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WESTERN SOCIETY AND EASTERN EUROPE IN THE DECADES OF THE COLD WAR: 1945 - 1991

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Title: WESTERN SOCIETY AND EASTERN EUROPE IN THE DECADES OF THE COLD WAR: 1945 - 1991


1
WESTERN SOCIETY AND EASTERN EUROPE IN THE DECADES
OF THE COLD WAR 1945 - 1991
2
THE COLD WAR
  • The origins of the cold war (1947-1990)
  • Unlikely alliance between Britain, USSR, USA held
    up for duration of war
  • Not without tensions Soviet resented
    U.S.-British delays in European invasion
  • Soviet Union and United States vied for
    nonaligned nations
  • Postwar settlement established at Yalta and
    Potsdam
  • Each Allied power to occupy and control
    territories liberated by its armed forces
  • Stalin agreed to support United States against
    Japan
  • Stalin's plans prevailed Poland and east Europe
    became communist allies
  • President Truman took hard line at Potsdam,
    widened differences
  • Postwar territorial divisions reflected growing
    schism between USA, USSR
  • Soviets took east Germany, while United States,
    Britain, and France took west Germany
  • Berlin also divided four ways by 1950 division
    seemed permanent
  • Churchill spoke of an "iron curtain" across
    Europe, separating east and west
  • Similar division in Korea Soviets occupied north
    and United States the south
  • Truman doctrine, 1947 USA would support "free
    peoples resisting subjugation"
  • Perception of world divided between so-called
    free and enslaved peoples
  • Interventionist policy, dedicated to
    "containment" of communism
  • The Marshall Plan, 1948 U.S. aid for the
    recovery of Europe
  • Idea to rebuild European economies and strengthen
    capitalism

3
CAN YOU IDENTIFY THESE ITEMS?
4
COLD WAR IN EUROPE
  • Postwar Europe
  • Divided into competing blocs
  • NATO, European Economic Communities
  • Warsaw Pact, COMECON
  • Neutral European Free Trade Association
    Yugoslavia
  • Western Europe
  • U.S. allies supported by permanent presence of
    American army
  • Parliamentary governments, capitalist economies
  • Eastern Europe
  • Dominated by Soviet Union, Red Army, secret
    police
  • Communist governments modeled after USSR dominate
    countries
  • Germany divided east and west in 1949
  • Soviets refused to withdraw from eastern Germany
    after World War II
  • Allied sectors reunited 1947-1948, Berlin
    remained divided as well
  • Berlin blockade and airlift, 1948-1949
  • Soviet closed roads, trains, tried to strangle
    West Berlin into submission
  • Britain and United States kept city supplied with
    round-the-clock airlift
  • Soviets backed down and ended blockade
  • The Berlin Wall, 1961

5
ECONOMIC EUROPE DURING THE COLD WAR
6
RESURGENCE OF WESTERN EUROPE
  • New State Structures
  • Liberal Democracy
  • West had rejected authoritarianism, embraced
    inclusive democracy
  • Embraced both Social Democracy, Christian
    Socialism
  • The Welfare State
  • European politics shifted left
  • Governments run by technocrats experts in their
    fields
  • Embraced idea of state support of all elements in
    society
  • Included education, health care, state planning,
    social insurance
  • Government active in housing
  • New Challenges to Political Stability
  • Minorities clamored for inclusion, to be heard,
    anti-establishment
  • Students, youth, women heavily involved in these
    movements
  • Environmental movements in Europe (Green
    Movement)
  • Civil Rights, Gay Rights, Womens Rights in the
    US
  • Cooperation
  • European cooperation critical for future
  • Economic cooperation led to European Economic
    Communities
  • Began as a Coal and Steel customs union

7
WESTERN EUROPE AFTER 1945
  • France
  • From 4th to 5th Republic
  • Immediately after war, France tried to hold on to
    its colonies
  • This led to several colonial struggles in
    Vietnam, Algeria, collapse of 4th Republic
  • 5th Republic strengthened role of president,
    lessened power of legislature
  • Charles de Gaulle wanted Europe free from
    superpower domination
  • French government refused to ban nuclear tests in
    1963, tested bomb in 1964
  • Increasingly a welfare, graying state with heavy
    problems due to immigration
  • United Kingdom
  • Slow recovery from the war and decolonization
  • Labor Party comes to power and gradually built
    welfare state and mild socialism
  • Never fully able to recover from loss of
    colonies, heavy migration to UK by colonials
  • Margaret Thatcher 1979 1992 tried to relax
    welfare state
  • West Germany
  • Under US, French, UK pressure, integrated into
    Europe to avoid future wars
  • Strong economic recovery after 1949 called
    Economic Miracle
  • Rose to become one of the strongest economic
    nations in the world
  • Under Brandt (SDU), initiated Ost-Politik to
    bridge relations with USSR
  • Builds a social market economy of mixed
    capitalism, welfare socialism

8
A NEW EUROPE?
9
USA, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, CANADA
  • Changes in Europe paralleled abroad
  • All avoided destruction of World War II
  • Innovation consequently was less severe
  • Former Dominions
  • All became liberal democracies, welfare states
  • All aligned to the USA
  • UK declined as great power, increasingly
    Euro-centric
  • Australia and New Zealand because of WW II
  • Canada because of decline of UK, rise of US
    markets
  • Canada
  • Joined US, Mexico in NAFTA
  • Internal issues with Catholic Quebec, Inuit
    devolution
  • Australia
  • A strong US ally
  • Internally adopted a whites-only immigration
    policy
  • The US Century
  • From 1914 onward, US dominated world stage
  • US military second to none US expenditures on
    defense high
  • Economic, military, political, cultural influence
    predominant

10
CULTURE AND SOCIETY IN THE WEST
  • Social Structures
  • Expansion of consumer culture, society
  • Increasing prosperity to all classes
  • Social conflicts eased
  • Social lines blurred, increased social mobility
  • Increased participation in political process
  • Society not without troubles but
  • Dramatic changes in gender relations
  • After WW II, women had vote AND entered politics
  • WWII saw women enter all aspects of society
  • Working women increased reaches 44 in 1970s
    womens access to education increased
  • But women paid less, much discrimination
  • Gender equality lacking but women acquired legal
    rights
  • Family life transformed by work, technology
  • Women delayed marriage, children to work
  • Birth control, abortion increase, divorce
    increased
  • New Feminism
  • 2nd Sex by Simone de Beauvoir
  • Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan

11
EASTERN EUROPE AFTER 1945
  • USSR as Superpower
  • Emerged from WWII with largest army in world
  • One of the two great victors of WW II along with
    US
  • Enormous industrial foundation based on armaments
  • Had expanded its borders
  • Actively involved in diplomacy, UN
  • Had active communist states, alliances around
    world
  • New Soviet Empire in Eastern Europe
  • After WWII, failed to hold open elections,
    withdraw
  • Decided to create a buffer zone between USSR,
    West
  • All states in region forcibly brought under USSR
    influence
  • Soviet Satellite Regimes
  • Communists placed in power by rigged elections
  • Any rivals for power eliminated, controlled by
    Red Army, Secret Police
  • Agriculture collectivized, industry nationalized
  • Tensions as elements resisted Soviet control
  • Hungary 1956
  • East Germany 1960s Berlin Wall
  • Czechoslovakia, 1968

12
SOVIET CULTURE, ECONOMY, SOCIETY
  • Rapid Industrialization
  • State fostered, controlled from top down
  • Gosplan, 5 Year Plans common
  • Significant Social Change
  • Secularization of society, purging of religion
  • Persecution of ethnic, religious minorities
  • Tension increased with Western Culture
  • Arts monitored to reflect Soviet culture
  • Schools goal was to foster loyalty to state,
    science
  • Attacked western styles of art, literature heavy
    censorship
  • Sovietized, Russified many aspects of culture
  • Counter-Culture Arose
  • Solzhenitysns Gulag Archipelago criticized
    Stalin, Stalinism
  • Science, social studies, mathematics heavily
    favored
  • Economy and Society
  • Fully industrialized society by 1950s
  • State control of virtually all aspects of
    economic sectors
  • No individualized economic aspects allowed
    although a Black Market flourished
  • Lagged in production of consumer goods, poorly
    funded

13
DESTALINIZATION
  • Stalin died in 1953
  • Rivals opposed his one man rule, cult of
    personality
  • His reign had taught politicians to cooperate,
    avoid infighting
  • His reign had also discouraged innovation,
    resistance
  • Khrushchevs Rise
  • Rivals removed Stalins supporters, executed
    Beria (KGB)
  • New Chairman attacked Stalinism for its excesses
  • Khrushchev as Chairman of the USSR
  • Opened up society to innovation, some
    decentralization
  • Regime less likely to execute opposition
  • Released many prisoners from state camps, closed
    gulags
  • Khrushchev pushes own industrial base to outdo
    west
  • Soviet Space Program and Sputnik catches west by
    surprise
  • Avoids Adventurism in Foreign Policy
  • Enforces Soviet control in 1956 Hungary
    De-Stalinization went to far
  • But allows more independent roads to socialism by
    USSR Allies
  • Cuba nuclear flashpoint
  • Fidel Castro establishes guerrilla force in
    mountains, 1953
  • Overthrew dictator Batista in 1959

14
EASTERN EUROPE SINCE 1945
  • Warsaw Pact and COMECON
  • 1955 USSR creates a military alliance to counter
    NATO Warsaw Pact
  • COMECON was attempt to rival EEC, EC
  • States were originally satellites of USSR
  • After 1964, increasing allowance for independent
    roads to socialism
  • Yugoslavia, Albania independent communist states
  • Marshall Tito (Josip Broz) resisted Soviet
    control of Yugoslavia
  • Stalin expelled Yugoslavia from Soviet bloc,
    1948
  • Remained nonaligned throughout cold war
  • Albania drawn into Chinese influence, denounces
    USSR
  • Hungarian challenge, 1956
  • De-Stalinization led to pro-democracy movement in
    Hungary
  • New government announced neutrality, withdrew
    from Warsaw Pact
  • Soviet tanks crushed Hungarian uprising, 1956
  • Goulash Communism a liberalization of communism
    in Hungary
  • Prague Spring, Czechoslovakia, 1968
  • Liberal movement led by Dubcek sought "socialism
    with a human face"
  • Soviet and east European forces crushed Prague
    liberal communism
  • Brezhnev justified invasion by Doctrine of
    Limited Sovereignty

15
DÉTENTE DECLINE OF BIPOLAR WORLD
  • Era of cooperation
  • Leaders of both superpowers agreed on policy of
    détente, late 1960s
  • Exchanged visits and signed agreements calling
    for cooperation, 1972, 1974
  • Concluded Strategic Arms Limitations Talks
    (SALT), 1972, again 1979
  • Demise of détente
  • Full U.S.-China diplomatic relations in 1979
    created U.S.-USSR strain
  • U.S. weapons sale to China in 1981 undermined
    U.S.-Soviet cooperation
  • 1980 Soviet intervention in Afghanistan prompted
    U.S. economic sanctions
  • U.S. defeat in Vietnam
  • 1950s, USA committed to support noncommunist
    South Vietnam
  • U.S. involvement escalated through 1960s
  • U.S., allies unable to defeat North, South
    Vietnamese communists
  • President Nixon pledged in 1968 to end war with
    Vietnam
  • U.S. troops gradually withdrew U.S. phase of war
    ended in 1973
  • North Vietnam continued war effort, unified the
    nation in 1976
  • Soviet setbacks in Afghanistan
  • Afghanistan had been a nonaligned nation until
    1978, pro-Soviet coup
  • Radical reforms in 1978 prompted backlash
  • Islamic leaders objected to radical social
    change, led armed resistance

16
END OF COLD WAR
  • Revolution in east and central Europe
  • Moscow's legacies
  • Communism unable to satisfy nationalism in
    eastern and central Europe
  • Soviet-backed governments lacked support,
    economies stagnant
  • Soviet interventions in 1956 and 1968 dashed
    hopes of a humane socialism
  • Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet leader 1985-1991
  • 1989, Gorbachev announced restructuring of USSR,
    withdrawal from cold war
  • Satellites states informed that each was on its
    own, without Soviet support
  • Rapid collapse of communist regimes across
    eastern and central Europe, 1989
  • In Poland, Solidarity leader Lech Walesa won
    election of 1990
  • Communism overthrown peacefully in Bulgaria and
    Hungary
  • Czechoslovakia's "velvet revolution" in 1990,
    divided into Czech Republic, Slovakia
  • Only violent revolution in Romania ended with
    death of communist dictator
  • East Germany opened Berlin Wall in 1989 two
    Germanys united in 1990
  • The collapse of the Soviet Union
  • Gorbachev's reforms
  • Hoped for economic liberalization within
    political communist system
  • Centralized economy inefficient, military
    spending excessive
  • Declining standard of living, food shortages,
    shoddy goods
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