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Classification

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Classification Why? Biology Ch 18 * A tree of life based on derived characteristics jus an example no need to memorize! * You DO need to now how this works. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification


1
Classification
  • Why?

Biology Ch 18
2
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3
Puma
Cougar
ONE name Felis concolor
Panther
4
Systems of Classification
Based on SIMILARITIES
  • Visual
  • Location
  • Anatomical
  • Physiological
  • Genetic
  • ???

Easiest to identify? MOST important/ BEST
relationships?
5
Classification Systems
  • Visual Similarities
  • Barnacle

Limpet
6
Linnaeuss System
  • Hierarchy
  • Seven levels - Taxons
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

7
King Philip?
King Philip Came Over For Good Soup
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
8
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Genus and Species name

Polar bear Ursus maritimus
Grizzly Bear Ursus arctos
Giant Panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca
9
Classification Systems
  • Visual Similarities PROBLEMS?

10
Old vs. Modern Systems
  • Evolutionary classification (descent
    characteristics)
  • Segmented bodies
  • Jointed limbs
  • Exoskeleton that is shed

Derived characteristics CLADOGRAM
11
Exercise
12
DNA Similarities
American Vulture
African Vulture
Stork
13
Molecular Clock
  • The molecular clock is a technique that uses
    fossil evidence and rates of genetic change to
    determine the time in when two species diverged.
  • It is used to estimate the time of occurrence of
    events called speciation or genetic radiation.
  • The molecular data used for such calculations is
    usually changes in nucleotide sequences in DNA or
    changes in amino acid sequences in proteins.
  • It is sometimes called a gene clock or
    evolutionary clock.

14
History of Classification Systems

1700s Plants Animals Late 1800s Plants,
Animals Protists 1950s Plants, Animals,
Protists Monera 1990s Plants, Animals,
Protists, Eubacteria, Archaebacteria
Introduced Kingdom Names Kingdom Names Kingdom Names Kingdom Names Kingdom Names Kingdom Names
1700s Plants Plants Plants Plants Plants Animals
Late 1800s Protists Protists Protists Protists Plants Animals
1950s Monera Monera Protists Fungi Plants Animals
1990s Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protists Fungi Plants Animals
15
Modern Classification System
  • Three domains
  • Eukarya Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals
  • Bacteria Eubacteria
  • Archaea Archaebacteria
  • Six kingdoms
  • Eubacteria
  • Archaebacteria
  • Protists
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia

16
Kingdom Characteristics
Domain
Kingdom
Cell type
Cell Structures
Number of cells
Nutrition mode
Examples
COMPLETE your worksheet
17
Domain Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya
Kingdom Eubacteria Archabacteria Protists Fungi Plants Animals
Cell Type Prokaryote Prokaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote
Cell Structures Cell walls Cell walls Cell walls of cellulose some w/ chloroplasts Cell walls of chitin Cell walls of cellulose chloroplasts No cell walls no chloroplasts
Number of cells Unicellular Unicellular Most unicellular some colonies come multicellular Most multicellular some unicellular Multicellular Muticellular
Nutrition mode Auto- or heterotroph Auto- or heterotroph Auto- or heterotroph Heterotroph Autotroph Heterotroph
Examples E. coli methanogens Amoeba, Protozoa, Kelp Mushroom, yeast Mosses, ferns, flowering plants Sponges, worms, insects, fish, mammals
18
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19
How to identify unknown organisms?
Dichotomous key A series of yes/no questions
(or two opposites) that lead to a final answer
20
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