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Abnormal Psychology A.K.A. Psychological Disorders

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Abnormal Psychology A.K.A. Psychological Disorders A harmful dysfunction in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Abnormal Psychology A.K.A. Psychological Disorders


1
Abnormal PsychologyA.K.A. Psychological Disorders
  • A harmful dysfunction in which behavior is
    judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive
    and unjustifiable.
  • What is abnormal depends on
  • Culture
  • Time period
  • Environmental conditions
  • Individual person

2
Early Theories
  • Abnormal behavior was evil spirits trying to get
    out.
  • Trephining was often used.
  • Cutting a hole in the head of the afflicted to
    let out the evil spirit.

3
Early Mental Hospitals
  • They were nothing more than barbaric prisons.
  • The patients were chained and locked away.
  • Some hospitals even charged admission for the
    public to see the crazies, just like a zoo.
  • Philippe Pinel French doctor that was first to
    unchain and declare these people sick

4
Perspectives and Disorders
Psychological School/Perspective Cause of the Disorder
Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Internal, unconscious drives
Humanistic Failure to strive to ones potential or being out of touch with ones feelings.
Behavioral Reinforcement history, the environment.
Cognitive Irrational, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking.
Sociocultural Dysfunctional Society
Biomedical/Neuroscience Organic problems, biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions.
5
Medical Model
  • When physicians discovered that syphilis led to
    mental disorders, they started using medical
    models to review the physical causes of these
    disorders.

6
DSM IV
  • Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders.
  • DSM will classify disorders and describe the
    symptoms.
  • DSM will NOT explain the causes or possible
    cures.
  • Labeling????

7
Two Major Classifications in the DSM
  • Neurotic Disorders
  • Psychotic Disorders
  • Distressing but one can still function in society
    and act rationally.
  • Person loses contact with reality, experiences
    distorted perceptions.

8
A. Anxiety Disorders
  • a group of conditions where the primary symptoms
    are anxiety or defenses against anxiety.
  • the patient fears something awful will happen to
    them.
  • They are in a state of intense apprehension,
    uneasiness, uncertainty, or fear.
  • Generalized anxiety
  • Phobia
  • Obsessive-compulsive
  • Panic Disorder
  • Post Traumatic Stress

9
1. Phobias
  • A person experiences sudden episodes of intense
    dread.
  • Must be an irrational fear.
  • Phobia List

10
2. Generalized Anxiety DisorderGAD
  • A person is continuously tense, apprehensive and
    in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
  • The patient is constantly worried, feels
    inadequate, is oversensitive, cant concentrate
    and suffers from insomnia.

11
3. Panic Disorder
  • An anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long
    episode of intense dread in which a person
    experiences terror and accompanying chest pain,
    choking and other frightening sensations.

12
4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
OCD
  • Persistent unwanted thoughts (obsessions) cause
    someone to feel the need (compulsion) to engage
    in a particular action.
  • Obsession about dirt and germs may lead to
    compulsive hand washing.

http//videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery-health/3
3100-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd-overview-vi
deo.htm
13
Common Obsessions Common Compulsions
Contamination fears of germs, dirt, etc. Washing
Imagining having harmed self or others Repeating
Imagining losing control of aggressive urges Checking
Intrusive sexual thoughts or urges Touching
Excessive religious or moral doubt Counting
Forbidden thoughts Ordering/arranging
A need to have things "just so" Hoarding or saving
A need to tell, ask, confess Praying
14
5. Post-traumatic Stress Disordera.k.a. PTSD
  • Flashbacks or nightmares following a persons
    involvement in or observation of an extremely
    stressful event
  • Memories of the even cause anxiety.

15
B. Somatoform Disorders
  • Occur when a person manifests a psychological
    problem through a physiological symptom.
  • Soma Body
  • Two types
  • Hypochondria
  • Conversion disorder

16
1. Hypochondria
  • Has frequent physical complaints for which
    medical doctors are unable to locate the cause.
  • They usually believe that the minor issues
    (headache, upset stomach) are indicative are more
    severe illnesses.
  • Excessive worry about getting sick

17
2. Conversion Disorder
  • Report the existence of severe physical problems
    with no biological reason.
  • Like blindness or paralysis.

Ex hysterical blindness blindness after
traumatic event (no physical cause) Hysterical
pregnancy body acts pregnant but no baby!
18
C. Dissociative Disorders
  • These disorders involve a disruption in the
    conscious process.
  • Three types
  • Dissociative amnesia
  • Dissociative fugue
  • Dissociative identity

19
1. Dissociative Amnesia
  • A person cannot remember things with no
    physiological basis for the disruption in memory.
  • Blocking out critical personal information,
    usually of a traumatic or stressful nature

20
2. Dissociative Fugue
  • People with psychogenic amnesia that find
    themselves in an unfamiliar environment.
  • suddenly and unexpectedly takes physical leave of
    his or her surroundings and sets off on a journey
    of some kind.
  • These journeys can last hours, or even several
    days or months.

21
3. Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Used to be known as Multiple Personality
    Disorder.
  • A person has several alternating personality.
  • People with DID commonly have a history of
    childhood abuse or trauma.

22
D. Mood Disorders
  • Psychological Disorders characterized by
    emotional extremes.

-Dysthymic Disorder -Major Depression -Seasonal
affective -Bipolar disorder
23
1. Major Depression
  • Unhappy for at least two weeks with no apparent
    cause.
  • Depression is the common cold of psychological
    disorders.
  • Includes feelings of worthlessness and diminished
    interest or pleasure in most activities.

24
2. Dysthymic Disorder
  • Suffering from mild depression every day for at
    least two years.

25
3. Seasonal Affective Disorder
S.A.D
  • Experience depression during the winter months.
  • Based not on temperature, but on amount of
    sunlight.
  • Treated with light therapy.

26
4. Bipolar Disorder
  • Formally manic depression.
  • Involves periods of depression and manic
    episodes.
  • Manic episodes involve feelings of high energy
    (but they tend to differ a lotsome get confident
    and some get irritable).
  • Engage in risky behavior during the manic episode.

27
E. Personality Disorders
  • Psychological disorders characterized by
    inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that
    impair social functioning.
  • Dominates their personality.

28
1. Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • characterized by a lack of conscience
  • People with this disorder are prone to criminal
    behavior, believing that their victims are weak
    and deserving of being taken advantage of. They
    tend to lie and steal

29
2. Histrionic Personality Disorder
  • Needs to be the center of attention.
  • Whether acting silly or dressing provocatively.
  • They also tend to exaggerate friendships and
    relationships, believing that everyone loves them

30
3. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
  • Having an unwarranted sense of self-importance.
  • Thinking that you are the center of the universe.
  • Exaggerate achievements
  • Expect others to recognize them as superior

31
4. Paranoid Personality Disorder
  • Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by
    a distrust of others and a constant suspicion
    that people around you have sinister motives.
  • They search for hidden meanings in everything and
    read hostile intentions into the actions of
    others.

32
F. Schizophrenic Disorders
  • About 1 in every 100 people are diagnosed with
    schizophrenia.
  • Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Disorganized thinking.
  • Disturbed Perceptions
  • Inappropriate Emotions and Actions

http//videos.howstuffworks.com/investigation-disc
overy/32121-deadly-women-twisted-minds-video.htm
33
Disorganized Thinking
  • The thinking of a person with Schizophrenia is
    fragmented and bizarre and distorted with false
    beliefs.
  • Disorganized thinking comes from a breakdown in
    selective attention.- they cannot filter out
    information.

Often causes
34
Delusions (false beliefs)
  • Delusions of Persecution
  • Delusions of Grandeur

Disturbed Perceptions
hallucinations- sensory experiences without
sensory stimulation.
35
Inappropriate Emotions and Actions
  • Laugh at inappropriate times.
  • Flat Effect
  • Senseless, compulsive acts.
  • Catatonia- motionless Waxy Flexibility

36
Types of Schizophrenia
37
1. Disorganized Schizophrenia
  • Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or
    inappropriate emotion.

38
2. Paranoid Schizophrenia
  • Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations.
  • Somebody is out to get me!!!!

39
3. Catatonic Schizophrenia
  • Flat effect
  • parrot like repeating of anothers speech and
    movements

40
4. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
  • Many and varied Symptoms.

41
The Rosenhan Study
  • Rosenhans associates were Malingering symptoms
    of hearing voices.
  • They were ALL admitted for schizophrenia.
  • None were exposed as imposters.
  • They all left diagnosed with schizophrenia in
    remission.
  • What are some of the questions raised by this
    study?

42
Carols for the disturbed
  • 1. Do You Hear What I Hear?
  • 2. -- We Three Kings Disoriented Are
  • 3 I Think I'll be Home for Christmas
  • 4. --- Hark the Herald Angels Sing About Me
  • 5. --- Deck the Halls and Walls and House and
    Lawn and Streets and Stores and Office and Town
    and Cars and Buses and Trucks and Trees and.....

43
  • 6. Santa Claus is Coming to Town to Get Me
  • 7. Thoughts of Roasting on an Open Fire
  • 8. You Better Watch Out, I'm Gonna Cry, I'm
    Gonna Pout, Maybe I'll Tell You Why
  • 9. Silent night, Holy -oooh look at the
    Froggy! Can I have a chocolate? Why is France so
    far away?
  • 10. Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells,
    Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle
    Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells,
    Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle
    Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, J
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