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World War II, The Atomic Bomb, and the Origins of the Cold War

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Title: Six Big Ideas Regarding the Origins of the Cold War: Author: AHS Last modified by: CesarC Created Date: 1/15/2009 5:16:22 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War II, The Atomic Bomb, and the Origins of the Cold War


1
World War II, The Atomic Bomb, and the Origins of
the Cold War
  • The creation of the Grand Alliance, the Victory
    of the Grand Alliance, the Atomic Bomb and the
    Coming of the Cold War were not inevitable or
    clearly foreseeable.

2
The Orthodox View
  • The Soviet Union is responsible Soviet
    Insecurity drove them to confront the United
    States.
  • There was nothing the US could have done. The
    Ideological perspective here is that Communism is
    a danger/aggressive.
  • Thus Soviet leaders are driven position to put
    forward dogma which pictures the outside world as
    evil,
  • destined to be wracked with growing internal
    convulsions until it is given final coup de grace
    by rising power of socialism and yield to a
    better world.
  • This thesis provides justification for that
    increase of military and police power in Russia
    state,

3
The Revisionist View
  • The United States is responsible
  • United States needs to have markets and resources
    to feed its economy.
  • The Soviet Union impeded these goals and
    therefore had to be confronted. Economic Issues
    drive US policy.
  • The Ideological perspective here is that
    Capitalism is the danger/aggressor.

4
Post-Revisionism
  • There is truth in both arguments.
  • The Soviet Union under Stalin was paranoid and
    difficult to deal with.
  • The United States was driven in large part by the
    fear of another depression.
  • Other issues played a serious role in the origins
    of the Cold War
  • Domestic Policy, Security, Allies, and
    perceptions.

5
The End of WWII/The Bomb/ Cold War
  • The former contend that the bomb was necessary as
    a military means to hasten the end of the war
    with Japan, while scholars of the latter - the
    "atomic diplomacy"
  • claim the bomb was meant as a political-diplomatic
    threat aimed against the Soviet Union in the
    emerging Cold War.
  • Bernstein advances a third interpretation,
    arguing that the bomb, although primarily aimed
    at the speedy surrender of Japan, had a "bonus"
    effect of intimidating the Soviet Union.

6
Big Ideas Regarding the Origins of the Cold War
  • Number 1
  • Nuclear weapons changed how international
    relations were conducted. The nature of security
    changes from physical to psychological.
  • Number 2
  • In seeking the their legitimate security needs,
    both the United States and the Soviet Union made
    each other increasingly insecure.
  • Number 3
  • The United States and the Soviet Union both
    created empires in Europe, the USSR by force and
    the US by invitation.

7
The Roots of the Cold War World War II and the
Diplomacy Three Visions of the World From 3
leaders
8
1.Franklin Roosevelt US President
  • World View - Collective Security /
    Internationalism (Economic Integration) - The
    Four Policeman (US, GB, USSR, China)
  • envisioned a postwar order in which the victors,
    along with China, would act as a board of
    directors of the world,
  • enforcing peace against any potential Danger

9
2. Winston Churchill
  • World View - Balance of Power
  • reconstruct the traditional balance of power in
    Europe.
  • rebuilding GB, FR,, and even defeated GRM.
  • With the US these countries could counter balance
    the Soviet colossus to the east.1
  • Danger to the World Order American Return to
    Isolation, England Alone Separate Peace

10
3.Joseph Stalin
  • World View Power Politics
  • communist ideology and traditional Russian
    foreign policy.
  • He strove to cash in on his countrys victory by
    extending Russian influence into Central Europe.
  • Turn the countries he conquered by soviet armies
    into buffer zones to protect Russia against
    future German aggression.1
  • Danger to the World Order
  • Stalin's Paranoia
  • The Role of Intelligence

11
The Conferences
  • 1942 - Russia The Grand Alliance Complete
  • Molotov may 20-june 2 1942 (London and
    Washington) - The Second Front
  • Churchill Roosevelt June 18-25 1942
    (Washington) - The Second Front The Atomic Bomb
  • Churchill Stalin Aug 12-15 1942 (Moscow) -
    The Second Front and Torch

12
The War Conferences
  • Casablanca January 14-25 1943 - Churchill
    Roosevelt
  • Cairo November 22-26 1943 - Roosevelt,
    Churchill Chiang Kai-shek
  • Tehran - Nov-Dec 1943
  • -Big Three (FDR, Churchill, Stalin) Agreed to
    an American-British ( Canadian) invasion through
    France.
  • The plan Western Allies meet up w. Soviet Allies
    in a north-south dividing line in defeated
    Germany,
  • Planned partition postwar Germany.

13
Yalta Conference Feb 4-11 1945 - Roosevelt,
Stalin Churchill
  • 11 million Soviet soldiers occupying much of E
    C Europe.
  • Stalin wanted to create of buffer zone of
    pro-Soviet govts.
  • FDR -self-determination for liberated Europe
  • democratic institutions of their own choice.
  • free elections became a dividing point.

14
Yalta continued
  • FDR wanted Soviet help vs. Japan,
  • Soviets would get-2 JPNS islands, warm-water
    ports, RR rights in Manchuria.
  • Plan Creation -United Nations was agreed upon
  • Germany would be partitioned into four zones (GB,
    US, Fr USSR)
  • .
  • The attempt to address the security needs
    of the Soviet Union, create a balance of power,
    establish a workable international system.

15
Potsdam July 17-Aug 2 1945
  • Truman, Churchill / Attlee Stalin
  • -Stalin had two ideas a new war should be
    prevented, and the Soviet Union should get share
    of the spheres of influence,
  • -Soviets had lost more people and wanted post-war
    communist neighbors.

-The United States and Great Britain had to pay
for the enormous Soviet war effort. -Truman,
demanded free elections in E. Europe. -Stalin
responded, A freely elected govt. in any of
these East European countries would be
anti-Soviet,
16
Division of Germany
17
The Origins of the Cold War
18
The Long Telegram George Kennan (22 February
1946)
  • Created because Soviet did not support a World
    Bank and Monetary Fund
  • The USSR saw itself at a perpetual war with
    capitalism
  • The Soviet government's structure prohibited
    objective or accurate pictures of internal and
    external reality to keep order
  • It would be too costly to disarm Soviet Union
  • Suspicion in key part of Soviet Foreign policy
    and must be dealt with

19
-The Soviets viewed US was taking too heavy a
hand in determining what form of government
nations ought to adopt. -Stalin went on to
create what Winston Churchill called the Iron
Curtain from Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on
the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended
across the continent. Behind that line lie all
the capitals of the ancient states of central and
eastern Europe -- Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna,
Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia. From
what I have seen of our Russian friends and
allies during the war I am convinced that there
is nothing they admire so much as strength and
nothing for which they have less respect than
military weakness.
  • CHURCHILL Iron Curtain Speech
  • March 5, 1946

20
USSR Takes Eastern Europe after WWII
  • IRON CURTAIN-(Churchill)Separate East communist
    and West democracy
  • USSR Army stayed in areas they freed from Nazis

21
Division of Europe
22
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23
By early 1947 the Truman admin had three major
decisions concerning Europe
  • 1. to restrict Soviet and Eastern European
    access to American trade and capital,
  • 2. restore Western European productivity and
    commerce, and to 3. reindustrialize Germany.
  • Thus, in seeking approval for aid to Greece and
    Turkey from Congress, Acheson and other officials
    again emphasized the Communist danger.

24
The Truman Doctrine milestone in American history
four reasons March 12, 1947
  • economically and militarily aid countries
    fighting communism (Greece)
  • Truman used the American fear of communism both
    at home and abroad to convince Americans they
    must embark upon a Cold War foreign policy.
  • 2. Congress was giving the President great powers
    to wage this Cold War
  • -Truman's personal popularity began spiraling
    upward after his speech.

25
3. first postwar US anticommunist intervention
other nations civil war
  • In the future, America would intervene in similar
    wars for same reason and different results
  • Greek affairs started bad but success in the
    (stopped communist rebellion)
  • 1947 US discussed sending two divisions of
    Americans to save the situation.
  • unnecessary, Yugoslavia left the communist bloc
    in early 1948, stopped aiding Greek rebels
  • As it was, the success in Greece seemed to prove
    that Americans could, if they wished, control
    such conflicts by defining the problem as
    "Communist"

26
4. Doctrine used to justify aid program to
prevent the fall of the Euro and US economies
  • Later programs expanded globally.
  • Problems of reconstruction and U.S. need of world
    trade were complicated to Americans,
  • Anticommunism easy to understand and supported.
  • So Americans embarked upon the Cold War for the
    good reasons given in the Truman Doctrine, which
    they understood, and for real reasons which they
    did not understand.
  • From 1947 on, therefore, any threat to that
    Western system could be easily explained as
    communist-inspired,

27
George Kennan's Containment -
  • "only five centers of industrial and military
    power in the world which are important to us from
    a standpoint of national security." US, GB,
    GRM, USSR, JP
  • Only nations who could develop a possible threat
  • Only one was hostile at that time (Soviet Union)
  • Key interest of the US in world affairs was to
    see to it that no others fell under such control.
  • CONTAINMENT-Stopping the spread of Communism
  • Soviets goal was to spread communism

28
Marshall Plan, June 5, 1947
  • -IN 1947 George C Marshall met with Stalin in
    Moscow discuss Germany issue
  • -Marshal felt Stalin hoping for economic fall of
    W Europe to make spread of soviet influence
    easier
  • -Goal to help W European economic fall prevent
    spread of soviet influence
  • -This influence would take American allied
    nations and world trade partners
  • -cold devastate us security and econ
  • -US dedicated to help supported W European
    economies with massive amounts of capitol
  • -Plan was a success W Europe began to thrive
  • .

29
Marshal Plan Countries we helped Recover after
WWII
30
Early Soviet Response Cominform
  • -Soviet-dominated organization of Communist
    parties -September, 1947 Poland
  • -conference in response to question Eastern
    European governments taking Marshall Aid in July
    1947.
  • -Purpose of Cominform was to coordinate actions
    between Communist parties under Soviet direction.
  • -Cominform was dissolved in 1956 after Soviet
    rapprochement with Yugoslavia and the process of
    De-Stalinization

31
The War Scare of March 1948 (Czechoslovakia)
  • (European Recovery Plan) Bill1948, supported
    when Soviet influence overthrew democratic gov in
    Czechoslovakia.
  • "pattern" of Soviet aggression and Communist
    subversion
  • The President expressed support for the Brussels
    Pact, the forerunner of NATO, and asked for
    congressional approval
  • of the Marshall Plan,
  • universal military training (UMT),
  • selective service because "

32
Berlin Air lift 1948
  • Stalin wanted all of Berlin so he cut the city
    off from basic supplies(Berlin Blockade)
  • Force them to join Communist side
  • West Berlin FR US, GB and East Berlin USSR
  • US, GB drop supplies by air.
  • Berlin would be separated Berlin Wall.1961

33
Alliances
  • Military
  • 1949- NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization-
    Demo countries
  • 1955-Warsaw Pact- Communist E. Euro countries
  • Economic
  • 1948 OECD- Organization for Economic Co-operation
    and Development Western European nations
  • 1949 COMECON- Council of Mutual Economic
    Assistance- Soviet Bloc nations and other
    communist nations

34
USA VS USSR COLD WAR (Super Powers)
  • USA promote self determination
  • Aid rebuild Euro gov to organize trade
  • W. Europe key trade partner help both economies
  • Capitalist
  • USSR Promote Communism
  • Control E. Europe protect USSR
  • Use E. Europe to rebuild USSR
  • Resources and capital
  • Socialism

35
The United Nations
  • 50 nations-3/4 of world population
  • English, Russian, French, Spanish, Chinese
  • 8-weeks to form charter
  • Oct. 24th UN Day
  • Six major parts

36
Part 1-Security Council
  • Police authority to prevent war.
  • 11 members with 5 perm seats, and 6 open seats
    with a two-year term.
  • US, USSR, G.B., France, China
  • Need seven members to decide, but all five perm
    seats have to agree.
  • Each perm seat has a veto.

37
Part 2-General Assembly
  • Town hall style meeting
  • Elects the other six security members.
  • Appoints Trusteeship council and all other
    council and committee leaders.
  • Appoints the world court judges.
  • Elects a Secretariat

38
Part 3-Economic Council
  • Study economic, social, cultural, and health
    problems in the world.

39
Part 4-Inter. Ct of Justice
  • Decides legal disputes and provides
    recommendations to the General Assembly.

40
Part 5-Secretariat
  • Administrative work of the UN.
  • Prepares General Assembly meetings.

41
Part 6-Trustee
  • Look after areas under colonial rule.
  • No longer part of the UN.
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