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Introduction to Psychology

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Introduction to Psychology Psychological Disorders – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Psychology


1
Introduction to Psychology
  • Psychological Disorders

2
The Question of Normality
  • What does it mean to be normal?
  • Who decides what is normal?

3
Psychopathology
  • The scientific study of mental, emotional, and
    behavioral problems
  • 1 out of 100 people will require psychiatric
    hospitalization during their lifetime

4
Psychopathology
  • Subjective discomfort- may or may not be present
  • Statistical abnormality- deviating from the norm

5
What makes behavior abnormal?
  • Core features of abnormality
  • The behavior is maladaptive
  • There is a loss of control

6
Abnormal Behavior Other Considerations
  • Violation of social norms
  • Behavior is abnormal based on situational,
    societal, and cultural contexts

7
Social Construction of Mental Illness
  • Labels inventions/artifacts of particular
    cultures
  • Dominant discourses on mental illness

8
Rosenhan Study
  • Participants posed as persons with mental
    illnesses
  • Normal behavior was perceived as pathological

9
Thomas Szaz
  • Myth of Mental Illness
  • Against the disease model of mental illness
  • Deviations from the norm

10
Mental Disorders
  • Diagnosed with the DSM-IV
  • For communication between professionals
  • To classify/understand behaviors
  • For HMOs

11
The Stigma of Labels
  • Stigma and discrimination
  • May be denied housing, jobs, may lose friends,
    etc.
  • Self-fulfilling prophesy

12
Mental Disorders
  • Substance abuse disorders
  • Mood disorders
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Somatoform disorders
  • Psychotic disorders
  • Dissociative disorders
  • Personality disorders
  • Sexual/gender identity disorders

13
Anxiety Disorders
  • Apprehension, fear, dread
  • Out of proportion to the situation

14
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Excessively anxious/worried
  • Free floating anxiety
  • Anxiety triggered in many situations

15
OCD
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Disturbing, anxiety-provoking thoughts
  • Compulsive behavior to keep anxiety under control

16
Panic Disorder
  • Sudden, intense, unexpected panic attacks
  • Racing heart, chest pains, fear of dying
  • Fear of losing control

17
Specific Phobia
  • Fear/anxiety toward a specific situation
  • 11 have a phobia during their lifetime

18
Mood Disorders
  • Depression
  • Intense, prolonged sadness
  • Hopelessness, lack of energy, negative self-image
  • Dysthymic Disorder
  • Low grade depression
  • Fairly consistent for 2 years or more

19
Bipolar Disorder
  • Extreme moods
  • Depression and mania
  • Mania elated, hyperactive, filled with energy,
    lack of sleep, risk taking, grandiosity

20
Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia-nervosa self-starvation underweight
    issues of control
  • Bulimia binge-purge cycles typically normal to
    overweight

21
Personality Disorders
  • Maladaptive personality patterns
  • Often start in childhood/adolescence officially
    diagnosed at age 18

22
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Lacks conscience
  • Impulsive/selfish
  • Aggressive/violent
  • Lack of remorse
  • Criminality

23
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Many were abused/deprived in childhood
  • Subtle neurological problems
  • Under-arousal when viewing disturbing material
  • Difficult to treat

24
Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Impulsivity/erratic behavior
  • Instability in relationships
  • Highly manipulative
  • Self-mutilating high risk of suicide
  • Often co-morbid with mood disorders

25
Psychotic Disorders
  • Retreat from reality
  • Schizophrenia and delusional disorders

26
Schizophrenia
  • Delusions and hallucinations (bizarre)
  • Delusions deeply held false beliefs
  • Hallucinations seeing/hearing something that
    isnt present
  • Disordered thinking
  • Flat or inappropriate affect

27
Schizophrenia
  • Process develops slowly, over the lifespan
  • Reactive develops in response to an event

28
Schizophrenia Types
  • Paranoid
  • Disorganized
  • Catatonic
  • Undifferentiated

29
Schizophrenia Causes
  • Biological dopamine hypothesis brain
    abnormalities genetic link
  • Identical twins 50
  • Exposure to the disease in the womb/complications
    during birth
  • Childhood trauma, dysfunctional family
    environments

30
Delusional Disorders
  • Deeply held false beliefs w/o hallucinations
    (non-bizarre)
  • Insist these beliefs are true, even in the face
    of contrary evidence

31
Risk Factors for Mental Illness
  • Social poverty, stress, homelessness
  • Family disturbed parents, criminality, abuse
  • Psychological stress, low IQ, lack of
    control/mastery
  • Biological genetic defects, poor prenatal care,
    low birth weight, born with addictions
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