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Global Social Work Practice: Reflective Practice for Justice and Peace


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Title: Global Social Work Practice: Reflective Practice for Justice and Peace

Global Social Work Practice Reflective Practice
for Justice and Peace
  • Collaborative Course Loyola University of
    Chicago School of Social Work and Vytautas Magnus
    University School of Social Work
  • Spring, 2009

Faculty Loyola Professor Katherine Tyson VMU
Professor Violeta Ivanauskiene
Group Presentation Assignment
  • Imagine You are a team of global social workers
    consulting with the United Nations
  • Choose a social problem anywhere in the world
  • describe the nature and extent of the problem
  • what social workers could do, if they had the
    funding from the UN, to remedy it
  • When all the presentations are completed we will
    reconsider our definitions of Global Social Work
    Practice and see if we need to revise it

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The Singing Revolutions In Lithuania, Latvia,
Estonia, 1989-1990 The Baltic Way
Vytautas the Great (courtesy of Wikipedia)
Trakkai Castle Lithuania
Church of Vytautas the Great, Kaunas, Lithuania
Resurrection Church Kaunas, Lithuania
TV Tower Vilnius, LT
About Vytautas Magnus University The beginnings
of higher education in Lithuania go back to the
16th century when, in 1579, the college founded
by Jesuits in Vilnius became a higher school of
education, the University of Vilnius. In 1832,
Czar Nicholas I closed the university. After the
independence of Lithuania was declared, in 1918,
the State Council decided to re-establish the
University of Vilnius. Since Vilnius was occupied
and the Lithuanian government transferred to
Kaunas, this decision was not put into
effect. In 1920, Higher Courses of Study were
begun in Kaunas, laying the foundation for the
establishment of a university. In February 1922,
the Lithuanian Government of Ministers decided to
establish the University of Lithuania in Kaunas.
The ceremonial opening of the university took
place on February 16, 1922. On June 7, 1930, the
university was named Vytautas Magnus University.
It was closed during the Soviet occupation. The
act of re-establishing Vytautas Magnus University
was proclaimed on April 28, 1989.
Woodcarver at Baltica 2005 Festival, Vilnius,
Professors Ivanauskiene and Liobikiene Marijampole
, LT
Professors Ivanauskiene and Tyson Marijampole, LT
Globalization and Social Work
  • What is globalization? (Hare, p. 408)
  • Economic
  • Ecological
  • Social
  • Role of global social worker Promote social
    development via
  • Direct services (micro and meso level)
  • Participating in international policy-making or
    planning organizations
  • Knowledge base
  • Socially-constructed what is that?
  • Theory
  • Evidence-based
  • Indigenous (Hare p. 415)

Human rights orientation of this course
  • Social services that focus on
  • Facilitating healing of social and familial
  • Advancing social justice within and between
  • Fostering cross-cultural and transnational
    understanding and cooperation
  • Advancing self-determination, peace and freedom

What are social work roles in your country? How
are they similar and different from global social
work practice?
  • Advocate
  • Program developer and manager
  • Practitioner with individuals, families, groups
  • School social worker/social pedagogue
  • Researcher
  • Social policy planning
  • Consultant and supervisor
  • Educator
  • More?

Characteristics of international social work
  • Consolidation of democracy
  • Remedying poverty
  • Global solidarity, conflict prevention,
  • Transcending nation-states (20)
  • Creation of solutions based on regional needs
    beyond national borders (21)
  • Involving new social actors to frame common

Questions about Global Social Work (Gray and Fook)
  • Definition p. 628, 630-631
  • Four debates (p. 627)
  • Efforts towards indigenisation of sw based on
    articulating cultural practices, p. 634-5
  • How distinguish local from global now? 635
  • Universalizing recommendations 637-638
  • SW is instrument of government?
  • SW is discourse about it, or practice?
  • Who dominates discourse and why?
  • Value of universal standards for social work (p.
    629) but how to monitor?
  • Final recommendations p. 639

International Federation of Social Workers
  • The International Federation of Social Workers
    recognizes that social work originates variously
    from humanitarian, religious and democratic
    ideals and philosophies and that it has
    universal application to meet human needs arising
    from personal-societal interactions, and to
    develop human potential.Professional social
    workers are dedicated to service for the welfare
    and self-fulfillment of human beings to the
    development and disciplined use of scientific
    knowledge regarding human behavior and society
    to the development of resources to meet
    individual, group, national and international
    needs and aspirations to the enhancement and
    improvement of the quality of life of people and
    to the achievement of social justice.

What is your opinion of this definition of Global
Social Work?
  • The social work profession promotes social
    change, problem solving in human relationships
    and the empowerment and liberation of people to
    enhance well-being. Utilizing theories of human
    behavior and social systems, social work
    intervenes at the points where people interact
    with their environments. Principles of human
    rights and social justice are fundamental to
    social work.
  • By International Federation of Social Workers,

Tackling Global Poverty (Seipel)
  • Define poverty
  • 1) Income, 2) Human Poverty Index
  • Important facts
  • Decline in poverty rate but gap between rich and
    poor countries is growing (p. 198)
  • 1.3 billion out of all people in developing
    countries live below the international poverty
    rate of 1 per day
  • Great income disparities within regions and
    between regions
  • Growth of external debt among developing
  • Commitment to education is not prominent in many
    parts of the world (198) and in some regions has
    actually decreased since the 1980s

Poverty reduction (Seipel)
  • An effective anti-poverty approach must have many
    foundations and be sustainable (199)
  • Economic growth with equity (200)
  • Support micro-enterprise
  • Create jobs through tax policies and legislation,
    w/ training, savings, health services
  • International cooperation
  • Support fair trade
  • Reduce unmanageable foreign debts
  • Improve foreign aid
  • Social investment
  • Inhibit political corruption
  • Develop human capital, health equity
  • Educate all people
  • Facilitate solidarity among poor people to
    advance their political leverage

Amartya Sen Development as Freedom(1999)
  • Five distinct types of freedom, all of which
    focus on human choice
  • 1) political freedoms,
  • 2) economic facilities,
  • 3) social opportunities,
  • 4) transparency guarantees, and
  • 5) protective security (1999, p. 10).
  • Definitions
  • Transparency guarantees the need for openness
    that people can expect the freedom to deal with
    one another under guarantees of disclosure and
    lucidity. When that trust is seriously violated,
    the lives of many people both direct parties
    and third parties may be adversely affected by
    the lack of openness These guarantees have a
    clear instrumental role in preventing corruption,
    financial irresponsibility and underhand
    dealings (1999, p. 40).
  • Protective security citizens need for social,
    economic, and medical safety nets, which are
    needed in many countries as well as in many
    communities in the United States.
  • Unfreedom includes the recognition that threats
    to human sustenance are physically dangerous and
    psychologically shackling.

Amartya Sen Possibility of social choice
  • Task develop using systematic investigation,
    broadly applicable and reasonable axioms about
    important aspects of social choice
  • Questions in developing social choice theory p.
  • Example how to define poverty? 194 how is
    poverty shared and distributed? What is
    comparative deprivation? 197
  • Distinguish adaptation and ability to find
    contentment in life from true social choice

Freedom and Self-Determination
  • Respecting the clients right to
    self-determination is a longstanding value of
    social work
  • Ones chosen values, cognition, and intentions
    have significant regulatory impact on subjective
    experience and even on aspects of brain function
  • Self-determination is a capacity in each person,
    hence a standard with which to evaluate a
    clients developmental progress it includes
  • Multicultural definitions of selfhood (Ewalt)
  • Freedom with regard to aspects of life that ones
    choices can direct (Sen 1999)
  • Inner freedom from drivenness by intentions
    acquired to cope with traumatizing experiences --
    Reflective awareness of own intentions and goals
    and capacity to freely choose between them

  • Is the birthright of every person
  • Is manifested in
  • A capacity to recognize truth in self and others
    (integrity in Stephen Carters1996 use of the
  • A stable perception of and action to advance
    justice (fair, equitable treatment of all)
  • The ability to think autonomously about oneself
    and ones world (a free mind)
  • The ability to advocate for fair treatment of
  • Competence in ones chosen work
  • A capacity to experience the pleasures of
    intimacy (romantic and caregiving intimacy)

Practice Implications of Cultural Variations in
  • How directive should social worker be (Gray
    Fook, p. 636-637)?
  • How individualized is the notion of self?
  • How much freedom of choice does the person
    believe s/he has in that society? How much does
    s/he actually have?

Discussion Questions
  • a) How does the concept of self-determination
    that Patricia Ewalt describes fit with your
    cultural definitions of self-determination? This
    includes both the concept of self, and the
    concept of freedom of choice.
  • b) What kinds of obstacles to self-determination
    do clients you have worked with experience?
  • c) How do you think social workers can develop
    self-determination for people 1) individually 2)
    in communities 3) nationally 4) globally?
  • d) Amartya Sen bases his ideas on concepts of
    Freedom of Choice (see slide) and he discusses
    five kinds of freedom. Give examples of those
    freedoms and unfreedoms in your country.

Questions raised in the context of post-Soviet
  • What is freedom? (see Jurkuviene Harrison
  • Freedom for what? Freedom from what?
  • What is democracy? (consider Jane Addams
  • How is democracy maintained?
  • What is the role of civil society in democracy?
  • How does social work contribute to civil society
    and thereby democracy?

Developing social services in Russia (Tempelman)
  • - Microethnographic study of social workers in
    Russia found
  • Despite social problems accompanying
    democratization and societal instability, there
    is excitement about the new freedom
  • With democratization and increased recognition of
    social problems, there is a need for defining and
    developing new forms of practice to respond to
    the new context
  • Importance of research to establish practice
    models and define problem areas
  • Current issues in social work
  • Establishing legitimacy of social work as a
  • Social work education

Discussion questions
  • How does your country need to develop and improve
    its democracy?
  • How can social workers in your country contribute
    to that process?

Healey Global Social Work has four key
  • Internationally-related domestic practice and
  • addressing problems that cross national
    boundaries (e.g., trafficking, drug sales)
  • Working with international populations
  • Professional exchange using knowledge gained
    from other countries to improve practice and
    policy in home country
  • International Practice Social workers contribute
    to international development by working in
    international development agencies Grameen Bank
    example p. 11
  • International policy development and advocacy
    Social work as a worldwide movement influencing
    policy at the international level, as in
    educational efforts with UN policy deliberations
    on violence against women, p. 13
  • Discussion Question What examples of these
    aspects of Global Social Work have you seen?

Global social welfare organizations
  • United Nations (p. 127 ff) - aims of peace,
    international amity, cooperation, and harmonizing
    govt actions to attain common goals 185 member
  • Economic and Social Council
  • High Commission for Refugees
  • UNDP
  • WHO
  • UN Fund for Population Activities
  • World Bank provides loans to encourage
    development activities
  • International Monetary fund provides technical
    assistance to countries on financial matters
    (banking, taxation, etc.) (p. 135)
  • USAID (138) foreign aid program
  • Peace corps
  • NGO relief and development, advocacy,
    development education, exchange, agencies engaged
    in global sw, agencies with branches in many


Efforts to articulate global human rights and
global professional ethics
  • The articulation of a view of universal values
    regarding human life
  • The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human
    Rights at http//
  • Example of universal professional code of ethics
  • The International Federation of Social Workers
    Statement on Ethics at http//

Global Social Work Values
  • What is the debate about between universalism in
    values and cultural relativism of values? (Healey
    p. 152)
  • Do you have examples of how a clash of values
    relevant for social work is evident in
    cross-cultural human rights concerns?
  • In your example, who participates in the
    formation of the cultural values and who benefits
    from maintaining them?
  • In your example, how might value clashes be
    reframed so people can benefit from the dynamic
    (e.g. changing) aspect of cultural values?

Global Professional Ethics (Pettifor, 2004)
  • Professional codes of ethics (p. 264)
  • promote optimal behavior by providing
    aspirational principles
  • regulate professional behavior by monitoring and
    disciplinary action - eg protect people from the
    misuse of professional power
  • Promote ethical thinking rather than
  • Consolidate professional identity
  • Discussion questions
  • What kinds of ethical conflicts are problematic
    for social workers in your country?
  • Have there been examples of the misuse of social
    workers professional power in your country that
    concern you?

Discussion questions about developing
professional ethical thinking
  • If professional codes of ethics are transplanted
    from one culture to another
  • Can the values and standards fit with the values
    and standards of the country to which they are
  • Can the values and the standards be consistent
    with actual practice?
  • A basic level of safety, open communication,
    democratic institutions, and human rights may be
    essential for professional ethical thinking (p.
    270 Pettifor). Do you agree? Why or why not?

Working for reconciliation in the context of
massive societal trauma The example of Rwanda
(discussion of Pham et al., 2004)
  • Define precisely the nature of the trauma Rwandan
    people experienced due to the genocide
  • What social efforts were made to generate
    reconciliation and how effective were they?
  • Judicial
  • Legislative
  • What associations did the authors find between
    PTSD symptoms and attitudes towards social
    justice and reconciliation?
  • Why would PTSD symptoms make it difficult for
    people to feel comfortable working with others?

Working for reconciliation in the context of
massive societal trauma The example of Rwanda
(Pham et al., 2004)
  • Rwanda used three judicial processes to rectify
    effects of the 1994 conflict
  • the ICTR,
  • Rwandan national trials, and
  • gacaca trials.
  • People responded most positively to gacaca they
    felt more informed and involved with the process
    (p. 610). When people feel as thought they have
    more control of the outcome, they are more likely
    to support the process. Since gacaca is
    community-based and trials are held publicly
    within the community, people may be more involved
    and committed (2004, p. 610).
  • The least positive response was toward ICTR,
    about which Rwandans had the least information.
    Therefore, a lack of reliable information is the
    key factor undermining the capacity of the
    tribunal to contribute to reconciliation in
    Rwanda (p. 610)
  • Individuals within the community respond more
    positively when feeling involved in the justice

Discussion questions
  • What examples do you see in your country of PTSD
    that results from societal or ethnic-level
  • What are aspects of global social workers roles
    to assist with this PTSD?

Sex, violence, and economic restructuring in
Kuwait (Tetreault)
  • What kind of economic restructuring is currently
    occurring in Kuwait?
  • Depressed oil prices force internal economic
    redistribution among social groups can intensity
    ethnic rivalry (237-238)
  • What is the role of gender in such a context?
  • gender violence incorporated as an element of
    discourse between antagonistic ethnic groups
  • conflicts over womens proper place mask
    struggles by some groups to retain control and
    power. (239)
  • Shutting women up in their houses leaves more
    jobs for men (251) describe how this process
    has occurred in Kuwait

Stigma and access to care (discussion of Castro
Farmer, 2005)
  • How are stigma and discrimination at the heart of
    the AIDS pandemic?
  • Define structural violence.
  • What did the authors find about why stigma is so
    hard to eradicate?
  • How does treatment spark a virtuous social
    cycle? (p. 56)
  • If you apply these ideas to clinical social work
    treatment, how would clinical social work
    treatment spark a virtuous social cycle?

Developing culturally sound definitions of
well-being and mental health (discussion of Wong
Tsang, 2004)
  • What are some examples of Western
    misunderstandings of Asian cultures and values?
  • What is essentialization, why is it
    problematic, and what alternatives are there? (p.
  • Can you think of other examples of
  • How might essentialization interfere with forming
    a good social work alliance?
  • What are the key dimensions of mental health
    according to the Asian women?
  • Spirituality
  • Social conditions and access to opportunities
  • Autonomy and self-confidence
  • Thinking about these definitions of mental
    health, how would you define mental health?

Discussion of The origins of cultural cognition
  • What is the pivotal and quintessentially human
  • Define intention skills of cultural cognition
  • How do children learn to read the intentions of
  • What do the authors mean by their statement,
    language is not basic, it is derived (27) and
    why is this important?

Discussion of Cooperation and competition in
peaceful societies
  • How does the researcher define a peaceful society
    and what are some examples?
  • What does the researcher conclude about the link
    between competition and aggression by examining
    peaceful societies?
  • What are some hallmarks of child rearing in
    peaceful societies?
  • What are some rituals that foster cooperation?
  • Do you believe that competition fosters
    aggression and violence?
  • How can you as a social worker promote peace in
    your country? Globally?

Discussion questions for Child-rearing and the
development of behavioral inhibition in China
and Canada
  • How is behavioral inhibition defined and measured
    in this research? Why is it an important concept
    for child development?
  • What statistical associations did the researchers
    find between the mothers attitudes and the
    childrens behavioral inhibition?
  • Do you agree with the researchers conclusions
    that cultural values are expressed by the mothers
    express and influence their children?

Mother and child, China
Canadian children
Discussion of Aggression in Russian Children
  • How do the researchers define and measure
    aggression and relational aggression?
  • How are parenting styles and marital interactions
    defined and measured in this study?
  • How can parents minimize dysfunctional forms of
    aggression in their children? Does this vary by
    country and culture?
  • Gender differences in relational aggression often
    are noted in the US but not in this Russian
    sample. How do the researchers explain this and
    do you agree?

Russian Children
!Kung children
Effects of Political Violence on Palestinian
Childrens Behavior Problems
  • Context
  • prior to 1987 Intifada (Palestinian uprising
    against Israeli occupation of West Bank and Gaza
    Strip) 39 of Palestinian children had lost a
    family member, 85 had witnessed
    political-motivated violence
  • 50-63,000 children were injured in first 2 years
    of Intifada 18,000 men arrested and separated
    from their children
  • Secret police had posed as researchers and
    journalists so intermediaries had to be used to
    conduct interviews
  • Research questions (p. 35) What is the impact of
    living in a war zone in the context of other
    developmental risk factors?

Effects of political violence on Palestinian
children, cont.
  • Hypothesis Repeated exposure to violence
    multiplies the risk of children developing PTSD
    (with behavior problems, numbing, dissociation,
  • Sample 150 children, 6-9 and 12-15, boys and
    girls, in low-violence and high-violence
    communities, all in 2 parent households
  • Measures demographics mothers completed
    Achenbach Child Behavior Inventory children were
    interviewed about their experiences of violence
    Conflict Tactics Scale given to mother re father,
    and child re mother Parenting Stress Index
    completed by mother
  • Risk factors counted see p. 37
  • Results Palestinian children had same incidence
    of behavior problems as US children exposed to
    chronic violence
  • Accumulation of risk evident see p. 39 chart
    as risks went over 4 children went over threshold
    into clinical dysfunction

Effects of political violence on Palestinian
children (cont).
  • Results (cont)
  • Gender, age, and community context did not
    multiply risk but in context of high risk, boys
    and younger children showed more risk (p. 39).
  • Children are much more resilient to community
    violence in a context of functional families
  • Theoretical context and conclusions
  • Independence, responsibility, and an absence of
    overprotection are associated with resiliency for
    girls while structure, rules, parental
    supervision and male role model are associated
    with resiliency for boys
  • Trauma is associated with overwhelming affects
    and cognitions - younger children are therefore
    more vulnerable to accumulation of risk
  • Children in families fraught with conflict
    experience profound accumulation of risk when
    then faced with political violence

Workshops for Peace in Palestine and New Delhi
  • Global Convention on Peace and Nonviolence New
    Delhi, January 31 - February 1, 2004
  • Workshops on peace and nonviolent conflict
    resolution, Palestine

Representations of the individual Post-Communist
  • Research question Can living under two different
    systems (Western European individualism and
    Soviet collectivism) lead to different social
    representations of the individual?
  • Background
  • Values of individualism grounded in Renaissance
    and humanism (798)
  • have roots in economic (Weber), philosophical
    humanistic Kant rationality, intentional
    activity and autonomous thought are supreme
    capacities of human beings, i.e. they are the End
    in Itself 800 and
  • political theories (Locke, society arises
    through the voluntary contract of individuals
    trying to maximise their own self-interests
    800, heritage of US constitution and UN
    Declaration of Human Rights
  • Is post-modern Western glorification of the
    individual a threat to civilisation and society
  • People lack and need the fulfillment of a purpose
    beyond themselves and a sense of social

Representations of the individual Post-Communist
  • Under Soviets, totalitarian collectivism was an
    ideology forced on citizens, to which they were
    made to conform (802).
  • Freedom of individual was a luxury for the
    future, present regarded in terms of ensuring
    victory of proletariat (Class struggle)(803)
  • herd mentality with loss of individual freedoms
    and often persecution of dissidents resulted
  • Theory social representations are forms of
    thinking and of activities based on folk logic.
    They are formed, maintained and changed by both
    implicit and explicit processes they have both
    performative and constructive functions
  • some are stable, some change over time (805)
  • They prescribe socially shared definitions of
    social phenomena which are enacted in language
    and other forms of communication (805)

Representations of the individual Post-Communist
  • Method 6 countries compared (selected
    pragmatically not scientifically), with 1172
    people participating
  • 2 word association tasks, both contained
    political, ideological, and economic terms, one
    with the word individual, the other without it
  • Questionnaire about respondents perceived
    freedom of choice in personal satisfaction,
    professional achievement, financial situation,
    and future planning
  • Data analysis
  • of the word association tests occurred in the
    form of multidimensional scaling using matrices
    to represent proximity (808, 809)
  • Content analysis used to examine free
  • Then descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and
    discriminant analysis (811)

Representations of the individual Post-Communist
  • Findings
  • The positive form of individualism --associated
    with freedom, human rights, self-determination,
    democracy -- was not destroyed under Soviet rule
  • Perhaps because these values are needed for human
    survival (820)
  • Central Europeans regarded the individual in a
    market economy more positively Western
    Europeans regarded political systems more
    positively (821) - why do you think this is?
  • CE people also think they have more personal
    freedoms now than WE people do (consider that
    people evaluate such issues by comparison with
    their recent history 822)
  • Interdependence between language and social
    representations (823)

Representations of the individual Post-Communist
  • How might the differing representations of the
    individual in CE and WE influence social work
  • What are some implications for global social work
    of the interdependence between language and
    social representations?
  • Consider that in Czech and Slovak languages,
    equivalents for term community dont exist
  • The term individual has many variations in
    meaning (824)
  • Czechs and Slovaks associated individual with
    loneliness, also had experienced greatest
    repression under Soviets

Discussion of Learning to care for clients in
their world (Ryan)
  • Why is it challenging to learn how to deliver
    culturally sensitive care?
  • How did the students cope with immersion in a
    different culture?
  • What are the positive benefits of international

Research from a Global Perspective
  • Why, in global perspective, should we be
    concerned about research?
  • What are some of the challenges in conducting
    global social science research that has local
  • What are some of the hazards social science
    researchers face?

International social science research
  • What are some differences between international
    research in the physical sciences as opposed to
    the social sciences?
  • What are some of the problems prioritized for the
    future of international social science research?
  • What is the potential future of international
    social science research?

Construction of scientific knowledge on the
Mongolian steppe
  • How do power differentials work to condition and
    constrain scientific knowledge?
  • What are the different groups interacting in the
    research on the Mongolian steppe and how do they
    relate with each other?
  • What does the author reference in this
    conclusion The practices of scapegoating local
    populations, ignoring their preferences, and
    dismissing their perceptions through the guise of
    an objective and rational science does not
    advance the cause of development or science. (p.

Participatory action and consumer empowerment
  • What is the core commitment (perspective) of
    participatory action/consumer empowerment
  • How do these methods empower consumers of social
    services? Participants in the research?
  • How are these methods challenging for researchers
    to implement?

Global Peace-building Efforts (Doyle and
Sambanis, 2000)
  • Definition Peace-building addresses the sources
    of hostility and builds local capacities for
    conflict resolution. Conflicts are inevitable in
    plural democracies peace-building aims to
    foster the social, economic, and political
    institutions and attitudes that will prevent
    these conflicts from turning violent. In effect,
    peace-building is the front line of preventive
  • At the levels of community and national systems,
    peace-building strategies
  • 1) address the local sources of hostility and
    promote respect for ethnic, religious, and racial
  • 2) develop local capacities for change (local
    economic resources, political participation,
    civil society institutions, social capital), and
  • 3) evaluate and build the international
    commitment available to assist change.

Clinical Social Workers play an Essential Role in
  • Many examples indicate that policy-making is not
    enough Social and psychological changes need to
    occur at a grassroots level before, during, and
    after peace agreements are signed (Maoz, 2004).
  • Even in countries (e.g., Thailand, Lithuania)
    where there is relative stability, a profession
    of social work, and policies promoting human
    rights and welfare, many social workers and other
    professionals lack the clinical skills of U.S.
    clinical social workers to help carry out human
    rights policies.

Clinical Social Work Advances Peace-building via
  • Reducing hostilities
  • Healing the psychosocial impact of traumatic
  • Understanding, preventing, and remedying peoples
    inhumanity to each other
  • Advancing local capacities for change in the
    direction of democracy
  • Developing peoples self-determination, affirming
    their motives for truth, justice, and compassion
  • Building the institutions of civil society

Research issues for developing culturally
appropriate social work practice
  • Define authentization and its application for
    social workers in non-Western countries
  • How does the author define culture? Do you agree
    with it?
  • Describe the three central aspects of applying
    research cross-culturally linguistic and
    conceptual equivalence, communication processes
    and styles in different cultures, and forming
    relationships with people

Discussion of The New Face of Terrorism
  • What are the characteristics of individuals who
    become terorrists?
  • What are the psychological processes used by
    terrorist groups to enforce obedience and
    compliance in their followers?
  • What are the most effective measures one can use
    to combat terrorism?

International social policy
  • Definition of social policy Principles,
    procedures, and courses of action established in
    statute, administrative code and agency
    regulation that affect peoples social
    well-being (Healey quoting Dear, p. 219)
  • Domestic level policies that have global impact
    ex. Immigration laws and NAFTA (US)
  • Global level policies formulated by
    international intergovernmental bodies ex. Human
    rights legislation in UN
  • Issues in cross-national comparative policy
  • Accuracy and comparability of data across nations
  • Different definitions of terms and concepts
  • Cultural differences in values that underlie
    policies, political environment, and process of

Influencing social policy
  • What are the different levels of social policy?
  • What are some ways that domestic and
    international social policies interface?
  • What are some activities social workers can
    undertake to influence social policy (give
    examples, see Healey p. 226 ff)
  • In their native countries
  • Internationally

Transferability of welfare models Examples from
Finland and Estonia
  • How do social policies get transferred from one
    country to another (use specific examples)?
  • What structural factors foster policy
  • How does cultural diffusion foster policy

Devising Practice Standards for Aboriginal
Out-of-home Care
  • Context
  • What is the situation of aboriginal peoples in
  • Concern expressed by Aboriginal leaders about
    appointment of white Childrens Guardian
  • Over-representation of Aboriginal children in
    child welfare system
  • Self-determination
  • White Australian definition freedom of choice
  • Aboriginal collective right to achieve
    reasonable standard of living, ensure being able
    to do things in Aboriginal way, be free of White
  • Why are practice standards important in child
    welfare policy?
  • Who develops them and why is it important to
    include multiple cultural groups in standard

Devising Practice Standards for Aboriginal
Out-of-home Care 2
  • Office of the Childrens Guardian, Australia
  • Evaluating out-of-home care
  • Advocating for childrens rights
  • Ensuring respect for childrens cultures of
  • Partnership model for developing standards
  • Led to insights about challenges facing
    Aboriginal out-of-home care agencies
  • University partnership that framed drafts of
    standards in concert with Aboriginal peoples and
    in their language
  • Standards available for public review and
    revision http//

Legacy of the South African Truth and
Reconciliation Commission
  • TRC purposes
  • Mandated by interim government of Mandela and de
    Klerk (540), context of strife between African
    National Congress and National Party
  • Memorialization of victims of human rights
    violations demand for human rights instituted
    by force of law (545)
  • distill truth into reconciliation, suffering
    into forgiveness, historical strife into national
    identity, and word into divinity (531)
  • What do we learn about memorialization?
  • Case of Ahmed Timol, political activist who was
    murdered under apartheid, facts of his death
    covered in lies (532)
  • We use their names to remember the larger
    picture of which they were a part (535)
  • South African society wanted to relieve itself
    of the burden of its disappeared, through forms
    of speech and action that would make them
    reappear (535)

Truth and Reconciliation Commission (cont)
  • Collective Mourning
  • Making the dead present by identifying with them
    what if they were here, what would they want?
  • Finding a way to go on living without the dead
    loved ones the dead loved one comes to represent
    an ideal type
  • Memorializing the name into the future
    compensates for the unfairly truncated life
  • Transitional justice unique to nations
    transitioning from authoritarian regimes
    characterized by gross violations of human rights
    to liberal democracies (539)
  • Need to punish perpetrators and strengthen rule
    of law
  • Need for social healing through public
  • Build the moral capital of the new regime through
    spectacles of transition (539)
  • delicately appease old regime to prevent a coup
  • Strengthen the new regime

Truth and Reconciliation Commission (cont)
  • Qualified Amnesty (541)
  • proportionality standard used to distinguish
    crimes motivated by individual hatred and those
    motivated by larger political aims (541)
  • Provided an alternative to civil war
  • Promoted moral awe as social attitude (541)
  • Setting the agenda in a transitional society is
    about cultural attitudes as well as
    constitutional and civic issues (542), which TRC
  • Timols name institutes the moral authority of
    remembrance (543) and a school in his name was
    a demand for justice to take place within civil
    society because Black South-Africans had been
    depived of education under apartheid
  • Emphasis on victim dignity
  • reimagining the terms of citizenship
  • Providing a public focus for debate (rather than
    violence), resulted in solidification of
    political agreement between warring parties

Understanding and fighting Third World poverty
Learning from the ANC (Saul)
  • Third World concept what are the problems with
    it, and what is the usefulness of this
  • What are current conditions in South Africa (p.
    80-1) and why?
  • Sauls critique of NEPAD approachAfricans who
    seek meaningful development for their continent
    will have to become participants in global and
    continental initiatives that proceed on the basis
    of a much more profoundly anti-capitalist
    perspective than the ANC leadership is currently
    prepared to countenance. (81)

Crime in transitional societies Example of South
Africa (Leggett)
  • Crime problem in South Africa
  • increased because, like all transitional
    societies, of generalized social disorder and a
    deep sense of normlessness (582)
  • Increased also because of improved public trust
    in police with increased reporting
  • Murder rate is down but still 25 higher than the
    US increases in assaults and rapes associated
    with more reporting due to growing consciousness
    of gender violence (584)
  • Rising property crime rates are due to growing
    enfranchisement of the population and a sign of
    economic growth and democratization (584)
  • Problems inherent in police department
  • 10 of police were brutal, uneducated
    kitconstables (587)
  • History of use of torture and oppressive ideology

Fighting crime through community policing
Strategies for transitional societies (Leggett)
  • Police departments
  • Are trained largely through experience
  • Cannot be rebuilt altogether but must retrain
    existing staff
  • SAP police reform
  • Process entails making police accountable to
    public, rather than police being an army of
    occupation (589)
  • Built on South African police strengths
    controlling crowds, securing public spaces,
    technical skills (handling dogs and forensic
    testing), combating criminal organizations
  • Torture no longer accepted, so improved detective
    skills required
  • Community policing increased contact with public
    to improve police sensitivity and public trust
    Community police forums designed to provide
    accountability, monitoring, and evaluation of
    police (insufficient public participation at
  • Resulted in over half of victims polled felt
    police were doing a good job (591)

Crime, human rights, and democratization(Leggett)
  • Human rights advocacy resulted in reduction in
    circumstances allowing use of lethal force (591)
    opposed by police leaders bec of possible
    increased police fatalities
  • Two major crime prevention strategies
  • National crime prevention strategy (1996) four
    tenets Reconstruct criminal justice system,
    Environment redesign to reduced crime Support
    community values and education Address organized
    transnational crime but had little impact
  • National Crime Combating Strategy focused on
    areas with serious and violent crimes, allowed
    crackdowns (search and seizure without due
    process) suppressed statistical reports of
    crime current phase of normalization involves
    sector policing, relying on public identification
    of problems and intensive community contact

Aboriginal reconciliation and restorative justice
in Australia
  • Premise there is a connection between
    microinjustices and collective case of aboriginal
    communities as victims (289)
  • Context disenfranchising aborigines through
    expropriating land rights, violence against them,
    prohibiting tribal cultural practices (282)
    public controversy about official recognition of
    these crimes
  • Restorative justice Defined, p. 279, emphasis on
    relationships damaged by crime, and strategies
    for repairing them
  • Characteristic processes
  • Informal setting, more flexible procedure, guilt
  • Diversionary conference (280)
  • Four key aspects accountability, apology, voice,
    reconciliation (280ff)

Aboriginal reconciliation and restorative justice
in Australia
  • Authors are advocating broader notion of
    restorative justice to accommodate structural,
    collective, and historical injustices
  • Deliberative Poll on reconciliation in Canberra
  • conference including disproportionately more
    aboriginal representatives, in English (with
    translators available), small group discussions
    and open sessions
  • Community spirit was established
  • Goal of apology not achieved debates
  • Apologizing suggests personal culpability
  • without financial reparation, is apology only
    superficial? (285)
  • Successful reconciliation entails more outreach
    of white Australians to learn aboriginal cultures
    and include them in educational curricula (286)
  • What would be restored in collective restorative
    justice? (287)
  • Microjustice and macrojustice (Roy, 288)
  • Concern that reconciliation not turn into
    manipulation to preserve the status quo (289)

Divorced from Justice
  • Highlighting and criticizing personal status laws
    that are derived from interpretations of Muslim
    Sharia is religiously explosive for some
  • Human Rights Watch report on Divorce in Egypt
    (2004), key findings
  • Women and men have different systems for
    obtaining divorce (109)
  • Obedience complaints filed by men if a woman
    leaves the home without mans permission (110)
  • No female judges
  • Many Egyptian women become impoverished and
    homeless in divorce process (often giving up all
    financial rights in exchange for divorce)
  • Two band-aid solutions (no change in underlying
    legal structure)
  • 2000 Kuhl or no-fault divorce instituted
  • Family courts established 2004 (114)

Muslim womens human rights
  • Key human rights violations addressed by Amnesty
    International in response to pressure from
    feminist groups in 1970s-80s for womens human
  • gender apartheid, female genital mutilation,
    honor killings
  • Methods 1991 report, advocacy for 77 women in
    detention in Syria (98), publicizing womens
    human rights violations as of 1994
  • Arguing against cultural relativism customs can
    be changed, regional activists wanted their
    countrys customs reformed (99)
  • Rape defined as torture, training investigators
    to assist victims (100)
  • Vienna Declaration included statement that
    violence against women was a violation of human
    rights (1993)

Muslim womens human rights (cont)
  • UN 4th World Conference on Women, 1995, AI
    included women prisoners, refugees, asylum
    seekers and displaced women
  • All women in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan
    defined as prisoners of conscience (101) and
    criticized government policies in Sudan that
    imposed governments interpretation of Islamic
    law on all citizens
  • Sponsoring national seminars on eradicating FGM
    (1996), p. 102
  • Report on Honor Killings in Pakistan (1999) (102)
  • Recognition of the home as a place of terror of
    women, campaigned against forced marriages, abuse
    of domestic workers, debt bondage, trafficking,
    and sexual slavery

AI and Muslim womens human rights
  • International Criminal Court - in force in 2002
    makes it possible to prosecute human rights
  • Heads of state, officials can be prosecuted
  • Victims of domestic violence, trafficking and
    bonded labor can bring suit
  • Political asylum laws broadened to include gender
  • UN Commission on Human Rights passed resolutions
    condeming marital rape, violence against women,
    in favor of reproductive rights and sexual health

Consciousness-raising and community development
  • Context literacy education in Recife, Brazil
  • Problem internalization of viewpoint of
    oppressor about onself, ones future, and ones
  • Results passivity, despair
  • Remedy group affirmation of common experiences
    of oppression, naming, compounding individual
    power through group support
  • Results motivation for self-education, community
    strengthening and development, affirmation of
    chosen cultural values, group action to advance

Social exclusion
  • Defines a new poverty characterized by rupture
    between individual and society in context of
    rapid technological change (Healey, p. 273)
  • loss of solidarity as part of a population no
    longer participates in significant opportunities
    available in a society (273)
  • Defined globally in terms of gaps between richest
    and poorest nations
  • Examples refugees, street children, with poverty
    as major defining feature

Balancing economic and social development
  • Human capital development investments in
    people that increase productivity
  • Social capital development capacity-building in
    communities, building on indigenous groups
  • Encouragement of self-employment and other
    productive employment efforts (Healey, p. 268)

Grameen Bank
  • Underlying philosophy
  • poverty is the absence of all human rights
  • peace cannot be viable when poverty exists
  • People who are poor are most vulnerable to
    victimization by unscrupulous lenders, corrupt
    public officials, or terrorist leaders
  • Fighting poverty is the best way to fight
  • people who are poor can be entrusted to honor
    loans and better themselves and their families
    once the poor can unleash their energy and
    creativity, poverty will disappear very quickly
  • Facts about world poverty (see p. 1)
    Globalization must not become financial
    imperialism (5)
  • we can reconfigure our world if we reconfigure
    our mindset (5)
  • How Yunus started Grameen Bank
  • Loaning his own money to his neighbors (next door
    to his campus!) in Bangladesh to help them get
    free of enslaving money-lenders
  • Donations grew and poor increasingly ran it
  • The bank became self-supporting as people repaid

Grameen Bank - 2
  • 7 million borrowers by 2006 (30 years), mostly
    women - 80 of Bangladesh families reached
  • Repayment rate is 99
  • Loans totalled about 6 billion
  • The bank is self-supporting and makes a profit
  • 58 of its borrowers have crossed the poverty
  • Women sent children to school, bank now gives
    30,000 scholarships every year 13,000 students
    have student loans, with 7,000 per year
  • They created Grameen phone (mobile phone company)
    to bring ICT to poor people - the goal is to give
    majority ownership to the poor women of Grameen
  • He proposes a social business - as a solution
    to contemporary economic problems (p. 4)

Advancing human rights policy Example of
  • Consider the history of working to advance human
    rights in Mexico.
  • Define civil society. What is its function in
    advancing human rights?
  • What occurs in the low intensity war waged by
    the government military forces against the
    indigenous people of Chiapas? what are the
    consequences of this war?
  • What has been the role of indigenous women in the
    struggle for human rights and what are some
    results of their efforts?
  • What is the meaning of the conclusion that state
    policy agendas must be consistent with indigenous
    values otherwise, indigenous people will seek
    alternative institutions to promote democratic
    principles (p. 86).

Zapatista liberation army 1994 Sources
prising-1994/ http//
Advocating for human rights in Vieques, Puerto
  • What were the health consequences for the
    Viequenses of continued exposure to US
    war-simulation exercises?
  • What organizations were developed to advocate for
    cessation of military exercises in Vieques?
  • What was the new strategy of the community
    organization effort?
  • What specific activities did they undertake to
    accomplish their goals?

Preventing AIDS in China and South Africa
  • What factors are associated with participating in
    HIV-STD prevention activities among
    rural-to-urban Chinese immigrants?
  • Context Population mobility associated with
    increased risk for HIV infection because of
  • lack of knowledge about HIV risk,
  • instability of sexual partners in mobile
  • unemployment and reliance on jobs as sex workers
  • Return to community of origin then spreads HIV
  • High-risk behaviors are highly stigmatized in
    Chinese culture
  • China is in early stages of AIDS epidemic
  • Method surveyed a sample of 4,208 migrants in
    Beijing and Nanjing, ages 18-30, recruited in
    public places, primarily Han Chinese ethnicity
    logistic regression statistical analysis used

Preventing AIDS in China and South Africa
  • Findings
  • The more people know about HIV, the more likely
    they are to participate in prevention
  • The more people engage in high-risk behaviors
    (engaging in high risk sexual behaviors, using
    drugs), the less likely they are to participate
  • Risk of peer involvement or stigma discouraged
    people from participating
  • Those who migrated because they wanted to learn
    about the outside world were also more willing to
  • Knowledge is necessary but not sufficient to
    foster behavior-change and motivation reducing
    stigma is important in increasing participation
  • Those with the highest risk behaviors are most
    difficult to recruit into health care and

Preventing AIDS in China and South Africa
  • South African context prevalence rate of HIV
    infection 22.4 among pregnant women 12.5 for
    all South Africans
  • Experimental design do students exposed to
    intensive teacher-led interventions have more
    knowledge about HIV and AIDS prevention, use
    safer sex, and reduced stigma towards those with
  • Sample 9th graders in 22 schools in
    KwaZulu-Natal Statistical and process analysis
  • Findings
  • Student knowledge increased significantly but
    safer sex practices did not
  • Teachers implemented the program variably, those
    who used it more were more effective in
    increasing safe sex practices

Peace-building in Violent Conflict (Maoz, 2004)
  • Context 1993 Oslo peace accords between Israelis
    and Palestinians have broken down (p. 565)- so
    How can the goals of peacebuilding be realized
    when there is no peace-making?
  • Overall strategy dialogues and joint
    people-to-people projects at the grassroots level
    that aim to transform the relations between the
    sides (564)
  • Definition of peace-building
  • encompasses, generates, and sustains a full
    array of processes, approaches, and stages needed
    to transform a conflict toward a more