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Chapter 23: Global Challenges

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Chapter 23: Global Challenges Section1: World War I Section2: World War II Section 3: Toward the Present – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 23: Global Challenges


1
Chapter 23Global Challenges
  • Section1 World War I
  • Section2 World War II
  • Section 3 Toward the Present

2
Section 1World War I
  • World War I, fought from 1914 to 1918, caused
    terrible destruction and changed Europe forever.
  • Fighting Broke out in the summer of 1914 in
    Europe.

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Spark of War
  • There was tension between Serbia and
    Austria-Hungary over territory.
  • A Serbian Nationalist assassinated the
    Austria-Hungary Archduke Francis Ferdinand and
    his wife sparked the beginning of World War I.
  • Seeking revenge, Austria-Hungary declared war on
    Serbia.
  • An alliance system immediately split Europe into
    two warring sides.

5
World War I Alliances
Central Powers Triple Alliance
Allied Powers Triple Entente
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Russia
  • _______________
  • U.S.

In time, countries from around the globe joined
in the fight, but some remained neutral.
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World War I
  • The Germans struck the first blow by sending a
    large army to Belgium and France.
  • However, the French and British troops stopped
    the Germans near Paris.
  • Trench Warfare
  • Trenches and Machine Guns
  • Bloody deadlock
  • Millions of lives lost
  • Lasted over 3 years

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9
A Turn in the War
  • Germans decide to use a new weapon (submarine) to
    stop the English from receiving food and
    supplies.
  • The United States had warned Germany not to
    attack unarmed ships however, Germany ignored
    these warnings.
  • In April 1917, the United States joined the
    Allied Powers.
  • The Russians were exhausted and pulled out of the
    war.
  • Germans tried a new attack on France but the U.S.
    pushed them out of France.
  • By 1918, the Germans had suffered serious defeats
    and by November, the Central Powers had
    collapsed.
  • The Allies pick up the win in WWI.

10
The Result of World War ITreaty of Versailles
  • Leaders of the Allies met in Versailles
  • U.S. President Woodrow Wilson proposed a plan
  • League of Nations
  • Redrew the Map of Europe
  • Took lands from Russia, Germany, broke up Austria
    Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
  • Forced Germany to accept blame for starting the
    war
  • Reaction to Treaty
  • Germans had to give up land, reduce the size of
    its army, give up its colonies, and pay for the
    war damages.
  • Germans thought the terms of the treaty was too
    harsh.
  • Some countries resented losing lands.
  • All nationalities did not get their own nations.
  • This treaty ending up leading to further conflict
    instead of peace.

11
Russian Revolution
  • After WWI, a revolution starts in Russia. People
    turned against the government.
  • Czar Nicholas II was forced to give up power.
  • The Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin built
    support and overthrew the new government.
  • Lenin created the worlds first Communist State,
    the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the
    Soviet Union or USSR.

12
Section 2World War II
  • Another Global Conflict takes place, World War
    II, lasted from 1939 to 1945.
  • World War II, the most destructive conflict in
    history.
  • World War II begins in Europe in 1939.

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Spark of War
  • Bitter about the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler
    aimed to take revenge for Germanys loss by
    expanding German territory.
  • Germany attacked Poland in 1939.
  • In response, Great Britain and France (Allies),
    declared war on Germany.
  • Germany, Italy, and Japan (Axis) joined Forces.

15
World War II Alliances
Axis Powers
Allied Powers
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • ____________
  • Russia
  • U.S.

In time, countries from around the globe joined
in the fight, but some remained neutral.
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17
A New Kind of War
  • New Machines
  • Tanks, trucks
  • Bombers
  • Germany used these new machines to quickly defeat
    Poland in a blitzkrieg.
  • Hitlers forces soon overran other European
    countries too
  • France fell in 1940
  • British forces held off the Germans
  • Germany attacks the Soviet Union. After brutal
    loses, the Soviet Union force Germany to retreat.

18
A Turn in the War
  • On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the U.S. Navy
    at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
  • Under President Franklin Roosevelt, the U.S.
    joined the Allies.
  • Battles continued for two and a half years in
    Europe, N. Africa, the Middle East, and the South
    Pacific Ocean.
  • In June 1944, the U.S. and British troops landed
    in France and pushed into Germany.
  • The Russians attack Germany from the East.
  • Surrounded, the Germans surrender in May 1945.
  • U.S. used atomic bombs in 2 Japanese cities in
    June 1945.
  • Hiroshima
  • Nagasaki
  • Japan surrendered. The war was over. The Allies
    win WWII.

19
Results of the War
  • Casualties
  • 34 million soldiers injured
  • 22 million soldiers dead
  • 30 million civilians dead
  • The Holocaust
  • Nazi effort to wipe out the Jews in a Genocide
  • Special camps
  • 6 million Jews died
  • Millions of others were targeted as well Slavs,
    Gypsies and people with disabilities
  • Anne Frank
  • The war had weakened economies and governments of
    many nations
  • The U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged as the
    worlds strongest powers
  • The Cold War
  • Once allies became enemies
  • Period of tension between the superpowers but no
    direct fighting
  • Arms race
  • S.U. set up communism in Eastern Europe and the
    U.S. helped democratic states in Western Europe
  • Extended into Asia
  • Korea was divided North (S.U set up communism)
    and South (U.S. took control)
  • Mao Zedong formed a communist government in China.

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21
Section 3Toward the Present Day
  • Because Europe had been weakened so much by WWII,
    they were unable to hold on to their overseas
    empires from Imperialism.
  • Asia
  • India was seen as a crowned jewel to Great
    Britain.
  • Mohandas Gandhi led an independence movement in
    India.
  • India and Pakistan
  • Asia
  • Vietnamese freed themselves from France in 1954
  • Indonesia won in1949 from the Dutch
  • Middle East
  • 1948 Jewish state of Israel is created
  • Though Arabs resented this, Israel defeated them
  • Africa
  • Ghana won independence in 1957 from G.B.
  • Morocco and Tunisia in 1956 from France
  • European countries (Italy, Belgium, and Portugal)
    lost their colonies in Africa by 1981.

22
Cold War
  • During the Cold War, some countries in Africa
    sided with the U.S., others sided with the S.U.
    Some remained neutral.
  • The Cold War divided the world over ideologies
    capitalism vs. communism.
  • Berlin (Germanys Capital) became a source of
    tension and divided. East (S.U) and the West
    (U.S.).
  • The Berlin Wall was built by the Soviets which
    became a symbol of the Cold War

23
The Cold War
  • Korean War In 1950, N. Korea invaded S. Korea
  • China helped N. Korea and the United Nations
    helped S. Korea.
  • After 3 years of fighting, the war ended with no
    winner. Korea remained divided.
  • Vietnam War In 1957, Communists try to overthrow
    the south, but U.S. intervene.
  • Communist prevailed and Vietnam united as a
    communist nation.

24
The Cold War
  • Soviet troops crushed democratic movements in
    Hungary and Czechoslovakia. In 1979 when Soviets
    invaded Afghanistan, Afghan rebels aided the U.S.
    in defeating the Soviets (1989).
  • Ronald Reagan (1980s) expanded U.S. military and
    weapon, but the S.U. could not keep up.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev (Soviet leader) created reforms
    that toppled many communist states.
  • Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Eastern Germany,
    Hungary, Poland, and Romania collapse
  • The Berlin War was torn down and united as a
    democratic nation in 1980.
  • In 1991 the Soviet Union broke into 15
    independent countries.
  • Japan embraced democracy (still a democracy
    today)
  • But China has remained Communist, but have opened
    their markets to the West

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26
World Wide Terrorism
  • What is terrorism?
  • Shootings, bombings, kidnappings, and hijackings
  • Though terrorism has been practiced for thousands
    of years, attacks became more common and deadly
    in the 1900s.
  • Early example is the IRA (Ireland Republican
    Army)
  • The British finally granted N. Ireland self
    government in 1998
  • The IRA recently disarmed in 2005

27
A New Kind of War
  • Terrorism against Americans increased in the
    1990s.
  • Osama bin Laden (Muslim extremist used al Qaeda)
  • 1993 bombed World Trade Center in NYC, killing 6
    and injuring 1,000
  • Deadliest terrorist attacks in history occurred
    on September 11, 2001 (4 hijacked planes). More
    than 3,000 people died in the attacks.
  • U.S. President George W. Bush responded by
    declaring war on terrorism
  • Saddam Hussein was another threat to Americans.
    2003 U.S. invaded Iraq and removed Hussein from
    power.
  • In 2005, after years of fighting, Iraq is slowly
    rebuilding.
  • Leaders from around the world are working
    together to combat this problem.

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29
The Global Economy
  • Its a small world.
  • New forms of communication bringing people closer
    together
  • Exchanging of goods and services
  • Depend on each other for the well-being of the
    planet
  • In the global economy, nations around the world
    are linked in a single economic network.
  • New trade agreements
  • World Population reached 6 Billion in 2000
  • Problems
  • Protecting the environment
  • Pollution
  • Rain Forests
  • Overgrazing

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31
Successes of our Global Economy
  • Successes
  • Space
  • S.U. 1st space satellite
  • 2 Americans walk on moon
  • Technology
  • Portable radios
  • Digital watches
  • Computer speed and shrinking size
  • Medicine
  • Antibiotics
  • Structure of DNA
  • Repair unhealthy tissue
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