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Unit 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignments


Unit 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignments (Chapters 33-37) 6.1 Science and the Environment 6.2 Global Conflicts and their Consequences – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignments

Unit 6 Accelerating Global Change and
Realignments (Chapters 33-37) 6.1 Science and the
Environment 6.2 Global Conflicts and their
Consequences 6.3 New Conceptualizations of Global
Economy, Society, Culture
  • Article Packet World War I and Its
  • 1. How many soldiers participated in WWI? How
    many were killed and wounded? What
    countries/regions of the world contributed
  • According to Marks, what were the immediate
    causes for war? What country was primarily to
    blame? What evidence does Marks use to support
    this claim?
  • What does Marks mean by young and old states?
    How does this factor into the causes of war?
  • List five of the developments within Germany that
    Marks says developed since unification and
    contributed to the outbreak of WWI.
  • How was imperialism a cause of war?
  • How was the European power balance shifting as
    WWI approached?
  • What were some social/intellectual/popular ideas
    that contributed to WWI?
  • What part did the alliance systems that formed
    play in WWI?
  • Read the quote on page 382. According to OShea,
    what were the effects of WWI on the rest of the
    20th century? Do you agree? Please explain.

WWI The Great War The War to End all Wars
On the eve of WWI, where were the brewing
Europe on the eve of World War I, 1914
The main causes of WWI Imperialism the
intense competition for control of colonial
territory and the control of foreign markets.
This included control of sea lanes and maritime
trade. Nationalism as democratic institutions
developed, politicians sought to garner public
favor and rally people behind national
unification and national goals. Public education
emerged in the 19th century, and often fostered
nationalism and patriotic fervor.
The main causes of WWI Militarism The
industrial revolution led to an intensified arms
race among Western powers. National leaders and
propaganda often fostered the idea that a strong
military was key to national security and
expansion. War was glorified. Alliance Systems
European powers formed alliances to further
national goals and maintain power against rivals.
Triple Entente alliance formed by Russia,
Britain, and France to guard against German
expansion and power Triple Alliance
Germany responded to Triple Entente by
forming an alliance with the Austro- Hungarian
Empire and Italy.
July 1914
It began with the assassination of the heir to
the Austro-Hungarian throne, archduke Franz
Ferdinand, in the city of Sarajevo. The act was
carried out by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo
Princip, a member of the secret organization
"Mlada Bosna" (Young Bosnia), whose aim was
Bosnia's independence from Austria-Hungary. The
assassination was a formal excuse for
Austria-Hungary to invade Serbia. Soon Germany,
Russia, France, and Britain would be drawn into
the war.
Archduke Franz (Francis) Ferdinand and Duchess
Sophia just before the shooting,
  Gavrilo Princip, on trial for the murder of
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, arrives at
court .
Austria declares war on Serbia
Serbia is unable to comply
Austria-Hungary sends ultimatum to Serbia
The Steps to WWI
Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary
Germany declares war on Russia and France
France declares war on Austria-Hungary and Germany
Germany goes through Belgium to invade France, so
Britain declares war on Germany
The Ottomans join the Central Powers to harm old
enemy Russia
The Germany Army Chief of Staff, Alfred von Schlieffen was asked to plan a way of preventing a war on two fronts. His initial plan was produced late in 1905. He believed that it was a priority to defeat France quickly, forcing them to surrender before Russia had a chance to mobilize their armed forces.                       Von Schlieffen
The Schlieffen Plan Overview In 1914, German
leaders knew Russias entry into the war was
extremely likely.  If Russia declared war,
Germany assumed France would also attack because
of the Russian-French alliance and because French
nationalists wanted revenge for losses in the
Franco-Prussian war. German leaders were
concerned about a two-front war, meaning they
would have to divide forces between fighting the
Russians in the east and the French in the west.
Germany planned to defeat France rapidly and then
turn to the eastern front for a major offensive
on Russia.  This was the basis for the Schlieffen
In full knowledge of French defenses, Schlieffen
proposed attacking France through Holland,
Belgium and Luxembourg the Benelux countries.
Schlieffen planned to use 90 of German military
forces to deliver a knock out blow to France.
The remaining 10 would defend the eastern border
of Germany against Russian attack.
Assumptions Made by Germany
Russia would take at least 6 weeks to mobilize.
France would be easily defeated in 6 weeks.
Belgium would not resist any German attack.
Britain would remain neutral.
Germany was wrong on all four counts.
What Really Happened
On 2nd August 1914, the German army invaded
Luxembourg and Belgium according to the
Schlieffen Plan. The Germans were held up by the
Belgian army, backed up by the BEF (British
Expeditionary Force) which arrived extremely
quickly. Russia mobilized in just 10 days and
Germany was forced to withdraw troops from the
Schlieffen Plan to defend the eastern border.
German students going to enlist at the beginning
of the war
German soldiers
  • Timeline of Events WWI
  • 1914
  • Assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz
    Ferdinand (June 28)
  • Austria declared war on Serbia (July 28)
  • Battle of Tannenberg began on the eastern front
    in August Russia suffered a disastrous defeat
    30,000 soldiers killed and 9,200 prisoners taken
  • Battle of the Marne on the western front people
    began to realize this would be a long and costly
    war (September)
  • 1915
  • Gallipoli Campaign began on April 25 however,
    this allied offensive against Turkey and
    Austria-Hungary failed.
  • 1916
  • The Battles of Verdun and the Somme on the
    western front were both costly and inconclusive.
  • Verdun 11 month battle ½ million lost on
    both sides
  • Somme 5 month battle over 1 million killed
    the British first use the tank in battle.

  1. What do you observe in this photo?
  2. Does the photo seem like natural evidence or
  3. What can you deduce about the early years of the

Allied troops landing in war-torn Belgium
The Battle of the Somme
The Somme Today
Russian peasants volunteering
Prisoners of War
Poison gas was used, making WWI the first modern
war in which chemical warfare was used.
The Landship Its codename tank was given
because the shape of the shell resembled water
carriers. The name stuck and was assigned in
December 1915. The tank was first used by the
British in WWI.
In 1914 the Allies had 220 airplanes, the Central
Powers 258. The Germans also used Zeppelins and
by 1918 had over 100 of these airships capable of
bombing missions. The German Fokker aircraft was
an early example of a successful fighter plane.
At first pilots used rifles and pistols in air
battles, although machine guns were soon
(No Transcript)
  • 1917
  • The Russian Revolution began in March
  • The United States entered the war in April fresh
    troops increased allied morale
  • 1918
  • The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between Germany and
    Russia was signed in March Russia then withdrew
    from the war
  • The last German offensive took place in spring,
    but an allied counteroffensive finally defeated
    the German army
  • Armistice began November 11, 1918
  • 1919
  • The Paris Peace Conference began in January

Territories surrendered by Soviet Russia due to
Brest-Litovsk Treaty with Germany.
The Russians lost more than 300,000 square miles
of territory and in excess of 50 million people.
Of greater significance, however, was the loss of
huge sources of iron and coal in the ceded areas.
From the Allied perspective, the treaty was a
disaster in that it allowed the Germans to
transfer soldiers to the Western Front, where
they immediately gained numerical superiority.
At first, Woodrow Wilson did not want to spend
too much presidential time on foreign affairs.
When Europe plunged into war in 1914, Wilson, who
like many Americans believed in neutrality, saw
America's role as that of a peace broker. The
sinking of the passenger liner Lusitania by a
German U-boat helped to shatter that hope. The
Lusitania, though a British ship, had many
American passengers aboard. This incident, along
with the Zimmerman Note, started to change public
opinion about entry into the war.
Wilson demanded an apology from Germany and
stayed his neutral course as long as possible.
Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare,
however, started to turn the tide of public
opinion. At the start of 1917, British
intelligence intercepted the Zimmerman telegram,
a secret German communication to Mexico promising
United States territory to Mexico in return for
supporting the German cause. On April 2, 1917,
Wilson finally asked Congress for a formal
declaration of war.
American soldiers, called the Dough Boys
British soldiers
Australian trench
Australian artillery
(No Transcript)
  • Propaganda
  • The spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for
    the purpose of helping or injuring an
    institution, cause, or person.
  • 2. Ideas, facts, or allegations spread
    deliberately to further ones cause or damage an
    opposing cause.
  • Important Total war means the government must
    get the entire population behind the war effort.
    This means intense propaganda campaigns.

As you analyze this WWI propaganda, think about
what tactics are being used. Are specific groups
targeted in different posters? What clues about
society and pop culture are revealed?
(No Transcript)
The United States
I ring war, I sing war with open hand protect
the land. 8th warloan
Great Britain
"We did our duty, you do yours!"
  • The Paris Peace Conference and Treaty of
  • Kaiser William II abdicated in November of 1918
    and Germany was declared a republic (known as the
    Weimar Republic)
  • The Hapsburg monarchy and empire was dissolved
  • The Allies divided the remains of the Ottoman
    Empire, and also took control of German colonial
  • Some terms of the Treaty of Versailles
  • 1. Germany was reduced in size
  • 2. The German army was reduced in size
  • 3. conscription was banned
  • 4. Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France
  • 5. an independent Poland was re-established
  • 6. Germany was to pay immense war-time
    reparations (over 30 billion)
  • 7. League of Nations founded (though this was
    Wilsons idea, the U.S. never joined)

  • The map of Europe was re-drawn. Some new nations
    (or re-established nations) included
  • -Finland
  • -Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
  • -Poland
  • -Czechoslovakia
  • -Yugoslavia (dominated by Serbia)
  • Other effects and outcomes of WWI
  • -Over 8 ½ millions soldiers killed, about 20
    million soldiers wounded, about 13 million
    civilians killed
  • -Increased social and political instability in
    Europe (remember, the governments of Russia,
    Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
    had collapsed)
  • -Persecution and genocide of Armenians in Turkey
    began during WWI and continued after the war.
    About one million Armenians were killed during
    this time.
  • -WWI actually helped the U.S. economy U.S.
    business men before 1917 did business with both
  • -Plus, the U.S. was not as devastated by the war
    as European nations.
  • -More women in the workforce women in the U.S.
    and most western nations got the right to vote
    after the war.

The Allies meet in Paris to work out a peace
agreement at the end of the war.
Archdukes, Cynicism, and World War I Crash
Course World History 36
Archdukes, Cynicism, and World War I Crash
Course World History 36
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?v_XPZQ0LAlR4listP
  • According to John Green, in what ways was WWI a
    new kind of war? How did it change other wars?
  • According to John Green, what were some global
    effects of the war? (Effects outside of Europe)?

The Middle East in 1914
Hussein-McMahon Letters 1915-16
....Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold
the independence of the Arabs in all regions
lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif
of Mecca....
Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca
Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916
Balfour Declaration 1917
Foreign Office
November 2nd, 1917 Dear Lord Rothschild. I have
much pleasure to convey to you, on behalf of His
Majestys Government, the following declaration
of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations
hopes which has been submitted to, and approved
by, the Cabinet. His Majestys Government view
with favor the establishment in Palestine of a
national home for the Jewish people, and will use
their best endeavors to facilitate assist the
achievement of this object, it being clearly
understood that nothing shall be done which may
prejudice the civil and religious rights of
existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or
the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews
in any other country. I should be grateful if
you would bring this declaration to the knowledge
of the Zionist Federation. Yours
sincerely, ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR British
Foreign Secretary
The British Mandate in Palestine July, 1922
League of Nations Mandates in the Middle East
Versailles Settlement in Europe
German Territorial Losses 1919-1921
German Pacific Colonies Lost After WW I
League of Nations Mandates in Africa
New Nations 1923
  • In Depth Article Total War
  • Define total war.
  • How does the concept of total war help explain
    the use of terrorist and guerilla tactics?
  • What are the features of total war? (list at
    least 5)
  • How does total war affect civilization long term?
    In what ways do you see the affects of total war
    in our present society?
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