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Abnormal Psychology: psychological disorders

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Title: Abnormal Psychology: psychological disorders


1
Abnormal Psychologypsychological disorders
  • Part I

2
Introduction to psychological disorders
  • Symptomology refers to identification of the
    symptoms.
  • Etiology refers to finding out why people
    suffer from a disorder.

3
Introduction to psychological disorders
  • When discussing a disorder, there is data which
    assist in the diagnosis
  • Prevalence rate it measures the total number of
    cases of the disorder in a given population.
  • Lifetime prevalence (LTP) is the percentage of
    the population that will experience the disorder
    at some time in their life.
  • Onset age is the average age at which the
    disorder is likely to appear. Knowing the average
    onset age can determine how likely it is that a
    person who begins to show specific symptoms at a
    specific age can be diagnosed reliably.

4
Introduction to psychological disorders
  • Classifications of abnormal behavior
  • Anxiety disorders have a form of irrational fear
    as a central disturbance. Example PTSD
  • Affective disorders are characterized by
    dysfunctional moods. Example Major Depressive
    Disorder
  • Eating disorders are characterized by eating
    patterns which lead to insufficient or excessive
    intake of food. Example Bulimia

5
Depression
  • Depression is one of the most common
    psychological disorders.
  • People who are depressed have very low moods and
    low levels of self esteem.
  • They lack motivation, and think that everything
    is black and that they will never be happy again.
  • The cause of depression is inconclusive. Current
    research suggests that there are biological,
    cognitive, and social factors involved.
  • Treatments include drugs and different kinds of
    therapy.

6
Symptoms of major depressive disorder
  • In order to find out why people suffer from
    depression, different levels of analysis are
    used
  • Biological factors may include peoples genetic
    makeup and biochemical factors.
  • Cognitive factors may include thought of
    hopelessness, pessimistic thinking patterns, or
    feelings of low self-esteem.
  • Social factors may include the stress of poverty,
    loneliness, or troubled personal relationships.

7
Symptoms of major depressive disorder
  • Affective feelings of guilt and sadness lack of
    enjoyment or pleasure in familiar activities or
    company
  • Behavioral passivity lack of initiative
  • Cognitive frequent negative thought faculty
    attribution of blame low self-esteem suicidal
    thoughts irrational hopelessness, may also
    experience difficulties in concentration and
    inability to make decisions.
  • Somatic loss of energy, insomnia, or
    hypersomnia weight loss/gain diminished libido.
  • These symptoms interfere with normal life
    activities, like work and relationships.

8
Affective disorders major depressive order
  • Major depressive disorder can be diagnosed when
    an individual experiences two weeks of either a
    depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure.
  • In addition, the diagnosis requires the presence
    of four additional symptoms, such as insomnia,
    appetite disturbances, loss of energy, feelings
    of worthlessness, thoughts of suicide, or
    difficulty concentrating.

9
Affective disorders major depressive order
  • Major depressive disorder is relatively common,
    affecting around 15 of the people at some time
    in their life (Charney and Weismann 1988)
  • Levav (1997) found the prevalence rate of
    depression to be above average in Jewish males
    and there is no difference of prevalence between
    Jewish men and Jewish women.

10
Affective disorders major depressive order
  • Depression tends to be a recurrent disorder, with
    about 80 experiencing a subsequent episode, with
    an episode typically lasting for three to four
    months. The average number of episodes is four.
    In approximately 12 of cases, depression becomes
    a chronic disorder with a duration of about two
    weeks.

11
Prevalence of Current Depression US Adults by
2006 and 2008
Age Group Percent Experiencing Depression
1824 11.1
2534 9.3
3544 8.7
4564 9.6
65 6.9
12
Prevalence of Current Depression US Adults by
2006 and 2008
  • This study found the following groups to be more
    likely to meet criteria for major depression
  • persons 45-64 years of age
  • women
  • blacks, Hispanics, non-Hispanic persons of other
    races or multiple races
  • persons with less than a high school education
  • those previously married
  • individuals unable to work or unemployed
  • persons without health insurance coverage

13
Etiology of major depressive disorder
  • There is now some evidence that changes in the
    level of certain neurotransmitters and hormones
    can precipitate a depressive episode.
  • It is also likely that many cases of clinical
    depression are triggered by negative events in a
    persons life.
  • Examples divorce, the death of a partner or
    child, a serious accident, or being fired
  • Sometimes depression appears to be a response not
    to a particular event, but to long-term
    circumstances.

14
Etiology of major depressive disorder
  • There may be an association between stress and
    depression, but it is important to realize that
    many people who are subjected to high stress do
    not develop a depressive disorder.
  • There are important individual differences in
    vulnerability .
  • The risk of becoming depressed is related to a
    number of factors, which can include
  • Genetic predisposition, personality and early
    history, cognitive style, coping skills, and the
    level of social support available.

15
Etiology of major depressive disorder
  • Depression is not caused by a single factor, but
    stems from a combination of factors, which may
    include
  • Genetic vulnerability, neurotransmitter
    malfunctioning, psychological problems, or
    particular life events or lifestyle factors, such
    as misuse of alcohol or drugs.
  • It is not possible for any doctor/psychologist to
    find the cause of depression in any individual.
  • Treatment aims to alleviate symptoms, and help
    the individual cope.

16
  • ________________ is the average age at which the
    disorder is likely to appear. Knowing the average
    onset age can determine how likely it is that a
    person who begins to show specific symptoms at a
    specific age can be diagnosed reliably.

17
  • ________________ is the average age at which the
    disorder is likely to appear. Knowing the average
    onset age can determine how likely it is that a
    person who begins to show specific symptoms at a
    specific age can be diagnosed reliably.
  • Symptomology
  • Onset age
  • Prevalence rate

18
  • _____________________refers to identification of
    the symptoms.

19
  • _____________________refers to identification of
    the symptoms.
  • Onset age
  • Prevalence rate
  • Symptomology

20
  • Which of the following is not true of depression?
  • Depression is one of the most common
    psychological disorders.
  • People who are depressed have very low moods and
    low levels of self esteem.
  • They lack motivation, and think that everything
    is black and that they will never be happy again.
  • The cause of depression is easily determined.
  • Treatments include drugs and different kinds of
    therapy.

21
  • Which of the following is not true of depression?
  • Depression is one of the most common
    psychological disorders.
  • People who are depressed have very low moods and
    low levels of self esteem.
  • They lack motivation, and think that everything
    is black and that they will never be happy again.
  • The cause of depression is easily determined.
  • Treatments include drugs and different kinds of
    therapy.

22
True or false?
  • Major depressive disorder can be diagnosed when
    an individual experiences one week of either a
    depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure.

23
  • Major depressive disorder can be diagnosed when
    an individual experiences one week of either a
    depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure.
  • True
  • False

24
  • ________________disorders are characterized by
    eating patterns which lead to insufficient or
    excessive intake of food.

25
  • ________________disorders are characterized by
    eating patterns which lead to insufficient or
    excessive intake of food.
  • anxiety
  • eating
  • affective

26
  • _________________disorders have a form of
    irrational fear as a central disturbance.

27
  • _________________disorders have a form of
    irrational fear as a central disturbance.
  • anxiety
  • eating
  • affective

28
TRUE OR FALSE
  • It is not possible for any doctor/psychologist to
    find the cause of depression in any individual.

29
  • It is not possible for any doctor/psychologist to
    find the cause of depression in any individual.
  • True
  • False

30
True or false
  • Depression is not caused by a single factor, but
    stems from a combination of factors.

31
  • Depression is not caused by a single factor, but
    stems from a combination of factors.
  • True
  • False

32
  • ____________________ it measures the total
    number of cases of the disorder in a given
    population.

33
  • ____________________ it measures the total
    number of cases of the disorder in a given
    population.
  • Prevalence rate
  • etiology
  • Symptomology

34
True or false?
  • Treatment aims to cure symptoms, and help the
    individual cope.

35
  • Treatment aims to cure symptoms, and help the
    individual cope.
  • True
  • False

36
  • Which of the following are is not likely to meet
    criteria for major depression
  • persons 45-64 years of age
  • women
  • blacks, Hispanics, non-Hispanic persons of other
    races or multiple races
  • persons with less than a high school education
  • unmarried people

37
  • Which of the following are is not likely to meet
    criteria for major depression
  • persons 45-64 years of age
  • women
  • blacks, Hispanics, non-Hispanic persons of other
    races or multiple races
  • persons with less than a high school education
  • unmarried people

38
  • _________________disorders are characterized by
    dysfunctional moods.

39
  • _________________disorders are characterized by
    dysfunctional moods.
  • Anxiety
  • Affective
  • Eating

40
  • ________________ refers to finding out why
    people suffer from a disorder.

41
  • ________________ refers to finding out why
    people suffer from a disorder.
  • Symptomology
  • Prevalence rate
  • etiology

42
The Biological level of analysis genetic and
biochemical factors in depression
  • Genetic researchers argue that genetic
    predisposition can partly explain depression.
  • Nurnberger and Gershon (1982) reviewed the
    results of seven twin studies and found that
    major depressive disorder was consistently higher
    for MZ (identical) twins than for DZ (fraternal)
    twins.

43
The Biological level of analysis genetic and
biochemical factors in depression
  • Environmental events play a role on depression as
    well.
  • Long-term stress may result in depression for
    some people because they have the genetic
    predisposition which makes them more vulnerable
    to depression than other people.

44
The Biological level of analysis genetic and
biochemical factors in depression
  • Duenwald (2003) have suggested that a short
    variant of the 5-HTT gene may be associates with
    a higher risk of depression. This gene plays a
    role in the serotonin pathways which scientists
    think are involved in controlling mood, emotions,
    aggression, sleep, and anxiety.

45
The Biological level of analysis genetic and
biochemical factors in depression
  • Catecholamine hypothesis aka the serotonin
    hypothesis suggested by Joseph Schildkraut in
    1965. According to this theory, depression is
    associated with low levels of noradrenaline,
    making the neurotransmitter serotonin
    responsible.

46
The Biological level of analysis genetic and
biochemical factors in depression
  • Janowsky et. al (1972) demonstrated that drugs
    which decrease the level of noradrenaline tend to
    produce depression-like symptoms. Participants
    were given a drug called physostigmine became
    profoundly depressed and experienced feelings of
    self-hate and suicidal wishes within minutes of
    taking the drug.
  • The fact that a depressed mood can be
    artificially induced by certain drugs suggests
    that some cases of depression may stem from a
    failure in neurotransmission. Also drugs that
    increase noradrenaline tend to be effective in
    reducing the symptoms of depression.

47
The Biological level of analysis genetic and
biochemical factors in depression
  • Delgado and Moreno (2000) found that abnormal
    levels of noradrenaline and serotonin in patients
    suffering from major depression.
  • Rampello et. al (2000) found that patients with
    major depressive disorder have an imbalance of
    several neurotransmitters, including
    noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, and
    acetylcholine.

48
The Biological level of analysis genetic and
biochemical factors in depression
  • Burns (2003) says that although he has spent many
    years of his career researching brain serotonin
    metabolism, he has never seen any convincing
    evidence that depression results from a
    deficiency of brain serotonin.
  • Lacasse and Leo (2005) argue that contemporary
    neuroscience has failed to prove that depression
    results from a deficiency in neurotransmitters.
    They say the research shows that the brain is
    very complex and not understood.

49
The Biological level of analysis genetic and
biochemical factors in depression
  • Burns, Lacasse and Leo criticize the serotonin
    theory because drugs that affect serotonin levels
    are heavily advertised and the most prescribed in
    our society for depression and other
    psychological disorders. Example Prozac

50
The Biological level of analysis genetic and
biochemical factors in depression
  • The cortisol hypothesis cortisol is a major
    hormone of the stress system and the reason for
    focusing on this is that it has always been
    obvious to clinicians that stress can predispose
    an individual to psychological as well as
    physical disorders.
  • Also, patients with major depressive disorder
    have high levels of cortisol, which is present in
    large amounts when individuals are stressed. This
    shows a link between long-term stress and
    depression. Studies that show this involve
    victims of child abuse.

51
The impact of poverty on child depression
  • Fernald and Gunnar (2008) Children between the
    ages of 2.5 and 6 were identified in a house to
    house survey in low-income areas of urban Mexico.
    The Scale was administered to mothers of all
    children. Salivary cortisol samples were taken in
    children. The children were administered several
    cognitive tests. Results revealed that higher
    levels of maternal depressive symptoms were
    associated with lower baseline cortisol levels in
    their children. These low levels indicate that
    the stress system if worn out leaving the
    children susceptible to depression, autoimmune
    disease. Socioeconomic status has a huge impact
    on health both physical and psychological.

52
Cognitive level of analysis cognitive factors in
depression
  • Cognitive theories of depression suggest that
    depressed cognitions, cognitive distortions, and
    irrational beliefs produce the disturbances of
    mood.
  • Ellis (1962) proposed the cognitive style theory,
    suggesting that psychological disturbances often
    come from irrational and illogical thinking. On
    the basis of dubious evidence or faulty
    inferences about the meaning of an event, people
    draw false conclusions, which then lead to
    feelings of anger, anxiety, or depression. Ellis
    contends that irrational beliefs such as My
    work must be perfect together with My last
    essay did not receive the top grade- can easily
    lead to self-defeating conclusions- Since I did
    not receive the highest grade, I am stupid.

53
Cognitive level of analysis cognitive factors in
depression
  • Beck (1976) suggested a theory of depression
    based in cognitive distortions and biases in
    information processing. Becks cognitive
    distortion theory of depression is based on
    schema processing where stored schemas about self
    interfere with information processing. Schemas
    influence the way people make sense of
    experiences.

54
Cognitive level of analysis cognitive factors in
depression
  • Beck observed that depressive patients exhibited
    a negative cognitive triad characterized by
  • Overgeneralization based on negative events.
  • Non-logical inference about the self.
  • Dichotomous thinking black and white thinking-
    and selective recall of negative consequences.

55
Cognitive level of analysis cognitive factors in
depression
  • Beck states that negative cognitive schemas are
    activated by stressful events. The depressed
    person tends to overreact. Also if a person has
    negative expectations about the future, the
    depression can continue in a vicious circle.

56
Sociocultural level of analysis social and
cultural factors in depression
  • Brown and Harris (1978) carried out a study
    concerning the social origins of depression in
    women. The researchers found that 29 out of 32
    women who became depressed had experienced a
    severe life event, but 78 of those who did
    experience a severe life event did not become
    depressed. They discovered that life events which
    resembled previous experiences were more likely
    to lead to depression. On the basis of this,
    brown suggested a vulnerability model of
    depression, based on a number of factors that
    could increase the likelihood of depression.

57
Sociocultural level of analysis social and
cultural factors in depression
  • Such life events were, for example
  • Lacking employment away from home
  • Absence of social support
  • Having several young children at home
  • Loss of mother at an early age
  • History of child abuse

58
Sociocultural level of analysis social and
cultural factors in depression
  • Diathesis-stress model is an interactions
    approach to explaining psychological disorders.
    The model claims that depression may be the
    result of a heredity predisposition, with
    precipitating events in the environment.

59
Sociocultural level of analysis social and
cultural factors in depression
  • World Health Organization (1983) has looked at
    cultural considerations linked to depression and
    identified common symptoms of depression in four
    countries Iran, Japan, Canada, and Switzerland
  • Symptoms sad affect, loss of enjoyment, anxiety,
    tension, inability to concentrate, ideas of
    insufficiency, lack of energy, inadequacy, and
    worthlessness.

60
  • Murphy et. al. (1967) conducted by psychiatrists
    that covered 30 countries. They found additional
    symptoms such as
  • Loss of sexual interest
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight reduction
  • Fatigue
  • Self-accusatory ideas

61
  • Prince (1968) claimed that there was no
    depression in Africa and various regions of Asia,
    but found that the rates of reported depression
    rose with westernization in the former colonial
    countries.
  • Kleinman (1982) showed that in China
    summarization served as a typical channel of
    expression and as a basic component of depressive
    experience. The Chinese rarely complain of
    sadness or depression.

62
  • Marsella (1979) argues that affective symptoms
    (sadness, loneliness, isolation) are typical of
    individualistic cultures. In cultures which are
    more collectivist have more somatic symptoms as
    headaches are more common.

63
Gender considerations in major depressive disorder
  • Williams and Hargreaves (1995)Women are two to
    three times more likely to become clinically
    depressed than men, and they are likely to
    experience several episodes of depression.
  • Many researcher argue that the reasons for
    depression are rooted more in social causes that
    in biological ones.

64
The theory of social factors in depression Brown
and Harris (1978)
  • Brown and Harris (1978) found that in its first
    onset depression usually happens for a reason, a
    serious adversity. They interviewed 458 women in
    South London, and found that 37 of them (8 per
    cent of the total) had become clinically
    depressed in the previous year. Of the 37 women
    who became depressed, 33 (almost 90 per cent) had
    suffered an adverse life event (such as a
    bereavement) or a serious difficulty (such as
    being in a relationship with an abusive husband).

65
The theory of social factors in depression Brown
and Harris (1978)
  • This compared with only 30 per cent of the women
    who did not become depressed suffering such an
    adversity. In only four of the 37 women who
    became depressed was their onset of depression
    unrelated to any adversity. If, when a serious
    life event or difficulty struck, the women in
    Brown and Harriss study lacked a protective
    factor such as social support from an intimate
    relationship in their life, their risk of
    suffering a breakdown was much increased.

66
The theory of social factors in depression Brown
and Harris (1978)
  • Brown and Harriss work is a fine example of a
    piece of social science research that was done
    really well, and that had an important effect.
    The finding that most people did not get
    depressed because there was something wrong with
    their personality, but because there was
    something wrong in their lives, transformed how
    depression was seen by general practitioners and
    psychiatrists in Britain.

67
  • Most of the serious life events that cause
    depression are losses, either of important
    relationships or roles or of life projects that
    were fundamental to peoples identities.
    Protective factors such as social support
    described by Brown and Harris were parts of
    peoples lives that enabled them to feel
    themselves even when substantial losses occurred.
    For people who were protected in this way, a
    serious adversity could cause sadness or anger,
    but seldom the hopeless and disabling despair
    that put them at risk of abandoning children and
    spouses in suicide attempts.

68
  • Social stress plays a role in triggering many
    depressive episodes, but demonstrates that social
    factors may increase an individuals vulnerability
    to depression. Social support may offer
    protection against the effects of stressful
    events.

69
Questions!
70
  • Catecholamine hypothesis aka the ____________
    hypothesis suggested by Joseph Schildkraut in
    1965.

71
  • Catecholamine hypothesis aka the ____________
    hypothesis suggested by Joseph Schildkraut in
    1965.
  • serotionin

72
  • Nurnberger and Gershon (1982) reviewed the
    results of seven twin studies and found that
    major depressive disorder was consistently higher
    for _________ twins than for _________ twins.

73
  • Nurnberger and Gershon (1982) reviewed the
    results of seven twin studies and found that
    major depressive disorder was consistently higher
    for _________ twins than for _________ twins.
  • MZ DZ
  • DZ MZ

74
True or false?
  • Rampello et. al (2000) found that patients with
    major depressive disorder have an perfect balance
    of several neurotransmitters, including
    noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, and
    acetylcholine.

75
True or false?
  • Rampello et. al (2000) found that patients with
    major depressive disorder have an perfect balance
    of several neurotransmitters, including
    noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, and
    acetylcholine.
  • True
  • False

76
True or false?
  • Burns (2003) says that although he has spent many
    years of his career researching brain serotonin
    metabolism, he has never seen any convincing
    evidence that depression results from a
    deficiency of brain serotonin.

77
  • Burns (2003) says that although he has spent many
    years of his career researching brain serotonin
    metabolism, he has never seen any convincing
    evidence that depression results from a
    deficiency of brain serotonin.
  • True
  • False

78
True or false?
  • Janowsky et. al (1972) demonstrated that drugs
    which decrease the level of noradrenaline tend to
    produce depression-like symptoms. Participants
    were given a drug called physostigmine became
    profoundly depressed and experienced feelings of
    self-love and suicidal wishes within minutes of
    taking the drug

79
  • Janowsky et. al (1972) demonstrated that drugs
    which decrease the level of noradrenaline tend to
    produce depression-like symptoms. Participants
    were given a drug called physostigmine became
    profoundly depressed and experienced feelings of
    self-love and suicidal wishes within minutes of
    taking the drug
  • True
  • False

80
  • _________________ model is an interactions
    approach to explaining psychological disorders.
    The model claims that depression may be the
    result of a heredity predisposition, with
    precipitating events in the environment

81
  • _________________ model is an interactions
    approach to explaining psychological disorders.
    The model claims that depression may be the
    result of a heredity predisposition, with
    precipitating events in the environment
  • Medical
  • Diathesis-stress
  • Working

82
  • The ________________hypothesis it is a major
    hormone of the stress system and the reason for
    focusing on this is that it has always been
    obvious to clinicians that stress can predispose
    an individual to psychological as well as
    physical disorders.

83
  • The ________________hypothesis it is a major
    hormone of the stress system and the reason for
    focusing on this is that it has always been
    obvious to clinicians that stress can predispose
    an individual to psychological as well as
    physical disorders.
  • serotionin
  • cortisol

84
True or False?
  • Marsella (1979) argues that affective symptoms
    (sadness, loneliness, isolation) are typical of
    collectivist cultures. In cultures which are more
    collectivist have more somatic symptoms as
    headaches are more common.

85
  • Marsella (1979) argues that affective symptoms
    (sadness, loneliness, isolation) are typical of
    collectivist cultures. In cultures which are more
    collectivist have more somatic symptoms as
    headaches are more common.
  • True
  • False

86
  • Prince (1968) claimed that there was no
    depression in _____________and various regions of
    Asia, but found that the rates of reported
    depression rose with westernization in the former
    colonial countries.

87
  • Prince (1968) claimed that there was no
    depression in _____________and various regions of
    Asia, but found that the rates of reported
    depression rose with westernization in the former
    colonial countries.
  • Africa
  • Australia
  • Canada
  • Unites States
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