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Global Citizenship


The World after 1945. By 1945, most world leaders had a solid understanding of the following global events: The First World War (1914-1918) The Second World War (1939-45) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global Citizenship

Global Citizenship
  • Human Rights and Non-Governmental Organizations

Key Terms
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) The
    international document adopted by the United
    Nations in 1948 that proclaims basic human rights
    for all people. Even though it cannot be
    enforced, the UDHR firmly establishes the
    principle of human rights and has inspired other
    human rights agreements.
  • Humanitarianism The belief that everyone
    deserves to be treated with respect and dignity
    and that the wellbeing of all humankind is a
    necessary and worthy goal
  • Genocide The systematic and deliberate attempt
    to kill all members of an ethnic, racial, or
    other cultural group.

Key Terms
  • International Criminal Court (ICC) The worlds
    first international criminal court, which was
    established by the United Nations in 2002 to
    prosecute individuals accused of war crimes and
    crimes against humanity.
  • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
    Not-for-Profit voluntary organizations that work
    to improve life and social conditions around the
    world (e.g. Oxfam, Greenpeace, Doctors without
    borders). Although they may receive some funding
    from government, NGOs are independent of
    government control.
  • Sanctions Military or economic measures by which
    one or more countries try to force another
    country to respect international law or human
    rights (e.g. by stopping trade or aid)
  • Terrorism The unlawful use or threatened use of
    extreme violence by individuals and groups to
    create widespread fear to achieve political

The World after 1945
  • By 1945, most world leaders had a solid
    understanding of the following global events
  • The First World War (1914-1918)
  • The Second World War (1939-45)
  • The Horror of the Holocaust (1933-45)

Winston Churchill, Harry Truman And Joseph Stalin
The Creation of the United Nations
  • Understandably, many world leaders were keen to
    ensure that the failures of the past to achieve
    world peace would not be repeated.
  • The central question was How do we prevent
    another world war?
  • The Solution? The creation of an international
    forum for discussion and debate The United

The United Nations New York City, USA
The Creation of the United Nations
  • On October 24th, 1945, the United Nations was
    created with the signing of the Charter of the
    United Nations.
  • In 1945 there were 51 member states.
  • Today, there are 191.

The United Nations General Assembly
The Creation of the United Nations
  • John Humpfrey, a professor of Law at McGill
    University in Montreal helped to draft the
    Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • In this document, it states that all human beings
    have a right to
  • Life, Liberty, security of the person and a
    reasonable standard of living.
  • However, this document is a guideline and cannot
    be enforced by the UN. Why Not?

John Humpfrey
Canada and the United Nations
  • Canada has as a very distinguished reputation in
    the world for its record on human rights and its
    involvement in the UN. Consider the following
  • Canada has supported UN peacekeeping operations
    with over 100,000 personnel over the last 45
  • Canada has signed every UN convention to
    strengthen human rights since 1948

Former Canadian Ambassador to The United Nations
Stephen Lewis
The Purpose of the United Nations
  • The United Nations (UN) has four purposes
  • To develop and maintain peace and security
  • To develop friendly relations among nations
  • To try and solve international problems and in
    promoting respect for human rights
  • To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of the
    worlds nations

George Bush listens to the Proceedings of the UN
The Purpose of the United Nations
  • The Specific Purpose is to
  • Develop international laws
  • for the world to follow
  • Promote international
  • security,
  • Promote economic development
  • Promote social progress
  • Promote Human Rights

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon shakes hands
with former Secretary- General Kofi Annan
The Structure of the United Nations
  • The United Nations is not a government in the
    sense that it does not make laws for the rest of
    the world to follow.
  • The sovereignty and self-determination of nations
    is recognized and respected.
  • The role of the UN is to provide a forum for
    discussion and to give a sense of what the world
    generally believes to be right.
  • Question Does International Law exist?

The United States makes it point
The Structure of the United Nations
  • The General Assembly
  • The Security Council
  • The Economic and Social Council
  • The Trusteeship Council
  • The Secretariat
  • The International Court of Justice (ICC)

The International Court of Justice
The General Assembly
  • At the moment, there are 192 members of the
    General Assembly.
  • The role of the General assembly is to debate
    issues of global significance and to recommend
    resolutions to global problems
  • In the General Assembly all nations are equal and
    are provided with one vote

The General Assembly
The Security Council
  • The Security Council has 5 permanent
    members Russia, China, France, Britain and the
    United States.
  • There are also 10 elected members (Located on

The Security Council
The Security Council
The Security Council
  • The Role of the Security Council is the
  • The maintenance of international peace and
  • The establishment of peacekeeping operations
  • The establishment of international sanctions
  • The authorization for military action

The Security Council Veto Power
  • If a permanent member of the Security Council
    Vetoes a UN resolution, then the resolution will
    not pass.
  • A Veto is a vote which cancels the adoption of a
    new provision. Since the beginning of the UN,
    the following members have vetoed
  • China 6 times
  • France 18 times
  • Russia/USSR 122 time
  • The United Kingdom 32 times
  • United States 81 times.

China exercising its Veto Power
The International Court of Justice
  • The International Criminal Court was established
    in 2002 in the Hague, Netherlands.
  • The court is responsible for the prosecution of
    individuals charged with war crimes.
  • The United States and China are examples of
    countries that do not recognize the authority of
    the ICC. Why?

The International Court
The Economic and Social Council
  • The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the
    United Nations
  • Its role is to assists the General Assembly in
    promoting international economic and social
    cooperation and development.

The Economic and Social Council
The United Nations Secretariat
  • The United Nations Secretariat
  • Is headed by the United Nations
  • Its role is to provide studies for meetings,
    technical information, and provide facilities
    needed by United Nations bodies for their

The International Court of Justice
  • Its main role is to settle legal disputes
    submitted to it by member states of the UN
  • It is also needed to give advisory opinions on
    legal questions submitted to it by international
    organizations and agencies and the UN General
  • The Courts decisions may be vetoed by the
    permanent members of the Security Council. The
    United States recognizes its authority on an ad
    hoc (case by case) basis

The International Court of Justice
Genocide and the International Criminal Court
  • The following is a listing of Genocides that
    have taken place in the world since 1915
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina (1992-95)
  • Rwanda (1994) 1 Million deaths
  • Cambodia (1975-79) 2 Million deaths
  • East Timor (1975-79)
  • The Holocaust (1933-45) 6 Million deaths
  • USSR famine in the Ukraine (1932-33)
  • Armenians in Turkey (1915-19) 1.5 Million Deaths

Genocide East Timor
Genocide Rwanda/Cambodia
Genocide and the International Criminal Court
The former Yugoslavia was the Scene of numerous
war crimes.
Canadian Judge Louise Arbour
  • When the United Nations was established in 1945,
    the intention was to prevent international
    conflicts from getting out of hand.
  • The Solution?
  • Peacekeeping.
  • Who invented peacekeeping?

What is a Global Citizen?
  • A Global Citizen is someone who
  • Understands that all citizens of the world are
  • Understands that global problems terrorism,
    poverty, pollution and natural disasters require
    international co-operation
  • Views events from the perspectives of other

David Suzuki Environmentalist and Global Citizen
  • Invented by Lester B Pearson in 1957 for his
    intervention in the Suez Canal Crisis.
  • He won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.
  • Since that time, Canada has been a world leader
    in global peacekeeping efforts.
  • Why are we so good at it?

Lester B Pearson Former Canadian Prime Minister
and Global Citizen!
Cyprus Conflict Separation of Turks and Greeks
  • The Role of Peacekeepers
  • Supervise Elections
  • Set up local police forces
  • Deliver Humanitarian Supplies
  • Mediation of Disputes

General Lewis MacKenzie
UN base destroyed by rocket
  • There is a big difference between Peacekeeping
    and Peacemaking.
  • From the Bosnian Conflict onwards, the United
    Nations has struggled to implement its
    peacekeeping mandate.
  • In some instances, the efforts of the UN have
    been less than successful

General Romeo Dallaire
The Usage of Sanctions
  • When countries ignore human rights, or attack
    other countries in violation of international
    law, Canada can also impose Sanctions an act
    whereby the Canadian government refuses to trade
    with countries in an effort to change their
  • In 1977, Canada imposed sanctions against South
    Africa in an effort to force their government to
    abandon their policy of racial segregation

Are sanctions effective?
Non-Governmental Associations (NGOs)
  • Non-Governmental Associations (NGOs) are
    organizations that try to affect international
    policies by working outside the political
  • Common NGOs are
  • GreenPeace
  • Peta
  • Doctors Without Borders