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Abnormal Psychology A.K.A. Psychological Disorders

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Title: Abnormal Psychology A.K.A. Psychological Disorders


1
Abnormal PsychologyA.K.A. Psychological Disorders
  • Psychological Disorder
  • unusual (deviant from typical behavior in that
    culture)
  • causes distress in the person experiencing the
    symptoms
  • harmful dysfunction interferes with life

2
Early Theories
  • Abnormal behavior was evil spirits trying to get
    out
  • Beatings, burnings, castration, pulling teeth,
    removing parts of intestines, caged like animals,
    animal blood transfusions, trephining were
    often used

3
Medical Model
  • 1800s medical model emerges, replaces evil
    cause of mental illness
  • Medical Model A mental illness needs to be
    diagnosed on the basis of its symptoms and can be
    treated
  • Biopsychosocial approach todays psychologists
    say that all behavior (normal or disordered)
    arises from interaction of nature nurture
  • Nature depression schizophrenia
  • Nurture eating disorders, phobias

4
Perspectives and Disorders
Psychological School/Perspective Cause of the Disorder
Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Internal, unconscious drives, root in childhood
Humanistic Failure to strive to ones potential or being out of touch with ones feelings, being too sensitive to others criticisms/judgments, lack of positive regard as a child
Behavioral Reinforcement history, the environment. At some point the abnormal behavior has been rewarded or reinforced is now an established pattern of behavior
Cognitive Irrational, illogical, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking lead us to misperceive the world (leading to abnormal behavior)
Sociocultural Society culture help define what is acceptable behavior
Biological/Neuroscience Organic problems, biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions (very popular in US right now)
5
DSM IV
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders the big book of disorders
  • DSM will classify disorders and describe the
    symptoms
  • DSM will NOT explain the causes or possible cures

6
DSM IV
  • Axis I
  • major disorders (schizophrenia, depression,
    dementia, mood, eating, sleep)
  • Axis II
  • Developmental Personality disorders
    (antisocial, narcissism, autism, mental
    retardation)
  • Axis III
  • Physical disorders (brain injury, HIV/AIDS)
  • Axis IV
  • Assesses the level of psychosocial
    environmental stress the person is experiencing
  • Axis V
  • Overall assessment of the persons level of
    functioning

7
Two Major Classifications in the DSM
  • Neurotic Disorders
  • Psychotic Disorders
  • Distressing but one can still function in society
    and act rationally.
  • Person loses contact with reality, experiences
    distorted perceptions.

John Wayne Gacy
8
Anxiety Disorders
  • Psychological disorders characterized by
    distressing, persistent anxiety or dysfunctional
    behaviors to reduce anxiety
  • the patient fears something awful will happen to
    them
  • They are in a state of intense apprehension,
    uneasiness, uncertainty, or fear

9
Generalized Anxiety DisorderGAD
  • An anxiety disorder in which a person is
    continuously tense, apprehensive, in a state of
    autonomic nervous system arousal
  • The patient is constantly tense and worried,
    feels inadequate, is oversensitive, cant
    concentrate and suffers from insomnia
  • 2/3 are women

10
Phobias
  • An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent,
    irrational fear and avoidance of a specific
    object, activity, or situation
  • Social phobia intense fear of being scrutinized
    by others, avoid potentially embarrassing
    situations (speaking up, going to parties)
  • Phobia List

11
Phobias
  • What are the following phobias?
  • Uxoriphobia
  • Mikrophobia
  • Xenophobia
  • Trichophobia
  • Nyctophobia
  • Triskadekaphobia
  • Top 10 phobias
  • Fear of snakes
  • Fear of being buried alive
  • Fear of heights
  • Fear of being bound/tied up
  • Fear of drowning
  • Fear of public speaking
  • Fear of hell
  • Fear of cancer
  • Fear of tornadoes/hurricanes
  • Fear of fire

12
Panic Disorder
  • An anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long
    episode of intense dread in which a person
    experiences terror
  • Will have chest pain, heart palpitations,
    dizziness, choking and other frightening
    sensations
  • Those who smoke have double risk of panic
    disorder

13
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Persistent unwanted thoughts (obsessions, ex
    germs, death) cause someone to feel the need
    (compulsion, ex checking locks, in/out of a
    door) to engage in a particular action
  • Ex Obsession about dirt and germs may lead to
    compulsive hand washing
  • 2-3, often in late teens/early twenties

14
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Flashbacks/nightmares following a persons
    involvement in or observation of an extremely
    stressful event (accident, disaster, sexual
    assault, violence)
  • Memories of the event cause anxiety
  • Half of adults will experience at least 1
    traumatic event, only 1 in 10 women ptsd, 1 in 20
    men
  • After 9/11, 8 ptsd, 19 of Vietnam vets
  • 1 in 6 Iraq vets have symptoms (1 in 4 some psych
    disorder)
  • Post-traumatic growth positive psychological
    changes that come from challenging circumstances
  • Greater appreciation for life, priorities
  • Good can come from our worst experiences

15
Somatoform Disorders
  • Occur when a person manifests a psychological
    problem through a physiological symptoms
  • Two types

16
Conversion Disorder
  • A health problem that starts as a
    mental/emotional crisis and converts into a
    physical problem
  • Often related to the stress they are under
  • -Ex blindness, loss of sensation...
  • -Ex you fall off a horse you become paralyzed
    even though you are not physically injured

17
Hypochondriasis
  • A person interprets normal physical sensations as
    symptoms of a disease
  • They usually believe that the minor issues
    (headache, upset stomach) are indicative are more
    severe illnesses

18
Mood Disorders
  • Mood Disorders Characterized by emotional
    extremes

19
Major Depressive Disorder
  • 2 weeks or more of very depressed moods
  • Lethargic/fatigue/lack of energy
  • feelings of worthlessness
  • loss of pleasure/interest in activities
  • Loss of appetite/overeat
  • Lack of sleep/too much sleep
  • Not caused by drugs or a medical condition
  • Survey 29 hs students, 44 college students
  • 13 of adults
  • World Health Org- affects 5.8 of men 9.5
    women in any yr
  • 1 in 4 w/ depression is struggling w/ a
    significant loss (death, job, relationship)

20
Seasonal Affective Disorder
  • Experience depression during the winter months
  • Based not on temperature, but on amount of
    sunlight
  • Treated with light therapy

21
Bipolar Disorder
  • Person alternates b/w hopelessness of depression
    overexcited states of mania (formally manic
    depression)
  • Mania hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
  • Overactive, overtalkative, little sleep, find
    advice irritating, exhibit poor judgment (unsafe
    sex, reckless spending)
  • Many Creatives Walt Whitman, Virginia Woolf,
    Ernest Hemingway, Mark Twain
  • What goes up must come down

22
Neurotransmitters
  • Norepinephrine (increases arousal boosts mood)
  • Scarce during depression
  • Overabundant during mania
  • Serotonin
  • Scarce during depression
  • Explanatory Style
  • Our way of thinking- who or what we blame for our
    successes failures
  • Depressed people tend to blame themselves,
    feeding the negative feelings
  • Remember if you feel down, you think negatively
    remember bad experiences

23
Dissociative Disorders
  • These disorders involve someone experiencing a
    sudden loss of memory or change in identity
  • Often in response to overwhelming stressful event
  • Three types.

24
Psychogenic (Dissociative) Amnesia
  • A person cannot remember things with no
    physiological basis for the disruption in memory
  • Lose memories of distant recent past
  • Lose personal identity
  • Usually occurs after a traumatic or stressful
    event
  • Usually temporary

25
Dissociative Fugue
  • Dissociative Amnesia creating a physical
    distance from your real life
  • Last usually only a few hours or days, rarely
    months

Click above to watch a real life example
26
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Used to be known as Multiple Personality Disorder
  • A rare disorder in which a person has 2 or more
    distinct, alternating personalities
  • People with DID commonly have a history of
    childhood abuse or trauma
  • Very controversial

Click above to see an explanation of DID
27
Personality Disorders
  • Inflexible continuous behavior patterns that
    negatively affect peoples ability to function
  • Dominates their personality

28
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Lack of conscience empathy
  • Little regard for others feelings
  • View the world as hostile and look out only for
    themselves
  • Formerly called sociopath
  • 3 males, 1 females

29
Avoidant Personality Disorder
  • Feelings of inadequacy, hypersensitive to what
    others think about them rejection
  • Avoids socializing/interacting with others
  • 0.5-1 of population

30
Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Tries to avoid abandonment (real or imagined)
  • Pattern of unstable intense relationships
  • Unstable self-image, feelings of empitness
  • Impulsive
  • Recurrent suicidal behavior
  • Emotional instability
  • Intense anger trouble controlling it
  • Paranoid thoughts
  • 75 are female, 2 of population

31
Dependent Personality Disorder
  • Fear of being separated from important people in
    their lives, become clingy
  • Difficulty making everyday decisions
  • Feels helpless when alone
  • Excessive lengths to get support from others
  • Difficulty disagreeing with others
  • Need others to take charge in most areas of life

32
Histrionic Personality Disorder
  • Needs to be the center of attention feels
    uncomfortable when not
  • Inappropriate sexual or provocative behavior
  • Uses physical appearance to draw attention
  • Thinks relationships are closer than they
    actually are
  • Dramatic, theatrical, exaggerated emotions
  • 2-3 of population

33
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
  • Having an exaggerated sense of self-importance
  • Overwhelming need for admiration
  • Patronizing, snobby
  • Preoccupied w/ fantasies of unlimited, success,
    power, beauty
  • Lacks empathy
  • Arrogant behaviors attitudes
  • Exploits others
  • 1 population (more male)

34
Paranoid Personality Disorder
  • Distrustful suspicious of others
  • Thinks others motives are always bad
  • Affects every relationship they have
  • Preoccupied w/ doubts about loyalty of friends
  • Reluctant to confide in others bc think it will
    be used against
  • Holds grudges
  • 0.5-2.5 of population

35
Schizoid Personality Disorder
  • Detached from social relationships
  • Doesnt enjoy close relationships (even family)
  • Difficulty expressing emotions
  • Uninterested in sex, activities, relationships
  • Seems emotionally cold detached
  • More common in males

36
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
  • Odd beliefs that differ from cultural norms
  • Telepathy, bizarre fantasies
  • Unusual perceptual experiences
  • Suspicious or paranoid
  • Odd, eccentric, strange behavior/appearance
  • Lack of close friends
  • Social anxiety (often associated w/ paranoia)
  • Less that 3

37
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder
  • Overly concerned with certain thoughts and
    performing certain behaviors.
  • Not as extreme as OCD anxiety.

38
Schizophrenic Disorders
  • About 1 in every 100 people are diagnosed with
    schizophrenia
  • Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Disorganized thinking
  • Disturbed Perceptions
  • Inappropriate Emotions and Actions

39
Disorganized Thinking
  • The thinking of a person with Schizophrenia is
    fragmented and bizarre and distorted with false
    beliefs
  • Disorganized thinking comes from a breakdown in
    selective attention- they cannot filter out
    information

40
Delusions (false beliefs)
  • Delusions of Persecution
  • Delusions of Grandeur

41
Disturbed Perceptions
  • hallucinations- sensory experiences without
    sensory stimulation
  • They see, hear, smell, feel things that arent
    there
  • Most often auditory hallucinations
  • Seem real!

42
Inappropriate Emotions and Actions
  • Laugh at inappropriate times, angry for no
    apparent reason
  • Flat Effect (emotionless state)
  • Senseless, compulsive acts.
  • Catatonia- motionless for hours then agitated

43
Types of Schizophrenia
44
Disorganized Schizophrenia
  • disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or
    inappropriate emotion

45
Paranoid Schizophrenia
  • preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations
  • Somebody is out to get me!!!!

46
Catatonic Schizophrenia
  • Flat effect
  • Waxy Flexibility
  • parrot like repeating of anothers speech and
    movements

47
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
  • Many and varied Symptoms.

48
Other Disorders
  • Paraphilias (pedophilia, zoophilia,
    hybristophilia)
  • Fetishism
  • sadist, masochist
  • Eating Disorders
  • Substance use disorders
  • ADHD

49
The Rosenhan Study
  • Rosenhans associates were Malingering symptoms
    of hearing voices.
  • They were ALL admitted for schizophrenia.
  • None were exposed as imposters.
  • They all left diagnosed with schizophrenia in
    remission.
  • What are some of the questions raised by this
    study?

50
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
  • History of treating mental illness was barbaric
  • Crusaders like Dorothea Dix changed treatment
    (mental hospitals)
  • 2 main categories of mental health therapies
  • Psychotherapy (overcome difficulties achieve
    personal growth)
  • Biomedical therapy (medication or medical
    procedure)
  • Many psychotherapists say they take an eclectic
    approach-blend different types of therapy

51
Therapy
  • It used to be that if someone exhibited abnormal
    behavior, they were institutionalized.
  • Because of new drugs and better therapy, the U.S.
    went to a policy of deinstitutionalization.

52
Psychoanalytic Therapy
  • Psychoanalysis (manifest and latent content
    through. Hypnosis, free association, dream
    interpretation)
  • Resistance blocking memories, experiences that
    cause anxiety
  • The analyst will interpret behaviors, dreams,
    eventsin order to promote insight
  • Transference patient transfers emotions linked
    with other relationships on the analyst ( or -)

53
Evaluating Psychotherapy
  • Clients and therapists say yes! but that in
    itself cannot prove its effectiveness
  • Meta-analysis procedure for statistically
    combining results of different studies
  • The verdict those not undergoing therapy often
    improve, but those undergoing therapy are more
    likely to improve

54
Humanistic Therapy
  • Psychoanalytic humanistic therapies are seen as
    insight therapies (providing new insights to help
    boost self-fulfillment self-acceptance)
  • Client-Centered Therapy (Carl Rogers)
  • Focuses on the persons conscious
    self-perceptions
  • These are non-directive therapies and use active
    listening
  • Paraphrase (summarize in your own words to check
    understanding)
  • Invites clarification (What might be an example
    of that?)
  • Reflect feelings (acknowledge their feelings
    mirror what you are sensing)
  • Self-actualization, free-will and unconditional
    positive regard
  • Gestalt Therapy by Fritz Perls encourage clients
    to get in touch with whole self.

55
Behavioral Therapies
  • Behavior therapy applies learning principles to
    eliminate unwanted behaviors
  • Believe can replace learned behaviors w/
    constructive behaviors
  • Counterconditioning uses classical conditioning
    to generate new responses to stimuli
  • Exposure Therapy
  • Aversive Conditioning
  • Systematic desensitization
  • Flooding
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Token Economy

56
Cognitive Therapy
  • Change the way we view the world (change our
    schemas)
  • Aaron Beck
  • Albert Ellis and Rational Emotive Therapy

57
Somatic Therapies
  • Psychopharmacology
  • Antipsychotics (thorazine, haldol)
  • Anti-anxiety (valium, barbiturates, Xanax)
  • Mood Disorders (serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
  • Bipolar (lithium)

58
Group Therapy
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