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Taxonomy (Classification)

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Title: Taxonomy (Classification)


1
Taxonomy (Classification)
2
Carolus Linnaeus -developed the scientific naming
system still used today.
  • Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying
    organisms.

White oakQuercus alba
  • A taxon is a group of organisms in a
    classification system.

3
  • Binomial nomenclature is a two-part scientific
    naming system.
  • uses Latin words (universal, unchanging language)
  • scientific names always written in italics or
    underlined
  • two parts are the genus name and species

4
  • Genus is the first part of a scientific name.
  • Genus name is always capitalized.
  • A species is the second part of a scientific
    name.
  • always lowercase
  • always follows genusname never written alone
  • Scientific names are written in
  • italics or underlined

Tyto alba
5
Scientific names help scientists to communicate.
  • Some species have very similar common names.
  • Some species have many common names.

6
Rhinecanthus aculeatus
  • - Hawaii Huma Huma Nuka Nuka Apuaa
  • - Other Places - Picasso Triggerfish

7
Linnaeus classification system has seven levels.
  • Each level is included in the level above it.
  • Levels get increasingly specific from kingdom to
    species.
  • Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family genus,
    species

8
Levels of Classification
  • 1. Kingdom-largest (least specific)
  • 2. Phylum
  • 3. Class
  • 4. Order
  • 5. Family
  • 6. Genus
  • 7. Species-smallest (most specific)
  • These levels are called taxa (plural for taxon).

9
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10
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11
Classifying people!
  • 1. Kingdom Animal
  • 2. Phylum Chordate (backbones)
  • 3. Class mammal
  • 4. Order - Primates
  • 5. Family - Hominidae
  • 6. Genus Homo (man)
  • 7. Species sapiens (wise)
  • Scientific Name of people Homo sapiens

12
How do I remember the order?
  • Use the sentence
  • Kings Play Chess On Funny Green Squares
  • OR
  • Keep Players Calm Or Fight Gangster Style
  • OR
  • King Philip Came Over For Good Soup

13
The Linnaean classification system has
limitations.
  • Linnaeus taxonomy doesnt account for molecular
    evidence.
  • The technology didnt exist during Linneaus
    time.
  • Linnaean system based only on physical
    similarities.

14
  • Physical similarities are not always the result
    of close relationships.
  • Genetic similarities more accurately show
    evolutionary relationships.
  • DNA shows red panda to be more related to raccoon
    than pandas
  • 1992 rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri was
    reclassified as Oncorhynchus mykiss because
    molecular evidence shows it is more closely
    related to salmon

15
Cladistics is classification based on common
ancestry.
  • Phylogeny- evolutionary relationships among
    organisms that show descent from a common
    ancestor, not similarities based off of physical
    characteristics.
  • evidence from living species, fossil record, and
    molecular data
  • shown with branching tree diagrams

16
Phylogeny
17
A cladogram is a graphic that shows the
evolutionary relationships among a group of
organisms.
18
Classification is always a work in progress.
  • The tree of life shows our most current
    understanding.
  • New discoveries can lead to changes in
    classification.
  • Until 1866 only two kingdoms,Animalia and
    Plantae

19
Classification is always a work in progress.
  • The tree of life shows our most current
    understanding.
  • New discoveries can lead to changes in
    classification.
  • Until 1866 only two kingdoms,Animalia and
    Plantae

Plantae
Animalia
  • 1866 all single-celled organisms moved to
    kingdom Protista

20
Classification is always a work in progress.
  • The tree of life shows our most current
    understanding.
  • New discoveries can lead to changes in
    classification.
  • Until 1866 only two kingdoms,Animalia and
    Plantae
  • 1866 all single-celled organisms moved to
    kingdom Protista
  • 1938 prokaryotes moved to kingdom Monera

21
Classification is always a work in progress.
  • The tree of life shows our most current
    understanding.
  • New discoveries can lead to changes in
    classification.
  • Until 1866 only two kingdoms,Animalia and
    Plantae
  • 1866 all single-celled organisms moved to
    kingdom Protista
  • 1938 prokaryotes moved to kingdom Monera
  • 1959 fungi moved to own kingdom

Monera
22
Classification is always a work in progress.
  • The tree of life shows our most current
    understanding.
  • New discoveries can lead to changes in
    classification.
  • Until 1866 only two kingdoms,Animalia and
    Plantae
  • 1866 all single-celled organisms moved to
    kingdom Protista
  • 1938 prokaryotes moved to kingdom Monera
  • 1959 fungi moved to own kingdom
  • 1977 kingdom Monerasplit into kingdoms Bacteria
    and Archaea

23
There are 3 domains and 6 kingdoms
  • Domain Bacteria
  • Kingdom Eubacteria
  • Domain Archaea
  • Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Domain Eukarya
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Kingdom Animalia

24
Domain BacteriaKingdom Eubacteria
  • Cell type Prokaryote
  • Cell structures Cell walls with peptidoglycan
  • Number of cells Unicellular
  • Mode of nutrition Autotroph or Heterotroph
  • Examples Streptococcus, E. coli
  • Eubacteria live everywhere. They inhabit your
    mouth, your skin, your stomach, dirt, desks,
    floors, etc..
  • These are the common bacteria that we refer to as
    germs.

Streptococcus mutans (can cause endocarditis and
dental caries)
Bacillus anthracis (spores can live in soil for
years)
25
Domain ArchaeaKingdom Archaebacteria
  • Cell type Prokaryote
  • Cell structures Cell walls without peptidoglycan
  • Number of cells Unicellular
  • Mode of nutrition Autotroph or Heterotroph
  • Examples Methanogens, halophiles, thermophiles
  • Archaebacteria live in very EXTREME environments.
    They inhabit volcanic hot springs, black mud with
    no oxygen, and very salty water.
  • These are the extreme bacteria that we do not
    come in contact with frequently.

26
Domain Eukarya includes all eukaryotes.
  • kingdom Protista

27
Domain Eukarya includes all eukaryotes.
  • kingdom Protista
  • kingdom Plantae

28
Domain Eukarya includes all eukaryotes.
  • kingdom Protista
  • kingdom Plantae
  • kingdom Fungi

29
Domain Eukarya includes all eukaryotes.
  • kingdom Protista
  • kingdom Plantae
  • kingdom Fungi
  • kingdom Animalia

30
Kingdom Protista
  • Cell type Eukaryote
  • Cell structures Some have cell walls of
    cellulose and some have no cell walls
  • Number of cells Most unicellular some
    multicellular
  • Mode of nutrition Autotroph or Heterotroph
  • Examples Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant
    kelp, algae
  • Protists display the greatest variety. If
    something cant be classified as anything else,
    it is placed in this category.
  • All protists live in some type of water or moist
    environment (like in moist soil or in your own
    body!)

31
Kingdom Fungi
  • Cell type Eukaryote
  • Cell structures Cell walls of chitin
  • Number of cells Most multicellular some
    unicellular (like yeast)
  • Mode of nutrition Heterotroph
  • Examples Mushrooms, yeast, mildew
  • Fungus is important! We can eat some and it can
    help make bread, but it can also cause athletes
    foot and other fungal infections.
  • They like moist environments.

32
Kingdom Plantae
  • Cell type Eukaryote
  • Cell structures Cell walls of cellulose have
    chloroplasts
  • Number of cells Multicellular
  • Mode of nutrition Autotroph
  • Examples Mosses, ferns, flowering plants
  • Plants are non-motile, which means they cannot
    move from place to place

Sunflowers in Fargo, North Dakota
33
Kingdom Animalia
  • Cell type Eukaryote
  • Cell structures No cell walls
  • Number of cells Multicellular
  • Mode of nutrition Heterotroph
  • Examples Sponges, worms, insects, fishes,
    mammals
  • Very diverse!

34
DOMAIN KINGDOM EXAMPLES
Bacteria Eubacteria Streptococcus, Escherichia coli
Archaea Archaebacteria Methanogens, halophiles
Eukarya Protist Amoeba, paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp
Eukarya Fungi Mushrooms, yeasts
Eukarya Plantae Mosses, ferns, flowering plants
Eukarya Animalia Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals
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