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Classification

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Title: Classification


1
Classification
  • Sorting it all out

2
Why Classify?
  • Classification is putting things into orderly
    groups based on similar characteristics.
  • Allows us to figure how many species there are in
    the world
  • Tells us the defining characteristics of each
    species
  • Shows us the relationship between species
  • Think of a classification system you may use in
    your everyday life. Why do you use this system?

3
Taxonomy
  • Taxonomy the science of describing, naming, and
    classifying organisms
  • In the 1700s Carolus Linnaeus discovered the
    seven level system of classification that we
    still use today

These levels of classification incorporate all of
the living organisms of the world. Even though
we are constantly discovering new organisms and
new species, we are able to fit these new species
into Linnaeus levels of classification.
4
Seven Levels of Classification
  • Domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

5
Domains
  • A three-domain system is used to classify living
    organisms. Organisms are placed into domains and
    kingdoms based on their cell type, their ability
    to make food, and the number of cells in their
    body.
  • 1.Bacteria (Eubacteria) unicellular prokaryotes
    (cells lack a nuclueus),
  • Some are autotrophs while others are heterotrophs
  • Some are harmful (ex. Strep throat) and some
    helpful (ex. yogurt)
  • Very common
  • Kingdom of Eubacteria

6
Domains cont
  • 2. Archaea unicellular prokaryotes
  • Archaea is Greek for ancient, these organisms
    are the oldest known organisms on Earth
  • Some are autotrophs while others are heterotrophs
  • Can be found in deep ocean with hot gasses and
    molten rock, salty water, swamps, and even
    intestines of a cow!
  • These harsh living conditions are related back to
    the ancient world
  • Different chemical make-up than bacteria
  • Not as common as bacteria
  • Kingdom of Archaeabacteria

7
Domains cont
  • 3. Eukara eukaryotes (cells contain nuclei)
  • Organisms in this domain can be classified into 4
    kingdoms
  • Protists
  • Fungi
  • Plants
  • Animals

8
Kingdoms
  • Largest level of classification
  • Contains similar phyla
  • There are 6 different kingdoms
  1. Archaebacteria
  2. Eubacteria
  3. Protista
  4. Fungi
  5. Plantae
  6. Animalia

9
Kingdom History
10
Levels of classification
Animal Kingdom Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Felidae Genus Felis Species Felis domesticus
All animals are in the kingdom Animalia. All animals in the phyllum Chordata have a hollow nerve cord. Most have a backbone. Animals in the class Mammalia have a backbone. They also nurse their young. Animals in the order Carnivora have a backbone, nurse their young, and have special teeth for tearing meat. Animals in the family Felidae are cats. They have a backbone, nurse their young, have special teeth for tearing meat, and have retractable claws. Animals in the genus Felis have traits of other animals in the same family. However, these cats cannot roar- they can only purr. The species Felis domesticus is the common house cat. The house cat shares traits with all of the organisms in the levels above the species level, but also has unique traits.
11
Which kingdom?
  • Organisms are divided into kingdoms based on.
  • Cell Type Prokaryote (no nuclei) or Eukaryote
    (nuclei)

12
Which Kingdom cont
  • 2. Cell Number- unicellular or multicellular
  • 3. Feeding Type- autotroph or heterotroph

13
Key Characteristics of Domains Kingdoms
Kingdom Cell Type Cell Feeding Type Cell Wall Fact or Example
Archaebacteria
Eubacteria
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
Bacteria
Fungi
14
Archaebacteria
  • Ancient bacteria
  • Live in harsh/extreme environments
  • Prokaryote
  • Unicellular
  • Autotrophs and heterotrophs
  • Cell wall is present- contains no peptidoglycan
    (polymer)

15
Eubacteria.. Or just plain bacteria
  • When people talk about bacteria, this is the type
    they usually mean
  • Live in more neutral conditions
  • Prokaryote
  • Unicellular
  • Some autotrophs and some heterotrophs
  • Cell Wall present

Nitrifying bacteria (autotroph)
E.Coli, helps break down food in your intestines
(heterotroph)
16
Protists
  • All eukaryotes that are not plants, animal, or
    fungi
  • Unicellular and simple multicellular organisms
  • There are animal-like protists called protozoans
    (no cell wall), that are heterotrophs
  • There are plant-like protists like algae (cell
    wall present), that are autotrophs
  • Slime molds, water molds
  • Odds and ends group

17
Fungi
  • Molds and mushrooms
  • Unlike plants, fungi Do NOT perform
    photosynthesis
  • Unlike animals, fungi do NOT eat food
  • Heterotrophs, absorb nutrients from substances in
    their suroundings
  • Reproduce using spores
  • Eukaryotic cells
  • Multicellular
  • Cell wall present

18
Plants
  • Eukaryotic cells, multicellular
  • Cell wall present
  • Create own food through photosynthesis, making
    plants autotrophs
  • Plants provide nutrients and habitat for other
    organisms

19
Animals
  • Complex, multicellular organisms
  • Eukaryotic
  • No cell wall present
  • Usually able to move around, and have specialized
    sense organs
  • Usually have quick response to environment
  • Animals depend on plants and other animals for
    food, making animals heterotrophs
  • Animals depend on bacteria/fungi to recycle
    nutrients found in dead organisms
  • Simple organisms like worms, insects, corals, and
    sponges are also animals

20
Phylum Examples in Animal Kingdom
  • Chordata- dorsal nervous chord (spinal column)
  • Mollusca- muscular foot, shell
  • Cnidaria- Have cnidae (stinging cells), have a
    nerve net but no true nervous system, no head, 2
    way gut
  • Annelida- segmented, bilaterally symmetrical,
    closed circulatory system, setae

There are 35 different phyla in the Animal
Kingdom alone!
21
Classification of Man
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata
  • Class Mammalia
  • Order Primates
  • Family Hominidae
  • Genus Homo
  • Species sapien

22
Binomial NomenclatureakaScientific Name
  • Binomial TWO terms
  • Nomenclature given NAME
  • Linnaeus discovered a scientifically useful way
    to name organisms no matter how many common names
    there may be
  • Ex.) In North and South American, a certain large
    cat is called a mountain lion by some people, a
    cougar by others, and a puma still by others.
    However, its scientific name is always the same,
    Felis concolor
  • Genus species scientific name
  • Scientific names are written in italics, the
    Genus always capitalized and the species
    lowercase.

23
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