ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS TREATMENT AND THERAPY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS TREATMENT AND THERAPY PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 47d202-NGQwZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS TREATMENT AND THERAPY

Description:

ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS TREATMENT AND THERAPY Chapters 15 and 16 Abnormal Behavior The Medical (biological) Model Other models: -Behavioral ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:535
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 73
Provided by: tomga7
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS TREATMENT AND THERAPY


1
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGYPSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERSTREATMENT AND THERAPY
  • Chapters 15 and 16

2
Abnormal Behavior
  • The Medical (biological) Model
  • Other models
  • -Behavioral -Psychoanalytic -Cognitive
  • -Humanistic-existential -Bio-psycho-social
  • Criteria of Abnormality
  • Deviance from social norms
  • Maladaptive behavior
  • Personal distress
  • Myers atypical disturbing
  • maladaptive unjustifiable

3
In the beginning
  • Medical Model it is useful to think of abnormal
    behavior as a disease i.e. how we refer to
    mental illness, disorders, and psychopathology.
    Before this abnormal behavior was based on
    superstition i.e. possession by devil.
  • Diagnosis involves distinguishing one illness
    from another
  • Etiology refers to the apparent causation and
    developmental history of an illness
  • Prognosis a forecast about the probable course
    of an illness
  • Thomas Szasz asserts that strictly speaking,
    disease or illness can affect only the body
    hence there can be no mental illness since
    abnormal behavior is actually a deviation from
    SOCIAL norms they are problems in living not
    actual illnesses.

4
Psychological Disorders
5
Rates of Psychological Disorders
6
Stereotypes and Myths
  • Psychological disorders are incurable yes, some
    never make it back into society but the majority
    of people do get better
  • Mentally ill people are violent and dangerous
    only a modest association has been found between
    illness and violence. Media?
  • Mentally ill people behave in bizarre ways and
    very differently from normal people only a
    small minority of cases

7
  • The Diagnostic System
  • DSM IV
  • (I) CLINICAL SYNDROMES
  • (II) PERSONALITY DISORDERS
  • (III) GENERAL MEDICAL CONDITIONS
  • (IV) PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSORS
  • (V) GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONING

8
Disorders
Anxiety Disorder 2nd most common disorder
(Substance abuse is 1st) Afflicts about 1 in 6
Americansmore than 32 million people (U.S.)
Common Characteristics include FEAR, feeling
tense, easily startled, constant worriers.
Behavior is self defeating.
9
Anxiety Disorders
  • Types
  • Panic Disorder
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder
  • Phobias
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • http//www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid778

10
PHOBIAS Disabled and overwhelmed by fear of
specific object or event. Most common is
agoraphobia followed by animals. Treatments
cognitive, behavioral, biological
11
Anxiety Disorders
  • Common and uncommon fears Phobias

12
Panic Disorder
Frequent and overwhelming attacks of anxiety
Breathing, Heart rate, Doom
13
Obsessive-Compulsive Anxiety is reflected in
persistent, unwanted and unshakable thoughts or
repeated actions. The action does make it go
away for a little while, but when it returns you
find yourself repeating the same routine over.
14
OCD
  • Common in every lifebecomes neurotic when it
    interferes with adjustment
  • Compulsionsymbolic, ritualized behavior
  • Obsessionendless preoccupation with some type of
    urge or thought
  • Results from faulty attempts to resolve guilt,
    anxiety or insecurity

15
Anxiety Disorders
16
  • Why?
  • Serve as a diversion from real fears
  • Provide person with evidence that she is doing
    something well, even if it is avoiding cracks on
    a sidewalk.
  • Biological Anxiety declines in older age and
    medication has been shown to help.

1990 a woman was reported washing her hands 500x
a day
17
Anxiety Disorders OCD
18
Anxiety Disorders
  • PET Scan of brain of person with Obsessive/
    Compulsive disorder
  • High metabolic activity (red) in frontal lobe
    areas involved with directing attention

19
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder People who
experience an event outside the normal range of
human experience often exhibit a range of
severely distr-essing symptoms.
20
PTSD
  • Flashbacks, nightmares, guilt, anxiety
  • Tied to specific event (War, Natural disaster,
    accident, rape, etc.)
  • Biologicaloveractive amygdala
  • Psychodynamicincomplete repression
  • Medicines, therapy, beta blockers

21
Etiology
  • Twins genetic predisposition
  • Neural circuits using GABA
  • Acquired thru classical maintained thru operant
    conditioning
  • Cognitive theorists over-interpret harmless
    situations as threatening
  • High neuroticism exposure to great stress

22
Biomedical Therapies
  • Psychopharmacology
  • study of the effects of drugs on mind and
    behavior
  • Anti-anxiety drugs Zoloft, Buspar, Ativan,
    Xanax, Valium, Paxil

23
Behavior Therapy
  • Systematic Desensitization

24
Behavior Therapy
  • Aversion therapy for alcoholics

25
Cognitive Therapy
  • The Cognitive Revolution

26
Rational Emotive therapy Cognitive Therapy
  • REBT employs the ABC framework depicted in
    the figure below to clarify the relationship
    between activating events (A) our beliefs about
    them (B) and the cognitive, emotional or
    behavioural consequences of our beliefs (C). The
    ABC model is also used in some renditions of
    cognitive therapy or cognitive behavioural
    therapy, where it is also applied to clarify the
    role of mental activities or predispositions in
    mediating between experiences and emotional
    responses.
  • The figure below shows how the framework
    distinguishes between the effects of rational
    beliefs about negative events, which give rise to
    healthy negative emotions, and the effects of
    irrational beliefs about negative events, which
    lead to unhealthy negative emotions.

27
Rational Emotive Therapy (cont)
  • The main purpose of REBT is to help clients to
    replace absolutist philosophies, full of musts
    and shoulds, with more flexible ones part of
    this includes learning to accept that all human
    beings (including themselves) are fallible and
    learning to increase their tolerance for
    frustration while aiming to achieve their goals.
  • Three primary insights
  • While external events are of undoubted influence,
    psychological disturbance is largely a matter of
    personal choice in the sense that individuals
    consciously or unconsciously select both rational
    beliefs and irrational beliefs at (B) when
    negative events occur at (A)
  • Past history and present life conditions strongly
    affect the person, but they do not, in and of
    themselves, disturb the person rather, it is the
    individuals responses which disturb them, and it
    is again a matter of individual choice whether to
    maintain the philosophies at (B) which cause
    disturbance.
  • Modifying the philosophies at (B) requires
    persistence and hard work, but it can be done.

28
Becks Cognitive therapy--
  • Aaron Beck developed a treatment for anxiety and
    depression based on cognitive theory. Patients
    tune into their internal dialogue in order to
    change maladaptive thinking patterns. Beck
    developed specific procedures to help challenge a
    client's assumptions and beliefs. Patients learn
    how to change their thinking.

29
Psychoanalytic Treatment
  • Free association
  • Dream analysis
  • Hypnosis
  • Insight therapy therapist suggests insights to
    patients problems goal is to gain insight to
    underlying issues of problems
  • Interpretation of resistance (blocking anxiety
    laden material from consciousness)/transference
    (transfer to the analyst the emotions linked to
    other important relationships)

30
Mood Disorders (Affective Disorders) Depression
is the primary symptom. Major mood disorders
major depression, dysthymic disorder, bipolar
disorder, seasonal affective disorder. Differentia
ted from normal moods by duration, intensity,
lack of cause. More common in women Greatest
risk 15-24 and 35-44 Episodes reoccur in half
of cases
31
Mood Disorders
  • Major Depression
  • Sadness, hopelessness, guilt emotionally
    disconnected
  • Dysthymic Disorder
  • Chronic, but low grade
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
  • Symptoms appear in fall and winter phototherapy
  • Bipolar Disorder (Manic-Depressive Disorder)
  • Major depression and Mania
  • Behavioral and cognitive symptoms
  • Onset in early 20s
  • Drug therapylithium
  • http//www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid786

32
Etiology
  • Twin studies suggest genetic predisposition
  • Neural circuits using Serotonin Norepinephrine
  • Cognitive theorists pessimistic view
  • Behavioral theorists inadequate social skills
  • High stress

33
What do these people have in common?
34
The word depression causes confusion. Bad moods
are part of life, clinical depression can kill
you. It affects 1/20 Americans a year. Signs
dont feel hopeful or happy about anything, slow
motion, nothing tastes good, getting up requires
great effort
35
Mood Disorders-Depression
36
Mood Disorders-DepressionSocial-cognitive
explanation
  • Self-defeating beliefs
  • Learned helplessness
  • Negative thoughts feed negative moods
  • Negative moods feed negative thoughts

37
Mood Disorders-Depression Social-cognitive
explanation
  • The vicious Cycle of Depression can be broken at
    any point!

(negative)
(thoughts or actions)
(pessimism)
(hopeless)
38
Mood Disorders-Depression
  • Altering any one component of the
    chemistry-cognition or mood circuit can alter the
    others

39
Mood Disorders- Suicide
40
Seasonal Affective Disorder Winter
depression-weight gain, over sleeping,
overeating, and craving carbohydrates (deficient
exposure to light) Summer depression-loss of
appetite, weight loss, insomnia (heat is the
triggering factor)
41
Bipolar Disorder Characterized by extreme mood
swings, depression to euphoria Not triggered by
identifiable events a.k.a. manic
depression Mania-inflated self-esteem or
Grandiosity. Cannot have mania alone. what
goes up must come down Mania goes through three
stages hypomania, mania, severe mania
42
Mood Disorders-Bipolar
  • PET scans show that brain energy consumption
    rises and falls with emotional switches

May 17
May 18
May 27
43
Biomedical Therapies
44
Biomedical Therapies
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
  • therapy for severely depressed patients in which
    a brief electric current is sent through the
    brain of an anesthetized patient
  • Psychosurgery
  • surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in
    an effort to change behavior
  • lobotomy
  • now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to
    calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients

45
Cognitive Therapy
  • A cognitive perspective on psychological disorders

46
Cognitive Therapy
Depression scores
  • Cognitive therapy for depression

47
Cognitive behavior therapy
  • Combines treating thinking patterns with changing
    patients behavior
  • It seeks to make people aware of their negative
    thinking and to replace it with new ways of
    thinking, and the practice a more positive
    approach in everyday settings.

48
Somatoform Disorders
  • SYMPTOMS bodily symptoms without physical
    problem
  • Conversion Disorder
  • Hysterical blindness
  • Hysterical paralysis
  • Hypochondriaoverly concerned with
    health/exaggerate minor physical complaints

49
Conversion Disorder Emotional difficulties into
loss of physiological function. Unconsciously
invent physical symptoms to gain freedom of
unbearable conflict. Common sites for sensory
conversions
50
Etiology
  • Histrionic personality traits
  • Cognitive theorists
  • excessive attention on body sensations
  • unrealistic standard of good health
  • Sick role

51
Dissociative Disorder
A disturbance in conscious awareness, such as
identity or memory Psychogenic Amnesia sudden
loss of memory, may be an attempt to escape from
a problem, retain general knowledge Psychogenic
Fugue combines amnesia with flight- wake up 200
miles away from home have a new identity,
marriage, and job, lasts from days to years.
52
Dissociative Disorder
  • EXTREMELY RARE
  • SYMPTOMS memory loss disconnection from
    personal identity disconnect events from one
    another
  • Psychogenic Amnesia
  • Selective forgetting Usually psychological
    benefit for forgetting
  • Psychogenic Fugue
  • Complicated type of amnesia
  • More common in men
  • Disappear and start new life
  • MPD/DID (MultiplesDissociative Identity
    Disorder)
  • Extremely rare
  • Haunted, confused personality
  • Childhood abuse
  • Long-term habit of escaping

53
Personality Disorders
  • Personality Disorders
  • disorders characterized by inflexible and
    enduring behavior patterns that impair social
    functioning
  • usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions
  • http//www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid780

54
Personality Disorders
  • SYMPTOMS peculiar and unpleasant personality
    patterns (Off-center)
  • Clusters
  • Antisocial Personality (Psychopaths)
  • Conflict with law, Manipulative, impulsive,
    superficial emotion, no conscience
  • Borderline
  • Intense and unstable relationships, dependent,
    clingy, self-destructive very difficult to treat
  • Miscellaneous
  • Narcissistic, Paranoid, Schizoid, Histrionic

55
Personality Disorders
  • PET scans illustrate reduced activation in a
    murderers frontal cortex

56
Personality Disorders
57
And Finally Schizophrenia
  • Defined as a class of disorders marked by
    delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech,
    and deterioration of adaptive behavior
  • It primarily involves disturbances in perception
    and thought, with corresponding loss of the
    ability to function.
  • Cognitive processes are severely disrupted.
  • Positive symptoms Hallucinations, disorganized
    and delusional talk, inappropriate laughter,
    tears, or rage.
  • Negative symptoms toneless voices,
    expressionless faces, mute
  • http//www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid788

58
Schizophrenia NO two sufferers of schizophrenia
suffer the same symptoms. It is the disorder we
characterize with crazy, psychotic, or
insane. There are as many people with
schizophrenia as there are people in Hawaii! (1
in 100) Rule of thirds Statistically, one
third of all diagnosed will recover completely,
one third will improve over time and one third
will not improve.
59
Etiology of Schizophrenia
  • Genetic 48 identical 17 fraternal twins
  • Born to parents with Schizophrenia 46
  • Emerge during adolescence or early
    (15-24)adulthood and sometimes at 45 its either
    sudden or gradual
  • Excess dopamine but new research is not
    conclusive
  • Inability to filter out unimportant stimuli,
    large brain ventricles, new research with the
    thalamus is smaller with less metabolic activity
  • Neurodevelopment hypothesis phases of pregnancy
    during the flu season
  • Precipitating stress and unhealthy family dynamics

60
More Specifically
  • Whats the cause?
  • Levels of dopamine
  • 4x more likely if someone in family has it
  • Prenatal or birth trauma
  • Viral infections or lack of nutrition as infants
  • 2x more likely when born in urban areas

61
(No Transcript)
62
(No Transcript)
63
Schizophrenia
64
Etiology
  • Twin adoption studies
  • Dopamine
  • Neuro-developmental hypothesis
  • Relapse (residual) rates
  • Stress

65
Does Therapy Work?
  • Meta-analysis
  • procedure for statistically combining the results
    of many different research studies

66
Mental Illness v. Insanity
  • Mental illness is a medical decision.
  • Insanity is a legal one. To be considered insane
    a person must be unable to control his/her
    behavior and be unaware that his behavior is
    wrong.

67
Pathology the Law
  • Insanity
  • Insanity defense
  • Involuntary commitment
  • Culture Pathology
  • Relativistic view
  • Pan-cultural view

68
DSM-IV
  • Impulse control disorders impulsive behaviors
    harm the self or others. Ex. Intermittent
    explosive disorder, kleptomania, pathological
    gambling.
  • Disorders 1st diagnosed in infancy, childhood,
    adolescence appear before adulthood Ex. Mental
    retardation, learning disorders, and language
    development

69
DSM-IV
  • Adjustment disorders extreme emotional reaction
    to a stressor that occurred w/in the previous
    month (much greater than most people would
    experience).
  • Personality disorders long-term disorders with
    rigid, maladaptive personality traits. Ex.
    Antisocial personality D, histrionic personality
    D, narcissistic PD
  • Delirium, dementia, amnestic and other cognitive
    Disorders diverse group of memory and cognition
    that is caused by identifiable brain damage. Ex.
    Alzheimers, intellectual impairment (stroke),
    delirium (change in consciousness) due to overdose

70
Major Psychological Disorders of Axis 1
71
Major Psychological Disorders of Axis 1
(continued)
72
Different dimensions or axes
  • Each axis reflects a different aspect of a
    patients case
  • Axis I- used to classify current symptoms
  • Axis II- used to describe developmental and
    long-standing personality disorders or
    maladaptive traits specific developmental
    disorders for children such as mental
    retardation, autism, etc.
  • Axis III- used to describe physical disorders or
    general medical conditions that are relevant to
    treatment
  • Axis IV- current stress level (based on the past
    year)
  • Axis V- adaptive functioning 3 major areas
    social relations, occupational functioning, use
    of leisure time
About PowerShow.com