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Classification There are around 2 million species that have been described and scientists believe there are anywhere from 4 million to over 100 million different ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification

  • Classification
  • There are around 2 million species that have been
    described and scientists believe there are
    anywhere from 4 million to over 100 million
    different kinds of life forms on this planet.
    How do we figure this out? Mathematical models!
  • Classification isthe process of grouping things
    together based upon their similarities.
  • Scientists do this in order to make it easier to
    study living things.

  • Taxonomy isthe study of how living things are
    classified. Taxonomists are the scientists that
    do this.
  • How Did this all Start?
  • Dude 1
  • Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist
    who lived in the 300B.C.s he took a shot at
    classifying critters. He observed animals and
    grouped them intoswimming, walking, and flying
    things. Nice trybut we dont use these
    groupstheyre too general.

  • More About Aristotlefor inquiring minds
  • Aristotle also grouped animals into those with
    blood and those without blood. Thats sorta
    close to our vertebrate (backbone) and
    invertebrate (no backbone) thing.
  • Even though we have made some changes, We still
    DO use his basic approach.

  • Dude 2
  • Carolus Linnaeus was a Swedish scientist
    (mid-1700s) who followed up on Aristotles work.
  • He developed the system of using two names, so
    that scientists could communicate regardless of
    the language they spoke. We call this
  • The first word is the genus and the second is
    usually an adjective that describes the organism
    (or where its from or who discovered it). More
    on this in a few slides.

  • Eight Levels of Classification
  • (and one way to remember them)
  • DomainDumb
  • KingdomKings
  • PhylumPlay
  • ClassChess
  • OrderOn
  • FamilyFancy
  • GenusGlass
  • SpeciesStools
  • Kingdoms are the broadest category and species
    the mostummmspecific.

  • Domains were added to the taxonomic system to
    take evolutionary differences and differences in
  • This level is the broadest in scope.
  • There are three DOMAINS Archaea, Bacteria, and

  • The Six Kingdoms
  • Well look at each in more detail later.
  • Archaebacteria
  • Bacteria (formerly Eubacteria)
  • Protists
  • Fungi
  • Plants
  • Animals

  • In this system of naming living things using two
    names, we use the genus and species names.
  • Genus a grouping that contains several similar
  • Species an even smaller group within which
    organisms can mate and produce fertile offspring.
  • Example Crocodylus porosus (salt water
    crocodile), Crocodylus niloticus (Nile
    crocodile)same genus different species.
  • Notice that the genus name is upper case and the
    species namelower case.

  • Dichotomous KeysAKA Taxonomic Key
  • A bunch of paired statements that describe the
    physical characteristics of living things.
  • You make observations follow the key and BINGO!
    Instant identification ?
  • Turn to page 226 and figure out what organisms
    are pictured by using the dichotomous (taxonomic)

Checkpoint Question 1!?!?!?
  • What were the three main groups of animals in
    Aristotles system of classification?
  • Large animals, small animals, and medium-sized
  • Mammals, fish, and reptiles
  • Those that fly, those that swim, and those that
    can walk, crawl, or run

Checkpoint Question 2!?!?!?!?
  • In a scientific name, the genus name is similar
  • Your species name.
  • Your family name.
  • Your nickname.

Checkpoint Question 3!?!?!?!?
  • What are the seven levels of classification from
    the broadest to the most specific?
  • Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family,
    genus, species
  • Kingdom, phylum, order, class, family, genus,
  • Kingdom, phylum, family, order, genus, species

Checkpoint Question 4!?!?!?!?
  • Who developed one of the earliest classification
    system for organisms?
  • Aristotle
  • Linnaeus
  • Darwin

Checkpoint Question 5!?!?!?!?
  • In the scientific name of a house cat, Felis
    domesticus, felis is the name of the animals
  • Species
  • Family
  • Genus

Checkpoint Question 6!?!?!?!?
  • A taxonomic key is
  • a book with illustrations that highlights
    differences between similar-looking organisms.
  • a process for determining the evolutionary
    history of an organism.
  • a series of paired statements that describe the
    physical characteristics of different organisms.

  • 1-C
  • 2-B
  • 3-A
  • 4-A
  • 5-C
  • 6-C