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Ch. 18, Classification

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18-1: Finding Order in Diversity How living things are ... Modern Evolutionary Classification Evolutionary relationships Cladistics Comparing dissimilar organisms 18 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch. 18, Classification


1
Ch. 18, Classification
  • 18-1 Finding Order in Diversity
  • How living things are organized
  • Binominal Nomenclature
  • Linnaeuss System of Classification
  • 18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • Evolutionary relationships
  • Cladistics
  • Comparing dissimilar organisms
  • 18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • 6 kingdoms of Life
  • 3 Domain system of classification

2
Finding Order In Diversity
Sec. 18-1
  • What is a species?
  • A population of organisms that share similar
    characteristics and can interbreed freely
  • Biologists have identified 1.5 million species,
    and they estimate 2-100 million species have yet
    to be identified
  • Order out of chaos?
  • Classification
  • A system to name and group organisms in a
    logical order, used to study diversity of life
  • Taxonomy
  • Classifying organisms and giving them a
    universally accepted name

Box 1
Box 2
Box 3
Box 4
3
Scientific Name? Common Name?
  • Using common names is confusing
  • Mountain lion, cougar, bear cat, puma, panther
  • 18th century scientists agreed to use a single
    name for each species, and to use Latin as the
    common language
  • Carolus Linnaeus- a Swedish botanist (mid
    1700s) who developed the binominal nomenclature
    system of naming organisms
  • Binominal Nomenclature 2 word naming
    system we still use today

Grrrrrr..
Box 5
Box 6
Box 7
Say my name, say my name.
Carolus Linnaeus
4
Scientific Names
All bears are NOT alike- but they are all bears.
Scientific Names of bears
Common Name Grizzly Bear Scientific Name
Ursidae Ursus arctos
Common Name Polar Bear Scientific Name Ursidae
Ursus maritimus
Common Name Black Bear Scientific Name Ursidae
Ursus americanus
What are the reoccurring words?
Common Name Panda Bear Scientific Name Ursidae
Ailuropoda melanoleuca
Common Name Sloth Bear Scientific Name Ursidae
Melursus ursinus
5
Scientific Names
Roar (loudly).
  • For a grizzly bear, Ursus is the genus name and
    arctos is the species name
  • Species names are unique to that individual group
    of organisms and are usually a description of an
    important trait or an indication of where that
    organism lives
  • Ursus maritimus, where does he live?
  • Maritim means to live near the sea

Common Name Grizzly Bear Scientific Name Ursus
arctos
Box 9
Box 10
Felis domesticus, cat what does domesticus mean?
Common Name Polar Bear Scientific Name Ursus
maritimus
Domesticus of the house
Meow.
6
Linnaeuss System of Classification
  • Linnaeuss system is hierarchical, and includes
    7 levels (largest to smallest)

Box 11
Example Humans
Kingdom
Animalia
Largest- plants, animals, insects, fish,
bacteria- everything fits in here
Phylum
Chordata
King Phillip Came Over For Good Spagetti. Yummy.

Class
Mammalia
Order
Primates
Hominidae
Family
Genus
Homo
Species Smallest
sapiens
7
Bear Classification as an Example
Duh, its the fox.
Grizzly bear
Black bear
Giant panda
Red fox
Squirrel
Coral snake
Sea star
KINGDOM Animalia
Question Which organism is more closely related
to the polar bear, the squirrel or the fox?
PHYLUM Chordata
CLASS Mammalia
ORDER Carnivora
FAMILY Ursidae
GENUS Ursus
SPECIES Ursus arctos
8
Evolutionary Classification
Sec. 18-2
  • Linneaus grouped organisms based on physical
    similarities, but Darwins concept of Descent
    with Modification changed all that
  • Phylogeny grouping organisms into categories
    that represent lines of evolutionary descent
    instead of physical similarities

Box 12
Limpet
Crab
Barnacles
If you had to group these 3 based on what they
look like, who is more related?
9
Barnacles, Limpets and Crabs
Barnacles
Limpet
Appendages
Conical Shells
Crab
Crab
Barnacle
Limpet
Crab
Barnacle
Limpet
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON ANALYSIS
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VISIBLE SIMILARITIES
10
Evolutionary Classification
Barnacles
Crab
Crustaceans
Gastropods
Actually, crabs and barnacles are more closely
related evolutionarily.
Limpet
Crab
Barnacle
Limpet
Box 13
This branching shows that crabs and barnacles
share a more recent common ancestor.
CLADOGRAM
Molted exoskeleton
Derived characteristics in crustaceans
-Segmented bodies -Hard external skeleton shed
during growth
Tiny free-swimming larva
11
Similarities in DNA and RNA
  • Genes of many organisms share important
    similarities at the molecular level
  • Similarities in DNA and RNA can help determine
    classification and evolutionary relationships

Box 15
Storks
American vulture
Falcon
African Vulture
12
Molecular Clocks
  • DNA comparisons can also be used to mark the
    passage of evolutionary time
  • Molecular Clock model uses DNA comparisons to
    estimate the length of time that 2 species have
    been evolving independently
  • Looks for mutations that separate 2 species
  • Other changes in DNA
  • Compares DNA sequences between species

Box 16
Box 17
Which organisms are more closely related?
Why?
Human   CCA TAG CAC CTA Pig  
CCA TGG AAA CGA Chimpanzee   CCA TAA CAC CTA
Cricket   CCT AAA GGG ACG
Only 1 mutation separates human and chimp in this
portion of the gene
13
Kingdoms and Domains
Sec. 18-3
  • In Linnaeuss time, life was much simpler.
    Either you were a plant or an animal.
  • Today, classification is more complicated.
  • Protists? Bacteria? Viruses?
  • Tree of Life (www.tolweb.org)
  • Life is full of Diversity
  • Robert Hooke and Van Leewenhoek showed us the
    microscopic world, bacteria, protists,
    microorganisms
  • Discovering all these microscopic life forms,
    added branches to the Tree of Life

Box 18
Box 18
14
Three Domain System
Kingdom
Phylum
  • Using a molecular clock, scientists group
    organisms according to how long they have been
    evolving independently
  • Now, we have another level added to Linnaeuss 7
    level system, called Domains
  • Today, we have 3 Domains
  • Bacteria all bacteria in the kingdom
    Eubacteria, unicellular, members are Prokaryotes
  • Archaebacteria includes the kingdom
    Archaebacteria
  • Eukarya protists, fungi, plants and animals

Box 19
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Box 20
Species
Box 21
Box 23
Box 24
15
Domain Bacteria
  • Members of Kingdom Bacteria are Prokaryotes
  • Prokaryotes lack a nucleus, no membrane-bound
    organelles
  • Organelles mitochondria, chloroplasts,
    endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, vacuole,
    ribosome

Bacteria on a contact lens
Box 22
Examples of Bacteria
Bacteria on your teeth
Some microbes live on our skin and protect us
from many harmful agents. The drier areas, like
the back, have few microbes moist areas, such as
under the arm, have many more.
Lactobacillus bulgaricus helps turn milk into
cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products.
Lactose intolerant anyone?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis
Staphylococcus (a.k.a. staph) can cause serious
infections and is one of the most drug-resistant
bacteria
Escherichia coli (a.k.a. E. coli) lives in the
gut, where it helps digest food
16
Domain Archaea
Yellowsprings Yellowstone Park
  • Archaebacteria are CRAZY bacteria
  • Unicellular, Prokaryotic
  • Live in the most extreme environments, where only
    crazy things live
  • Would you live in a swamp or marsh?
  • Or in the boiling water of a hot spring (over
    163 oF)?
  • Or in a black smoker (deep sea air vents (very
    hot!))
  • Or in brine (water with 9X amount of salt as the
    ocean) and in salt crust?
  • Or how about Mars?? Yes, Mars!

Box 23
Owens Lake, NV
Black Smoker
Archae- Bacteria, anyone?
  1. Methanogens (methane-producers)--responsible for
    swamp gas and farts.
  2. Extreme Thermophiles--live in hot springs and
    black smokers.
  3. Extreme Halophiles--live in saturated brine and
    salt crust.

Martian
17
Domain Eukarya
Eu You, get it?
  • All organisms whose cells have a nucleus
  • Everything that is NOT a bacteria- including YOU!
  • Now we get to the last 4 in Linnaeuss 6 Kingdom
    system

Box 24
18
Plantae and Animalia
You have so much food! We have only crazy
bacteria on Mars!
19
Section 18-3
Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of Kingdoms and
Domains
Fill in the table Box 29
Classification of Living Things
Eukarya
DOMAIN
Bacteria
Archaea
KINGDOM
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
CELL TYPE
Prokaryote
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
Eukaryote
Eukaryote
Eukaryote
May have cell walls of cellulose and/or
chloroplasts
No cell walls or chloroplasts
Cell walls with peptidoglycan
Cell walls without peptidoglycan
CELL STRUCTURES
Cell walls of chitin
Cell walls of cellulose chloroplasts
Some unicellular most multicellular
Most unicellular some colonial some
multicellular
NUMBER OF CELLS
Unicellular
Unicellular
Multicellular
Multicellular
MODE OF NUTRITION
Autotroph or heterotroph
Autotroph or heterotroph
Autotroph or heterotroph
Heterotroph
Autotroph
Heterotroph
Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals
Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp
Streptococcus, Escherichia coli
Methanogens, halophiles
Mosses, ferns, flowering plants
EXAMPLES
Mushrooms, yeasts
20
DOMAIN EUKARYA
DOMAIN ARCHAEA
Kingdoms
Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi A
nimalia
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