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Global Citizenship Education and Cultural Identities

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Title: Global Citizenship Education and Cultural Identities


1
Global Citizenship Education and Cultural
Identities
  • KOJI NAKAMURA Professor of
    International Education
  • Konan University, Kobe Japan

2
What is Globalization?
  • Globalization means global and transnational
    interactions of people, shared cultures,
    information and technology, education, economy,
    ecological management and value systems beyond
    the cultural divide between East and West, North
    and South and Orientalism and Occidentalism.

3
What is localization?
  • Localization means sustaining personal, local,
    republican, cultural, national identities, by
    raising the awareness of global interdependence.
  • Boulding (2000, p.272) emphasizes that with the
    new localism, children were more integrated into
    the life of the community than they had been in
    the previous century, and the peace education,
    training, and service programs that had begun
    early in the twenty-first century helped make
    schools major focal points of each community.

4
Positive Effects of Globalization
  • 1 Cross-border interactions and interdependence
    between and among people and countries
    (internationalization)
  • 2 Democratization and liberalization through the
    borderless interaction of people and information
    (Democratization and Liberalization)
  • 3 Sharing supra-national and universal values,
    such as liberal democracy, fundamental human
    rights, sustainable development, human
    solidarity, charity, philanthropy and citizenship
    in a democratic
  • civil society (Universalization)

5
Globalization and multicultural identifications
for human solidarity
  • Globalization has brought about a dramatic
    increase in multicultural, bicultural,
    transcultural and transnational people who have
    several layers of personal, cultural, ethnic,
    national and global identifications.
  • The EU will be another arena of economic,
    multi-cultural and educational experiments unlike
    diversified multicultural societies in the US.

6
NGO Positive Effects of Globalization
  • One context in which the micro-macro linkage of
    utopian experiments should be seen in the rapid
    development of transnational nongovernmental
    organization in the 20th century.
  • The more than twenty thousands transnational
    nongovernmental networks that bring diverse
    people together through common interests and
    concerns are today a major new set of actors in
    the international power (Boulding, 2000).

7
Negative Effects of Globalization Todays
Fragile World Survive or Perish?
  • Korten (1999) states that it is now our time to
    accept responsibility for our freedom or perish
    as a species that failed to find its place of
    service in the web of life.
  • Boulding (2000) states that as a species, we have
    overrun our niche and deprived countless other
    species of their habitats.
  • Human had learned to listen to one another and to
    the planet.

8
Awareness of Orientalism in global citizenship
education
  • Said (1978) argued that European culture gained
    in strength and identity by setting itself of
    against the Orient as a sort of surrogate and
    even underground self, defining Orientalism as a
    Western style for dominating, restructuring, and
    having authority over the Orient.
  • (Said,
    1978)

9
The Voice from Edward SaidLecture at Cairo Univ.
in 2003
  • You cannot deal with others without profound
    knowledge of his or her culture, society and
    history.
  • Force never works, because you can never
    destroys the will of people and the power of
    people.
  • Idea is equality, coexistence and sustainable
    life. The present is our battle ground and
    knowledge is our main weapon.
    (Said2003)


10
Our fragile earth devastated by nuclear tests
and wars
11
Global Human Rights IssuesCivil Wars,
Refugees, Poverty, Hunger, Child Labor and AIDS
are all linked with each other.
12
(No Transcript)
13
Graph 1 What makes 216 Japanese Students of
Konan University proud of Japan?
14
The comparison of national pride among British,
German and Japanese university students
  • Japanese students are proud of science and
    technology (62.0), Japanese Enterprises (50.9),
    economic performance (42.6), liberal democracy
    (37.0) and security and crime rate (36.6) .
    This shows that British and German students are
    proud of their post-industrial and multicultural
    society blessed with social welfare, while
    Japanese students seem to be proud of the
    components of an economic giant with high
    technology.

15
Graph 2. What are the three most important
factors of Japanese identity among 216 Japanese
students of Konan University in 2005-2006?
16
Graph 3 The three most important factors of
British identities for 46 students of Leeds
University
17
Graph 4 The three most important factors of 49
German Identities for Students of Bochum Univ.
18
The three important factors of national Identities
  • British Students of Leeds University, Yorkshire,
    UK (46) ??????
  • 1. English language (52.2) (n24) ??
  • 2. Cultural heritage (39.1) (n18)
    ????
  • 3. History (37.0) (n17)
    ??
  • 4. Liberal democracy (32.6) (n15)
    ???????
  • 5. Ethnic diversity (28.3) (n13) ?????
  • German Students of Bochum University, Germany
    (49) ???????
  • 1. History (61.2) (n30)
    ??
  • 2. Liberal democracy (51.0) (n25)
    ???????
  • 3. Human rights (44.9) (n22)
    ??
  • 4. German language (40.8) (n20)
    ????
  • 5. Cultural heritage (30.6) (n15)
  • American Students of University of Hawaii (49)
    ????????
  • 1 American English (61.2)(n30)
    ??
  • 2 Cultural Heritage (51.0)(n25)
    ????
  • 3 History (30.6)(n15)
    ??
  • 4 Citizenship (28.5)(n14)
    ???
  • Japanese Students of Konan University in Kobe,
    Japan (216)??????
  • 1. Japanese Language (66.2)(n143)
    ???

19
National Pride among British, German, Japanese
and American Students
  • British students of University of Leeds
    (n46)
  • multiculturalism (76.09) (n35) ?????
  • liberal democracy (47.83) (n22) ???????
  • English pound (32.61) (n15)
    ???????
  • Social Welfare (23.9) (n11) ????
  • German students of Bochum University
    (N49)
  • Social Welfare (67.47) (n33) ????
  • Liberal Democracy (61.22) (n30) ???????
  • Multiculturalism (55.1) (n27) ?????
  • American Students of University of Hawaii (N49)
  • Multiculturalism (55.1)(n27)
    ?????
  • Education (44.9) (n24)
    ????
  • Science and technology (44.9)(n24) ????
  • Japanese Students of Konan University
    (N216)
  • Science and technology (62.0)(n134) ????
  • Business Companies (50.9)(n110) ????

20
The Preamble of the Charter of Fundamental Rights
of the Union in the Constitution of the European
Union (2004)
  • The peoples of Europe, in creating an ever closer
    union among them, are resolved to share a
    peaceful future based on common values.
  • universal values of human dignity, freedom,
    equality and solidarity
  • The Union contributes to the preservation and to
    the development of these common values while
    respecting the diversity of the cultures and
    traditions of the people of Europe

21
Hague Appeal for Peace/Global Campaign for Peace
Education
  • A culture of peace will be achieved when
    citizens of the world understand global problems,
    have the skills to resolve conflicts and struggle
    for justice non-violently, live by international
    standards of human rights and equity, appreciate
    cultural diversity , and respect the Earth and
    each other. Such learning can only be achieved
    with systematic education for peace.

22
European Citizenship
  • The kernel of citizenship in the European Union
    lies in sharing and ensuring the common values of
    human rights and obligations, freedom, equality,
    autonomy and solidarity as peace-loving citizens
    within the framework of liberal democracy in
    diverse societies. The European citizenships
    declare that the Union respects the diversity of
    the cultures and traditions as well as each
    national and cultural identity.

23
The European educational initiatives
  • The European Exchange Program for Young Workers
    Erasmus is the established project for
    encouraging exchange and mobility among EU member
    states for students in the university sector.
  • Comett is a project intended to improve
    technical training, especially in the new
    technologies, by placing students and young
    workers

24
The Comparison between the dual identities of the
British and European citizens and those of
Japanese and Asian citizens in 2005
  • It is very meaningful to compare the responses of
    dual identities of the British citizen and
    European citizen with those of the Japanese and
    Asian citizens. (Nakamura 2005. p. 17).
  • Among 100 British citizens 58 (n58) of the
    British think of themselves as both British and
    European at the same time.
  • 59 (n59) of the Japanese students feel that
    they are both Japanese and Asian citizens at the
    same time in 2005.

25
Graph 8 Do you think of yourself as an Asian
citizen?The response from 216 Konan University
students. 2005-2006
26
Graph 9 Do you think of yourself as a Japanese
and Asian Citizen? The response from 216 Konan
University students. 2005-2006
27
The Voice of German and British University
Students on their National Identities
  • German identity lies in history influenced by
    the past (World War II) and the lesson to learn
    from these events. German student of Bochum
    university-
  • German identity is a strong awareness of
    historical responsibility.
  • German student of Bochum university-
  • For me being British is the ability to live in
    harmony with people of all nationalities with
    respect to the cultural roots of all those who
    choose to be or are British citizens.
  • (Scottish, male, 25, university student,
    Glasgow)
  • British people are multicultural, multiethnic
    and very diverse, BUT there is always an
    underlying British pride regardless of racial
    backgrounds.
  • (English, male, 21, university student,
    Liverpool)

28
The voice of a Japanese Student from the global
citizenship education class
  • The most important part of Japanese history is
    the wars we were involved in. It is true that we
    live today, but we can learn the value of peace
    from our tragic history. We must pass the lesson
    of our history on to the next generation.
  • (R Asayama. Sophomore, economics in 2004 class )

29
Necessary Knowledge for Global Citizenship
Education for peace
  • Positive and negative effects of globalization
    and cultural identities
  • Exploring the compatibility of national
    identities and global citizenships North-South
    Problems global poverty, interdependence, civil
    wars, child labor, refugee and AIDS
  • Direct violence war and terrorism and structural
    violence poverty and discrimination
  • The Concept of Peace and well-being
  • Environment and sustainable society

30
Necessary Knowledge for Global Citizenship
Education for peace
  • Nuclear weapons and conventional weapons
  • Hiroshima, Nagasaki Okinawa, Holocaust, and
    Nanjing massacre
  • Conflicts analysis, prevention and resolution
  • National interests and global interests
  • The philosophy of the Charter of the United
    Nations, the Constitutions of the EU
  • Partnership among international organizations,
    governments, private sectors and NGOs

31
Necessary Skills for Peace Education
  • Communication with active listening
  • Reconciliation by integrating opposed ideas
  • Harmony and cooperation
  • Critical thinking and problem-solving
  • Empathy and compassion
  • Patience and self-control
  • Media literacy with critical views
  • Leadership and membership
  • Mediation and negotiation
  • Conflict resolution

32
Global Literacy A New Paradigm for Global
Citizenship Education
  • Global literacy includes cross-cultural
    competence and sensitivity with multicultural,
    transcultural and transnational perspectives.
  • It also requires communicative competence in an
    International Language (ex.EIL) for global
    dialogue.
  • Also it develops cognitive, affective, social
    skills to reconcile from mutually shared strength
    and integrate seemingly opposing values on a
    higher level for the purpose of equitable
    coexistence.

33
The components of global literacy
  • 1 Cultural literacy (basic cultural competence
    and skills to live in ones home culture)
  • 2 Cross-cultural literacy (competence and skills
    to adjust between ones home culture and a target
    culture)
  • 3 Multi-cultural literacy (cultural sensitivity
    and skills to live responsibly in cultural
    diversity, reconciling cultural differences and
    integrating opposing cultural values in a
    multicultural and interdependent world)

34
The component of global literacy
  • 4 Delicate balance of ones personal, cultural,
    national and global identifications and roles
  • (competence to accept and balance
    pluralistic/dual/multiple identities)
  • 5 Communicative competence in EIL for global
    communication
  • (communication skills to create a peaceful
    and
  • equitable symbiosis)
  • 6 Awareness as a global citizen to participate in
    solving global and human problems
  • (awareness of global village concern for
    equitable participation and problem-solving
    competence as a new reframing global concept)

35
Conclusion
  • In conclusion, the compatibility of British and
    German identities with European citizenship can
    be a mirror that reflects the discrepancy and
    harmony of multiple identities in a multicultural
    civil society, and it serves as a lesson for
    every nation and government. As Japan is an
    island nation in Asia, there must be not a few
    things to learn from the compatibility of British
    and German identities with European citizenship
    in order to help stabilize, and hopefully unite,
    todays confused Asia. As Kofi Anan (2006), the
    Secretary General of the United Nations said,
    You cannot choose your neighbors.

36
Reference
  • Boulding, E. (2000). Cultures of Peace The
    Hidden Side of History.
  • New York Syracuse University Press.
  • Boulding, E. (1988). Building a Global Civic
    Culture Education for
  • an Interdependent World. New York Syracuse
    University Press.
  • Nakamura, K (2006) The compatibility of British
    Identities with
  • European Citizenship Qualitative and
    Quantitative Research.
  • Identity, Education and Citizenship-Multiple
    Interrelations. (Ed)
  • by Jonas Sprogoe Thyge Winther-Jensen.
    Frankfurt Peter
  • Lang. pp. 65-90
  • Nakamura, K. (2004). Fostering Global Literacy
    among Japanese University Students through Global
  • Citizenship Education. The Journal of the
    Institute for Language and Culture, Konan
    University. 8, 1-29.
  • Nakamura, K. (2002). Developing Global Literacy
    through English as an International Language
    (EIL) Education in Japan. International Education
    Journal Vol.3, No.5, 2002. WCCES Commission 6
    p.63-74.
  • Overby, C. (2001). A Call for Peace The
    Implication of Japans War Renouncing
    Constitution. Tokyo Kodansha International.
  • Willis, D. (2002). Citizenship Challenges for
    Japanese Education for the 21st Century Pure
    or Multicultural? Multicultural Citizenship
    Education in Japan. International Education
    Journal
  • Vol.3, No.5, 2002. WCCES Commission 6.
  • Willis, D. (2000). Creating Cultural Worlds
    Transformative Cultures and the Dawn of the
    Twenty-First Century. Creating Context. Arizona
    Zephyr Press.
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