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THE COLD WAR AND THE POST-WAR YEARS 1945-1960

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Title: THE COLD WAR AND THE POST-WAR YEARS 1945-1960


1
THE COLD WAR AND THE POST-WAR YEARS 1945-1960
2
THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR THE TWO POWERS
  • The USA emerged from WWII as by far the worlds
    greatest power.
  • It accounted for half the worlds mfg. capacity.
  • It alone possessed the atomic bomb.
  • It believed it could lead the rest of the world
    to a future of international cooperation,
    expanding democracy, and ever-increasing living
    standards.
  • Organizations such as the UN and World Bank were
    created to promote these goals.

3
ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR THE TWO POWERS
  • American leaders also believed that the nations
    security depended on the security of Europe and
    Asia, and that American prosperity required
    global economic reconstruction.

4
THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR THE TWO POWERS
  • The only power that in any way could rival the
    USA was the USSR.
  • It armies occupied most of eastern Europe,
    including the eastern part of Germany.
  • Its crucial role in WWII gave it considerable
    prestige in Europe.
  • Its claim that communism had wrested a vast
    backward nation into modernity also gave it
    prestige among colonial peoples struggling for
    independence.
  • Like the USA, the USSR looked forward to a new
    world order modeled on their own society and
    values.

5
THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR THE TWO POWERS
  • Having lost 25 million dead and suffered vast
    devastation during WWII, Stalins govt., was in
    no position to embark on new military adventures.
  • But Stalin remained determined to establish a
    sphere of influence in eastern Europe, through
    which Germany twice invaded Russia in the past 30
    years.

6
THE ROOTS OF CONTAINMENT
  • It is arguable that that two major powers to
    emerge from WWII would come into conflict.
  • Born of a common foe rather than common long-term
    interests, values, or history, their wartime
    alliance began to unravel from the day peace was
    declared.
  • The USSR installed puppet govts in Poland,
    Romania, and Bulgaria.
  • They claimed this was no different from American
    domination of latin America or GBs determination
    to maintain its own empire.
  • Many Americans were convinced that Stalin was
    violating his pledge of free elections in Poland
    agreed to at the Yalta Conference of 1945.

7
THE ROOTS OF CONTAINMENT
  • 1946 In his famous Long Telegram from Moscow,
    American diplomat George Kennan advised the
    Truman Admin., that the USSR could not be dealt
    with as a normal government.

8
THE ROOTS OF CONTAINMENT
  • He argued that Communist ideology drove the USSR
    to try and expand their power throughout the
    world.
  • Only the USA had the ability to stop them.
  • He believed that the USSR could not be dislodged
    from eastern Europe.

9
THE ROOTS OF CONTAINMENT
  • Kennans telegram laid the foundation for what
    became known as the policy of containment
  • According to this policy, the USA committed
    itself to preventing any further expansion of
    Soviet power.

10
THE ROOTS OF CONTAINMENT
  • Shortly afterwards, in a speech at Fulton,
    Missouri, GBs former Prime Minister Winston
    Churchill declared that a iron curtain had
    descended across Europe, partitioning the free
    West from the communist East.

11
THE ROOTS OF CONTAINMENT
  • Churchills speech helped to popularize the idea
    of an impending long-term struggle between the
    USA and USSR.
  • But it was not until 3/1947, in a speech did
    President Truman embrace the Cold War as the
    foundation of American foreign policy and
    describe it as a worldwide struggle over the
    future of freedom.

12
THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
  • Convinced that Stalin could not be trusted and
    that the USA had a responsibility to provide
    leadership to a world he tended to view in stark
    black and white terms, Truman was determined to
    put the policy of containment into effect.

13
THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
  • The immediate occasion for Trumans decision came
    in early 1947 when GB informed the USA that
    because of its economy had been shattered by
    WWII, it could no longer afford its traditional
    international role.
  • GB had no choice but to end military and
    financial aid to two crucial govts.
  • Greece a monarchy threatened by a communist-led
    rebellio
  • Turkey from which the Soviets were demanding
    joint control.

14
THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
  • The USSR had little to do with the internal
    problems of Greece and Turkey.
  • Their problems were largely homegrown.
  • Neither had held truly free elections.
  • But they occupied strategically important sites
    at the gateway to southeastern Europe and the
    oil-rich Middle east.

15
THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
16
TENENTS OF THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
  • 1. It is the policy of the USA to support free
    peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation
    by armed minorities or by outside pressures.
  • 2. Truman asked Congress for 400 million to
    support democracy in Turkey and Greece since GB
    was no longer able.

17
THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
  • The language of the Doctrine suggested that the
    USA had assumed a permanent global
    responsibility.
  • It set a precedent for American assistance to
    anticommunist regimes throughout the world.

18
THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
  • These nations could expect US aid no matter how
    undemocratic.
  • It also set a precedent for the creation of a set
    of global military alliances directed against the
    USSR.
  • It would be the guiding spirit of American
    foreign policy.

19
CONGRESS REACTS TO THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
  • Congress responded to Trumans call
  • National Security Act of 1947
  • Created the Department of Defense.
  • Created the National Security Council (NSA)
  • Created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
  • 1948 The first peacetime draft was enacted.
  • Voice of America was authorized by Congress to
    beam US broadcasts behind the iron curtain.
  • Atomic Energy Commission established civilian
    control over nuclear development and gave the
    president sole authority over the use of atomic
    weapons.

20
THE MARSHALL PLAN
  • The rhetoric of the Truman Doctrine alarmed many
    Americans.
  • But the threat of American military action
    overseas formed only one pillar of the policy of
    containment.

21
THE MARSHALL PLAN
  • Sec. of State George C. Marshall spelled out the
    other in a speech at Harvard Univ., in June 1947.
  • Marshall pledged the USA to contribute billions
    of dollars to finance the economic recovery of
    Europe.

22
THE MARSHALL PLAN
  • Two years after the war, much of Europe still lay
    in ruins.
  • Food shortages were widespread, and inflation was
    rampant.
  • These conditions strengthened the communist
    parties of France and Italy.

23
THE MARSHALL PLAN
  • The Plan allocated 12.5 billion over four years
    in 16 cooperating countries.
  • The Plan would be one of the most successful
    foreign aid programs in history.
  • Communism lost ground in France and Italy.
  • 1950 western European production exceeded
    pre-war levels.

24
THE MARSHALL PLAN
  • Since the USSR refused to participate, fearing
    American control over the economies of eastern
    Europe, the Marshall Plan further solidified the
    division of the continent.

25
THE REBUILDING OF JAPAN
  • Under the guidance of Gen. Douglass MacArthur,
    the USA began the economic reconstruction of
    Japan.
  • Japan adopted a new democratic constitution and
    eliminated absentee landlordism so that most
    farmers could become landowners.

26
THE REBUILDING OF JAPAN
  • By the 1950s, thanks to American economic
    assistance, the adoption of new technologies, and
    low spending on the military (the new
    constitution barred it from possessing an army)
    Japans economic recovery was in full swing.

27
THE BERLIN AIRLIFT
  • Despite the Marshall Plan, the Cold War
    intensified and became more militaristic.
  • At the end of WWII, the Allies assumed control of
    a section of occupied Germany, and of, Berlin.

28
THE BERLIN AIRLIFT
  • 6/1948 The USA, GB and FR introduced a separate
    currency in their zones, a prelude to the
    creation of a new West German govt. that would be
    aligned with them.
  • In response, the Soviets cut off road and rail
    traffic from the American, British, and French
    zones of occupied Germany and Berlin.
  • Stalin kept open supply routes from the east
    since the Soviets occupied that part of the
    divided country and city.

29
THE BERLIN AIRLIFT
30
THE BERLIN AIRLIFT
  • An 11 month airlift followed, with Western planes
    supplying fuel and food to their zones of the
    city.
  • 5/1949 Stalin lifted the blockade.
  • The Truman Admin., won a major Cold War victory.

31
THE BERLIN AIRLIFT
  • Soon, two nations emerged, West and east Germany,
    each allied with a side in the Cold war.
  • Berlin itself remained divided until 1991.
  • West Berlin survived as an isolated democratic
    enclave within East Germany.

32
THE CREATION OF NATO
  • 1949 A crucial year in the Cold War.
  • The USSR tested its first atomic bomb, ending the
    American monopoly of the weapon.
  • Also, the USA, Canada and 10 Western European
    nations established NATO pledging mutual
    defense against any future attack.

33
THE CREATION OF NATO
  • Many Europeans feared German rearmament.
  • West Germany became a crucial part of NATO
  • France saw NATO as a double containment in
    which West Germany would serve as a bulwark
    against the Soviets while integration into the
    Western alliance tamed and civilized the German
    people.

34
THE WARSAW PACT
  • The Soviets formalized their own eastern European
    alliance, the Warsaw Pact in 1955.

35
THE CHINESE REVOLUTION
  • 10/1949 Communists led by Mao Zedong emerged
    victorious in the long Chinese civil war a
    serious setback for the policy of containment.
  • Republicans assailed the Truman Admin., for
    losing China.
  • The Truman Admin., refused to recognize the new
    govt and blocked its membership in the UN.

36
NSC-68
  • In the wake of all these events, the NSC approved
    a call for a permanent military build-up to
    enable to the USA to pursue a global crusade
    against communism.
  • The memo described the Cold War as an epic
    struggle between freedom and communism.
  • At stake was the survival of the free world.
  • It helped spur a dramatic increases in American
    military spending.

37
THE KOREAN WAR
38
THE KOREAN WAR
  • Initially, American postwar policy focused on
    Europe.
  • But it was in Asia that the Cold War suddenly
    turned hot.
  • 1945 Korea had been divided into Soviet and
    American zones two different govts.

39
THE KOREAN WAR
  • 6/1950 The No. Korean army with Soviet-made
    tanks invaded So. Korea and took nearly all the
    country.
  • Goal Reunify the country under communist control.

40
THE KOREAN WAR
  • Viewing Korea as a clear test of the policy of
    containment, the Truman Admin., persuaded the UN
    Security Council to authorize the use of force to
    repel the invasion.
  • The Soviets, who could have blocked the vote,
    were boycotting the meetings to protest the
    refusal to seat Communist China.

41
THE KOREAN WAR
  • The UN Security Council voted 9-0 to repel the
    invasion and restore peace.
  • It created a UN force under the command of Gen.
    Douglas MacArthur Trumans choice.
  • Invoking NSC-68, Truman ordered American troops
    into action 4/5 of UN forces.

42
THE KOREAN WAR
  • American troops did the bulk of the fighting of
    this first battlefield of the Cold War.
  • 9/1950 MacArthur launched a daring counterattack
    at Inchon, behind No. Korean lines.
  • No. Korea forces retreated northward, UN forces
    soon occupied most of No. Korea.

43
THE KOREAN WAR
  • Truman now hoped to unite Korea under a pro-US
    govt.
  • 10/1950 When UN forces neared the China border,
    hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops
    intervened driving the UN troops back in bloody
    fighting.

44
THE KOREAN WAR
  • MacArthur demanded the right to push north again
    and possibly invade China.
  • Truman refused fearing an all-out war on the
    Asian mainland.
  • MacArthur did not fully accept civilian control
    of the military.

45
THE KOREAN WAR
  • When MacArthur went public with his criticism of
    the president, Truman removed him from command.

46
THE KOREAN WAR
  • The war then settled into a stalemate around the
    38th parallel, the original border between the
    two Koreas.
  • 1953 An armistice was agreed to, essentially
    restoring the pre-war status quo.
  • There has never been a formal peace treaty ending
    the Korean War.

47
COSTS OF THE KOREAN WAR
  • 36, 940 American troops were killed.
  • 415,000 So. Korean troops and 520,000 No. Korean
    troops were killed.
  • 2 million civilians (So. No.) many from
    starvation after American bombing destroyed
    irrigation systems essential to rice cultivation.
  • Hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops were
    killed.
  • The Korean War made clear that the Cold War,
    which began in Europe, had become a global
    conflict.

48
COLD WAR CRITICS
  • Stalin had consolidated a brutal dictatorship
    that jailed and murdered millions of Soviet
    citizens.
  • His total control of life in the USSR presented a
    stark opposite of democracy and free enterprise.

49
COLD WAR CRITICS
  • As a number of contemporary critics, few of them
    sympathetic to Soviet communism, pointed out,
    however, casting the Cold War in terms of a
    worldwide battle freedom and slavery had
    unfortunate consequences.

50
COLD WAR CRITICS
  • George Kennan, who inspired the policy of
    containment, observed that such language made it
    impossible to view international crises on a
    case-by-case basis, or to determine which
    genuinely involved either freedom or American
    interests.

51
COLD WAR CRITICS
  • Walter Lippmann, an prominent journalist, leveled
    a penetrating critique of Trumans Cold War
    policies.
  • He objected to turning foreign policy into an
    ideological crusade.

52
COLD WAR CRITICS
  • To view every challenge to the status quo as a
    contest with the USSR, he argued, would require
    the USA to recruit and subsidize an array of
    satellites, clients, dependents, and puppets.
  • The USA would have to intervene continuously in
    the affairs of nations whose problems did not
    arise from the USSR.

53
COLD WAR CRITICS
  • World War II, he argued, had shaken the
    foundations of European empires.
  • In a tide of revolutionary nationalism,
    communists were certain to an important role.
  • It would be a serious mistake for the USA to
    align itself against the movement for colonial
    independence in the name of anti-communism.

54
EISENHOWER AND THE COLD WAR
55
EISENHOWER AND THE COLD WAR
  • Soon after entering office, Eisenhower approved
    an armistice that ended the Korean War.
  • But this failed to ease international tensions.
  • Ike took office when the Cold War had entered an
    extremely dangerous phase.
  • 1952 The USA had exploded the first hydrogen
    bomb a weapon far more powerful than those
    dropped on Japan.
  • 1953 The Soviets matched this achievement.
  • Both sides feverishly developed long-range
    bombers capable of delivering weapons of mass
    destruction around the world.

56
EISENHOWER AND THE COLD WAR
  • 1954 Sec. of State John Foster Dulles announced
    an updated version of the policy of containment.
  • Massive retaliation, as it was called, declared
    that any Soviet attack on an American ally would
    be countered by a nuclear assault on the USSR
    itself.

57
EISENHOWERAND THE COLD WAR
  • In some ways, this reliance on the nuclear threat
    was a way for the budget-conscious Ike to reduce
    spending on conventional military forces.
  • During his presidency, the size of the armed
    forces fell by nearly half.

58
EISENHOWER AND TEHE COLD WAR
  • But the number of American warheads rose from
    1,000 in 1953 to 18,000 in 1960.
  • Massive retaliation ran the risk that any small
    conflict, or even a miscalculation, could
    escalate into a war that would destroy the USA
    and USSR.

59
EISENHOWER AND THE COLD WAR
  • Critics called the doctrine brinkmanship,
    warning of the danger of Dulless apparent
    willingness to bring the world to the brink of
    war.
  • The reality that all-out war would result in
    mutual assured destruction (MAD) did succeed in
    making both sides cautious in their dealings with
    each other.
  • It also inspired widespread fear of impending
    nuclear war.
  • Govt., programs encouraging Americans to build
    bomb shelters in their backyards and school
    drills that to train children to hide under their
    desks in the event of an atomic attacked
    convinced Americans that nuclear attack was
    survivable.

60
EISENHOWER AND THE COLD WAR
61
EISENHOWER AND THE COLD WAR
62
EISENHOWER AND THE USSR
63
EISENHOWER AND THE USSR
  • In his inaugural address, Eisenhower repeated the
    familiar Cold War formula Freedom is pitted
    against slavery lightness against dark.
  • But with the end of the Korean War and the death
    of Stalin, Eisenhower was convinced that rather
    than being blind zealots, the Soviets were
    reasonable and could be dealt with in
    conventional diplomatic terms.

64
EISENHOWER AND THE USSR
  • 1955 Eisenhower met with Nikita Khrushchev, the
    new Soviet leader, at the first summit
    conference since Potsdam.
  • 1956 Khrushchev delivered a speech to the
    Communist Party Congress in Moscow that detailed
    Stalins crimes, including purges of political
    opponents numbering in the millions.

65
EISENHOWER AND THE USSR
  • Khrushchevs revelations created a crisis of
    belief among communists throughout the world.
  • In the USA, three-quarters of the Communist Party
    membership abandoned the party.

66
EISENHOWER AND THE USSR
  • Khrushchev also called for peaceful coexistence
    with the USA.
  • This raised the possibility of easing Cold War
    tensions.
  • But the thaw was abruptly shaken that fall when
    Soviet troops put down an anticommunist uprising
    in Hungary.

67
EISENHOWER AND THE USSR
  • Many conservatives Republicans had urged
    Europeans to resist communist rule.
  • Dulles had declared liberation rather than
    containment to be the goal of American policy.

68
EISENHOWER AND THE USSR
  • But Eisenhower refused to extend aid to the
    Hungarian rebels.
  • This was an indication that he believed it
    impossible to roll back Soviet domination of
    eastern Europe.

69
EISENHOWER AND THE USSR
  • 1958 The USA and USSR agreed to a halt to the
    testing of nuclear weapons.
  • This lasted until 1961.
  • It had been demanded by the National Committee
    for a Sane Nuclear Policy.
  • It had published a study which highlighted the
    dangers to public health posed by radioactive
    fall out from nuclear tests.
  • 1959 Khrushchev toured the USA and had a
    friendly meeting with Eisenhower at Camp David.

70
EISENHOWER AND THE USSR
  • But the spirit of cooperation ended abruptly in
    1960, when the Soviets shot down an American U-2
    spy plane over their territory.
  • Eisenhower first denied that the plane had been
    involved in espionage.

71
EISENHOWER AND THE USSR
  • Eisenhower refused to apologize even after the
    Soviets produced the captured pilot Francis
    Gary Powers.
  • The incident torpedoed another summit meeting.

72
THE COLD WAR AND THE THIRD WORLD
  • The Cold War became the determining factor in
    American relations with the Third World.
  • The policy of containment easily slid over into
    opposition to any government, whether communist
    or not, that seemed to threaten American
    strategic or economic interests.
  • This played out in Guatemala, Iran, the Middle
    East and Vietnam.

73
THE COLD WAR AND THE THIRD WORLD
  • Jacobo Arbenz Guzman in Guatemala and Mohammed
    Mossadegh in Iran were elected, homegrown
    nationalists, not agents of the Soviet Union.
  • But they were determined to reduce foreign
    corporations control over their countries
    economies.

74
THE COLD WAR AND THE THIRD WORLD
  • Arbenz embarked on a sweeping land-reform policy
    that threatened the domination of Guatelmas
    economy controlled by the American owned United
    Fruit Company.

75
THE COLD WAR AND THE THIRD WORLD
  • Mossadegh nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil
    Company, whose refinery in Iran was Britains
    largest remaining overseas asset.

76
THE COLD WAR AND THE THIRD WORLD
  • Their foes quickly branded them as communists.
  • In 1953 and 1954, the CIA organized the ouster of
    both governments a clear violation of the UN
    Charter, which barred a member state from taking
    military action against another except in
    self-defense.

77
THE COLD WAR AND THE THIRD WORLD
  • 1956 Israel, France, and Great Britain, without
    prior consultation with the USA, invaded Egypt
    after their country nationalist leader Gamal
    Nasser, nationalized the Suez Canal, jointly
    owned by GB and FR.

78
THE COLD WAR AND THE THIRD WORLD
  • A furious Eisenhower forced them to abandon the
    invasion.
  • The USA moved to replace GB as the dominant
    Western power in the Middle East.
  • American companies increasingly dominated the
    regions oil fields.

79
THE COLD WAR AND THE THIRD WORLD
  • 1957 Eisenhower extended the policy of
    containment to the Middle East.
  • The Eisenhower Doctrine pledged the USA to defend
    Middle East govts., threatened by communism or
    Arab nationalism.

80
THE COLD WAR AND THE THIRD WORLD
  • 1958 Eisenhower dispatched 5,000 troops to
    Lebanon to protect a govt., dominated by
    pro-Western Christians against Nassers efforts
    to bring all Arab states into a single regime
    under his rule.

81
ORIGINS OF THE VIETNAM WAR
82
THE ORIGINS OF THE VIETNAM WAR
  • In Vietnam, the expulsion of Japan in 1945 led
    not to independence but to a French military
    effort to preserve their Asian empire. (19th
    century)
  • The Vietnamese were led by Ho Chi Minhs
    nationalist forces.

83
THE ORIGINS OF THE VIETNAM WAR
  • Anticommunism led the USA into deeper and deeper
    involvement .
  • Following a policy initiated by Truman,
    Eisenhower funneled billions of dollars in aid to
    bolster the French effort.
  • By the early 1950s, the USA was paying
    four-fifths of the cost of the war.
  • Wary of becoming bogged down in another land war
    in Asia, Eisenhower refused to send in American
    troops when the French requested them to avert
    defeat in 1954.
  • He also rejected the NSAs advice to use nuclear
    weapons.

84
THE ORIGINS OF THE VIETNAM WAR
  • 1954 At the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the
    Vietnamese defeated the French.
  • The French had to concede Vietnamese
    independence.
  • The issue of Vietnamese independence was debated
    at the Geneva Conference of 1954.

85
THE ORIGINS OF THE VIETNAM WAR
  • The Geneva Conference produced the Geneva
    Accords.
  • Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel South
    Vietnam and North Vietnam.
  • Unification elections were scheduled for 1956.

86
THE ORIGINS OF THE VIETNAM WAR
  • But staunchly anticommunist So. VN leader Ngo
    Dinh Diem, urged on by the USA, refused to hold
    elections, which would have resulted in victory
    for Ho Chi Minhs communists.

87
THE ORIGINS OF THE VIETNAM WAR
  • Diems close ties to wealthy Catholic families,
    in Buddhist So. VN, and to landlords in a society
    dominated by small farmers who had been promised
    land by Ho Chi Minh alienated an increasing
    number of his subjects.

88
THE ORIGINS OF THE VIETNAM WAR
  • American aid poured into SVN in order to bolster
    the Diem regime.
  • By the time Eisenhower left office (1961), Diem
    nevertheless faced a full-scale guerrilla revolt
    by the communist National Liberation Front.
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