressed in traditional
    clothing- crisscrossed India on third-class
    trains listening to common people to understand
    their plight.
  • Urged a boycott of British goods, jobs honors.

38
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39
The British Back Down
  • 1931 - released Gandhi from jail negotiated
    with him as an equal.
  • 1935 - Indian got a new constitution.
  • 1942- called on British to Quit India civil
    disorder campaign arrested jailed.

40
The Muslim League
  • Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)
  • Feared Hindu domination of an independent India
    ruled by Congress Party.
  • Made Muslim separation from Hindu majority a
    nationalist issue.
  • In 1940 Jinnah told a Muslim League conference
    that Britain should give Indian Hindus Muslims
    separate homelands Gandhi appalled victory of
    hate over love

41
Independence But Partition
  • Britain agreed to speedy independence in 1945,
    but murderous clashes between Hindus and Muslims
    in 1946 led to a delay.
  • In the end...
  • Indias last Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten
    (1900-1979) proposed partition. Both sides
    agreed.
  • One fifth of humanity gained independence on
    August 14th 1947.

42
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43
The Tragedy of Partition
  • Massacres and mass expulsions.
  • 100,000 slaughtered five million refugees
  • Gandhi said What is there to celebrate? I see
    nothing but rivers of death.
  • Gandhi was gunned down in January 1948 by a Hindu
    fanatic, while announcing a fast to protest Hindu
    persecution of Muslims.

44
Refugees
45
Modern India
  • Largest democracy in the world
  • Jawaharlal Nehru became the first prime minister
    for the next 17 years
  • Democracy, Unity, Economic Modernization
  • Challenges
  • Kashmir years of conflict that continues today
  • Cold War alignment NON Alignment Movement
  • Industrialization slow but coming
  • Social and cultural issues continuous challenges
    with progress
  • Caste system
  • Economic
  • Womens rights

46
Kashmir
  • Border both India Pakistan
  • Hindu leader with large Muslim populations
  • 1947-Pakistan invaded leading Kashmir to align
    with India fighting cont.d until 1949. Cease
    fire lead to 1/3 control by Pakistan 2/3 by
    India.
  • 1962- China seized part of Kashmir
  • 1972- Indian and Pakistani forces fought again
  • Today tensions continue and flare up
    intermittently

47
Nehrus Family Rules
  • 1964 Nehru dies
  • Congress Party left with no strong leader
  • 1966 Indira Gandhi becomes Prime Minister
    (Nehrus daughter)
  • 1980 re-elected (after a short period out of
    office)
  • Increased food/grain production
  • Faced a threat from Sikh extremists agitating for
    an independent state
  • 1984 500 were killed in a violent demonstrations
  • 2 months later her Sikh bodyguards shot her
  • 1984-89 Rajiv Gandhi leader / charged with
    corruption
  • 1991 killed by a bomb while campaigning near
    Madra

48
Independence in Africa
The Colonial Divisions of Africa and the
Emergence of New Nations
49
Africa
  • Nationalists composed of ex-servicemen, urban
    unemployed under-employed, and the educated.
  • Pan-Africanism (Marcus Garvey) and Negritude
    (Senghor)
  • Senghor (Senegal) and Dubois (African-American)

50
Africa
  • 1957, Gold Coast (renamed Ghana) independence,
    led by western- educated, Kwame Nkrumah.
  • By 1963, all of British- ruled Africa, except
    Southern Rhodesia, was independent.

51
Africa
  • French-Ruled
  • Initially more resistant than the British.
  • Encouraged closer French ties- assimilation, not
    autonomy.
  • Not willing to go far enough in granting rights.
  • With exception of Algeria, by 1960 had granted
    independence.

52
Leopold Sedar Senghor
  • Western educated Francophone intellectual from
    Senegal
  • Poet who became first president of Senegal.
  • Advocated democratic socialism and negritude.

53
Leopold Sedar Senghor
  • Negritude validation of African culture and the
    African past by the Negritude poets. Recognized
    attributes of French culture but were not willing
    to be assimilated into Europe.
  • "L'èmotion est nègre, la raision est héllène."
    (emotion is Negro, reason is Greek) "Negritude is
    the totality of the cultural values of the Black
    world."

54
Violent Incomplete Decolonization
  • Presence of European immigrant groups impeded
    negotiations? violence.
  • Kenya, Palestine, Algeria, and southern Africa
  • Vietnams de-colonization complicated by Frances
    colonial ties and cold war politics.

55
Middle East Palestine Israel
  • Zionism
  • 1917 Balfour Declaration
  • Immigration of Jews to Palestine
  • European Holocaust
  • Increase of migration
  • 1947- end of British mandate of Palestine and
    failed UN partition solution
  • 1948 establishment of Israel
  • Regional conflicts-gt

56
Kenya
  • Presence of settlers prevented smooth transition
    of power.
  • Kenya (20,000 Europeans only) led to violent
    revolt.
  • Mau-Mau Revolt, 1952, led by Kikuyus suppressed
    by British.
  • 1963 independence granted to black majority, led
    by Kenyatta.

57
South Africa
  • 4 million white residents
  • After 1901, denied civil rights to black
    population
  • Strong economy, both mining industry
  • Black workers demanded change
  • Afrikaner-dominated (white) National Party won
    1948 election

58
Apartheid
59
South Africa
  • Apartheid
  • 87 of land for whites others classified by race
  • No protests tolerated (African National Congress,
    Mandela, Sharpeville massacre 1960)
  • Evoked international opposition
  • 1989, end of apartheid
  • F. W. de Klerk
  • 1990s black government elected
  • 1994, Nelson Mandela 1st black president

60
Vietnam
  • French rule since 1880s rice, mining, and rubber
    exports
  • Rise of foreign educated intelligentsia (Ho Chi
    Minh)
  • Formation of Viet Minh in 1941
  • Guerrilla War with France (1946-1954) (aided by
    China)
  • Divided country in 1954 (Geneva Conference) led
    to gradual US entry to contain communism.

61
Vietnam
  • Cold War stalemate
  • Viet Cong
  • Bombing campaign (President Johnson), ground
    troops in 1965
  • Until 1973?Paris Peace Accords
  • 1975, last American troops leave

62
Women as leaders in the movement
  • Women fought alongside men in whatever capacities
    were permitted in Algeria, Egypt, China, Vietnam,
    India and elsewhere.
  • China, 1942
  • The fighting record of our women does not
    permit us to believe that they will ever again
    allow themselves to be enslaved whether by a
    national enemy or by social reaction at home.
  • Women given constitutional rights but social and
    economic equality rarely achieved in postcolonial
    developing nations.

63
Fall of Empire Fall out Legacy
  • Colonial footprint
  • Problems of Transition
  • Problems of Identity

64
Challenges of Independence
  • Ethnic disputes
  • Dependent economies
  • Growing debt
  • Cultural dependence on west?religious revivalism
    as backlash
  • Widespread social unrest
  • Military responses to restore order
  • Population growth
  • Resource depletion
  • Lack of middle class in some locales
  • Education deficit and later, brain-drain.
  • Neo-colonialism through economic debt.

65
Conclusions
  • Decolonization was sometimes a violent process-
    dependent in large part on how many settlers had
    come to the colony.
  • In many parts of world, decolonization was not
    revolutionary. Power passed from one class of
    elites to another. Little economic and social
    reform occurred.
  • Significant challenges faced independent
    nations.
  • Western economic dominance of the global trade
    system continued unabated. WHY?
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