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Dissociative Disorders

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Dissociative Disorders Psychology Ms. Currey – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dissociative Disorders


1
Dissociative Disorders
  • Psychology
  • Ms. Currey

2
?s about Dissociative Disorder
  • What are these disorders characterized with?
    What is dissociation?
  • Describe the symptoms for each of the following
    disorders Dissociative Amnesia, Dissociateive
    Fugue, Dissociative Identity Disorder.
  • How are dissociate disorders explained using
    biology AND psychology?

3
I. Dissociation
  • Separation of personality parts or mental
    processes from conscious thought.
  • In English Zoning out
  • Example You may be so involved in listening to
    a Psychology lesson you cant hear when someone
    calls your name.

4
A. When is Dissociation a disorder?
  • When it is used as a way to avoid stressful
    events or feelings.

5
Examples
  • Someone loses their memory of a painful
    experience (rape, child abuse etc)
  • Lose memory of identity!

6
3.Types of Dissociative Disorders
  • A. Dissociative Amnesia- Sudden loss of memory,
    usually right after a stressful or traumatic
    event.

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ts/mba/lowres/mban1522l.jpg
7
A. Dissociative Amnesia-
  • Usually people with Dissociative Amnesia forget
    events during a period of time around the trauma
    but sometimes a person may forget ALL prior
    experience and may be unable to remember his/her
    name, recognize friends and family or recall
    personal information.

8
How does it get fixed?
  • Memory is likely to return just as suddenly as it
    is lost.

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ongKissGoodnightThe1996104415_f.jpg
9
B. Dissociative Fugue
  • (fugue-same as root of fugitive)
  • Form of dissociative amnesia.
  • Loss of identity and travel to a new location.
  • Can last hours, months, even years!
  • New personality may not even be aware of the
    history behind the transformation

10
C. Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Another type of Dissociative Disorder
  • 1. Multiple personalities
  • Different personalities may or may not be aware
    of the others and each personality takes turns
    controlling the person.

11
B. Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • 2. Each personality is likely to be different
    from the others in ways like
  • - voice
  • - facial expression
  • - perceived age
  • - gender
  • - physical characteristics

12
B. Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • 3. Why do people get Dissociative Identity
    Disorder?
  • Usually severely abused as children

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0001_0002_0_img0178.jpg
13
Cases becoming more common
  • 1970s lt 100 cases
  • 1980s gt 20,000 cases
  • of recorded personalities from 3-12, sometimes
    dozens!

14
Sybil Dorsett
  • Famous case.
  • Problems
  • After the death of her psychiatrist, people think
    maybe her multiple personalities were a result of
    her therapists suggestions.

15
Explaining Dissociative Disorders
  • 2 different views
  • 1. Psychoanalytical- people dissociate to
    repress unacceptable urges
  • 2. Learning- Learn to not thing about disturbing
    events to avoid feelings of guilt, shame or pain
  • Dissociate by forgetting painful events! It
    works! Anxiety is reduced when a trauma is
    forgotten but..

16
Review
  • What are these disorders characterized with?
    What is dissociation?
  • Describe the symptoms for each of the following
    disorders Dissociative Amnesia, Dissociateive
    Fugue, Dissociative Identity Disorder.
  • How are dissociate disorders explained using
    biology AND psychology?

17
Schizophrenia
18
?s about Schizophrenia
  • 1. What are the 3 main symptoms of Schizophrenia?
  • 2. Describe the delusions
  • 3. What are Hallucinations and how can they cause
    a cycle of schizophrenic symptoms?
  • 4. What are some examples of Inappropriate
    Emotions or Behaviors?
  • 5. What are the 4 major types of schizophrenia?
  • 6. How do biological and psychological factors
    combine to cause schizophrenia?

19
Schizophrenia
  • The MOST serious of all psychological disorders.
  • Loss of contact with reality
  • Can make it impossible for a person to function
    alone.
  • 1 of population of world diagnosed

20
NOT split personality!
  • Schiz means split but it represents a break
    from reality, not a division of personality.

21
Schizophrenic Disorder Symptoms(Not everyone
exhibits ALL of these)
  • Delusions (Ex believing they are being followed
    all the time)
  • Hallucinations
  • Disorganized speech
  • Inappropriate Emotions or Behaviors
  • No longer able to adapt to situations

22
Types of Delusions
  • Delusions of Grandeur false beliefs that you are
    more important than you really are.
  • Delusions of Perception false beliefs that
    people are out to get you.
  • Delusions of sin or guilt false beliefs of being
    responsible for a misfortune (ex plane crash)
  • Delusions of Influence false beliefs of being
    controlled by outside forces ie the devil

23
Hallucinations
  • False Perception
  • Visual, auditory OR Tactile

24
Cycle of Symptoms
  • Hallucinations provide evidence for delusions.
  • Ex Taste poison in food, think someone is
    trying to kill me!
  • People w/Schizophrenia cant trust their own
    senses!

25
Inappropriate Emotions or Behaviors
  • Emotional flatness
  • Speaking too loudly
  • Nonsense talk
  • Odd mannerisms
  • Complete inactivity or moldability
  • Dressing strangely

26
Onset
  • Early Adolescence / Early Adulthood
  • Rarely over 35
  • Emergence sudden or gradual-sudden easier to
    recover from

27
Causes
  • Psychological
  • Biological

28
Psychological Causes
  • Stress and disturbed family communication
    patterns (could be a result NOT cause!)

29
Psychoanalytic Causes
  • Family Environment When a parent expresses
    intense emotions and is pushy, critical and mean
    to children it COULD increase the likelihood of
    someone developing schizophrenia.

30
Biological View
  • Its a BRAIN disorder. It could be caused by
  • Born with different brain structure.
  • As many as 6x number of receptor sites for
    dopamine (affects emotion, attention and
    perception)

31
Biological genetic
  • Risk rises 10 if parent or sibling has it.
  • 50 if identical twin has it.
  • Genain Quadruplets

32
Not totally biological
  • No single gene or set of genes guarantee
    schizophrenia will develop.

33
Bio Prenatal Viruses
  • A viral infection during the middle of a
    pregnancy may cause schizophrenia.
  • Flu season? Uh oh!

34
BOTH!
  • There may be Both psychological AND biological
    factors for schizophrenia.
  • Genetics may make someone more susceptible to
    schizophrenia and other factors like a bad home
    environment may make schizophrenia more likely.

35
Treatment
  • Drug therapy
  • Behavior therapy

36
Schizophrenic Symptoms
  • Positive Symptoms
  • Hallucinations
  • Delusions
  • Bizarre ideas
  • Positive easier to cure than negative
  • Negative Symptoms
  • Lack of emotions
  • Social withdrawal
  • Apathy

37
Types of Schizophrenia
  • Paranoid
  • Catatonic
  • Disorganized
  • Undifferentiated

38
Paranoid Schizophrenia
  • Has delusions of grandeur and persecution.
    Auditory and other hallucinations often support
    delusions.
  • Example Someone is convinced that they the FBI
    is following them. Everything they think they
    see and hear reinforces that idea. Any car that
    passes by their house MUST be working for the FBI!

39
Disorganized Schizophrenia
  • People have thoughts and behaviors that dont
    seem to make sense or connect with one another.
  • Either emotionless or showing inappropriate
    emotions (laughing at a funeral).
  • Neglect physical appearance.
  • Very disturbed gone mad

40
Catatonic Schizophrenia
  • Most obvious symptom variations in voluntary
    movement. Alternates between 2 phases catatonic
    excitement rapid movements, delusions and
    hallucinations and catatonic stupor little
    activity or speech. Flat emotion and waxy
    flexibility.

41
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
  • Symptoms that are disturbed but not clearly
    consistent with the paranoid, catatonic, or
    disorganized types of schizophrenia.

42
Recovery
  • Full recovery (rare)
  • Partial recovery
  • Chronic

43
?s about Schizophrenia
  • 1. What are the 3 main symptoms of Schizophrenia?
  • 2. Describe the delusions
  • 3. What are Hallucinations and how can they cause
    a cycle of schizophrenic symptoms?
  • 4. What are some examples of Inappropriate
    Emotions or Behaviors?
  • 5. What are the 4 major types of schizophrenia?
  • 6. How do biological and psychological factors
    combine to cause schizophrenia?

44
Personality Disorders
  • Abnormal Psychology
  • Ms. Currey

45
?s to answer by the end of the lesson
  • 1. Why are personality disorders difficult to
    diagnose?
  • 2. Describe the symptoms of each of the following
    disorders
  • Avoidant personality disorder
  • Dependent personality disorder
  • Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Anti-social personality disorder

46
Review What is Personality?
  • A persons traits that dont change.

47
What is a personality disorder?
  • When someone has personality traits that cause
    pain in themselves or others. (disrupt social
    functioning)

48
Diagnosis difficult
  • Because they often overlap.

49
Types of Personality Disorders
  • Personality Disorders Related to Anxiety
    (Avoidant, Dependent)
  • Personality Disorders with Dramatic or Impulsive
    Behaviors (Borderline, Anti-social)

50
Avoidant Personality Disorder
  • Sensitive about rejection. Avoids relationships.

51
Dependent Personality Disorder
  • Clingy, submissive. Strong need for others to
    take care of them.

52
Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Instability of emotions, self-image, behavior and
    relationships.

53
Anti-social Personality Disorder
  • Lack of conscience for wrong doing, lack of
    respect for the rights of other people.
  • Most dramatic and troubling of all personality
    disorders.
  • Criminal behavior with on remorse
  • More often in males
  • Can be charming and clever
  • Serial killers
  • VERY difficult to treat prison

54
Explaining Personality Disorders
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Childhood experiences teach children to get along
    with other people. If children are never
    reinforced for good behaviorand only get
    attention when they behave badly, they may learn
    anti-social behavior.

55
Explaining Personality Disorders
  • Other psychoanalytic ideas
  • Antisocial personality disorder develops when a
    child lacks appropriate role models and when the
    role models they have are aggressive or mean.

56
Biological Views
  • There ARE some genetic factors for personality.
  • Ex antisocial personality disorder tends to run
    in families
  • Some evidence that people with antisocial
    personality diosorder have fewer neurons in the
    frontal part of the brain than other people.

57
Biological Views
  • BUT, it is very unlikely that biological factors
    are the ONLY reasons people develop personality
    disorders.

58
Lets Review!
  • 1. Why are personality disorders difficult to
    diagnose?
  • 2. Describe the symptoms of each of the following
    disorders
  • Avoidant personality disorder
  • Dependent personality disorder
  • Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Anti-social personality disorder
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