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CLASSIFICATION

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CLASSIFICATION & 6 KINGDOM NOTES Why classify organisms? To organize the diversity of life To help us know what we are talking about Ex. Brown animal beaver or bison? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CLASSIFICATION


1
CLASSIFICATION 6 KINGDOM NOTES
2
Why classify organisms?
  • To organize the diversity of life
  • To help us know what we are talking about
  • Ex. Brown animal beaver or bison?

3
  • In order to work well, a classification system
    must be established and logical
  • Furthermore, classification rules must have real
    biological meaning, so that you can identify an
    organism in the field
  • Dont use tall, colors, big, small
  • Do use greater than 2 meters in height, large
    eyes compared to head size, tail longer than body

4
Taxonomy
  • The branch of biology that names and groups
    organisms according to their characteristics and
    evolutionary history.
  • Classify the thousands of new species discovered
    each year.

5
Early Systems of Classification
  • Aristotle
  • First classified organisms more than 2000yrs ago
    as either plants or animals
  • Animals land dwellers, water dwellers, or air
    dwellers
  • Plants three categories based on differences in
    their stems

6
Linnaeus
  • The Swedish biologist Carl von Linne developed
    the classification system we currently use today.
    He later changed his name to match his system
    and is now known as Carolus Linneaus.
  • His system used an organisms appearance
  • His classification system consists of 7 levels
    they are
  • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus,
    species

7
Classification System
  • Hint Levels Example Broadest
  • King Kingdom Animalia
  • Phillip Phylum Chordata
  • Came Class Mammalia
  • Over Order Carnivora
  • For Family Canidae
  • Green Genus Canus
  • Soup species familiaris Most specific

8
  • In this classification system, each organism has
    a two-part scientific name this system of naming
    organisms is called binomial nomenclature
  • In particular, organisms must have a universally
    accepted name

9
We use Latin to name organisms, why?
  • 1. It is a dead, unchanging language
  • 2. There is no competition among countries

10
Every scientific name has 3 parts
  • 1. The entire name is italicized or underlined
  • 2. The name is made up of the Genus and species
    names of the organism
  • 3. The first word is capitalized and the
    second is lowercase.
  • Examples Homo sapiens, Canus familiaris, Equus
    caballus

11
Two Modern Systems of Classification
  • Six Kingdom System
  • Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi,
    Plantae Animalia
  • Three Domain System
  • Archaea
  • Bacteria
  • Eukarya

12
Definitions
  • A prokaryote does not have a nucleus
  • A eukaryote does have a nucleus
  • An autotroph can make its own food
  • A heterotroph cannot make its own food

13
THE 6 KINGDOMS
14
Kingdom Archaebacteria
15
Archaebacteria
  • Prokaryotic
  • Single celled
  • Both (Autotroph or Heterotroph)
  • Live in Harsh Environments
  • Methanogens Halophiles

16
Kingdom Eubacteria
17
Eubacteria
  • Prokaryotic
  • Single-celled
  • Both (Autotroph or Heterotroph)
  • Cause Diseases in Humans
  • Bacteria (common kinds)

18
Kingdom Protista
19
Protista
  • Eukaryotic
  • Single-celled
  • Both (Autotroph or Heterotroph)
  • Move using cilia or flagella
  • Ameba, Euglena, Paramecium

20
Kingdom Fungi
21
Fungi
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multi-celled
  • Heterotroph
  • Act as decomposers
  • Mold, Yeast, Ringworm, Mushrooms

22
Kingdom Plantae
23
Plantae
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multi-celled
  • Autotroph
  • Make food by photosynthesis
  • Mosses, Ferns, Grass, Trees, Flowering plants

24
Kingdom Animalia
25
Animalia
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multi-celled
  • Heterotroph
  • Most are mobile
  • Snakes, Worms, Dogs, Sponges, Insects, Humans

26
Three Domain System
  • Molecular biology has led to an alternative to
    the 6 kingdom system
  • By comparing sequences of ribosomal RNA in many
    organisms, they have estimated how long ago pairs
    of organisms shared a common ancestor

27
Three Domain System
  • Phylogenetic tree drawn from this data shows that
    living things seem to fall naturally into 3 broad
    groups or domains
  • 3 Domains (and the kingdoms they include)
  • Bacteria (Eubacteria)
  • Archaea (Archaebacteria)
  • Eukarya (Eukaryotes) includes Protista, Fungi,
    Plantae, Animalia

28
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Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya
Kingdom Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
Cell Type Prokaryotes Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryotes
Cell Structures Have cell walls that lack peptidoglycan Have cell walls made up of peptidoglycan Have a nucleus, mitochondria, some have chloroplasts Have a nucleus, mitochondria, but no chloroplasts or cell wall of chitin Have a nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts/ cell wall of cellulose Have a nucleus, mitochondria, but no chloroplasts no cell wall
Body Form Unicellular Unicellular Mostly unicellular, some multicellular Some unicellular, most multicellular Multicellular Multicellular
Nutrition Autotrophic or Heterotrophic Autotrophic or Heterotrophic Autotrophic or Heterotrophic Heterotrophic (absorption) Autotrophic Heterotrophic
Examples Methanogens, halophiles Rhizobium Bacillus E. coli Ameba, paramecium Yeasts, molds, mushrooms Mosses, ferns, flowering plants, seaweeds sponges, worms, snails, insects, mammals
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