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Classification

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Title: Classification


1
Classification
2
Species of Organisms
  • There are 13 billion known species of organisms
  • This is only 5 of all organisms that ever
    lived!!!!!
  • New organisms are still being found and
    identified

3
What is Classification?
  • Classification is the arrangement of organisms
    into orderly groups based on their similarities
  • Classification is also known as taxonomy
  • Taxonomists are scientists that identify name
    organisms

4
Benefits of Classifying
  • Accurately uniformly names organisms
  • Prevents misnomers such as starfish jellyfish
    that aren't really fish
  • Uses same language (Latin or some Greek) for all
    names

Seahorse?? Genus Hippocampus
5
Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names
6
Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists
7
Early Taxonomists
  • 2000 years ago, Aristotle was the first
    taxonomist
  • Aristotle divided organisms into plants animals
  • He subdivided them by their habitat ---land, sea,
    or air dwellers

8
Early Taxonomists
  • John Ray, a botanist, was the first to use Latin
    for naming
  • His names were very long descriptions telling
    everything about the plant

9
Carolus Linnaeus1707 1778
  • 18th century taxonomist
  • Classified organisms by their structure
  • Developed naming system still used today

10
Carolus Linnaeus
  • Called the Father of Taxonomy
  • Developed the modern system of naming known as
    binomial nomenclature
  • Two-word name (Genus species)

11
Standardized Naming
  • Binomial nomenclature used
  • Genus species
  • Latin or Greek
  • Italicized in print
  • Capitalize genus, but NOT species
  • Underline when writing

Turdus migratorius
American Robin
12
Standardized Naming
European robin Erithacus rubeculam, related to
European flycatchers. Australian robin Petroica
multicolor Related to crows not robins African
robin Leiothrix lutea. Related to
flycatchers. Asian robin Copyschus saularis
related to magpies.
13
Whats in a name?
Have you heard of this animal?
Catamount. Painter. Panther. Ghost Cat. Puma.
Shadow Cat. Mountain lion.
Mountain screamer, Deer Tiger. Red Tiger.
Cougar. Yuma Puma. Texas Panther. Florida Panther.
Scientific name Felis concolor
14
Binomial Nomenclature
15
Rules for Naming Organisms
  • The International Code for Binomial Nomenclature
    contains the rules for naming organisms
  • All names must be approved by International
    Naming Congresses (International Zoological
    Congress)
  • This prevents duplicated names

16
Classification Groups
  • Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a category into which
    related organisms are placed
  • There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from
    broadest to most specific
  • Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family,
    Genus, species

17
Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups
  • Domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum (Division used for plants)
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family

  • Genus
  • Species

BROADEST TAXON
18
  • Kings
  • Play
  • Chess
  • On
  • Fine
  • Green
  • Sand!

19
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20
Domains
  • Broadest, most inclusive taxon
  • Three domains
  • Archaebacteria and Eubacteria are unicellular
    prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound
    organelles)
  • Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and
    membrane-bound organelles

21
Archaebacteria live in harsh environments and may
represent the first cells to have evolved.
Sewage treatment plants, thermal vents, etc.
22
Eubacteria, some of which cause human diseases,
are present in almost all habitats on earth.
Live in the intestines of animals
Many bacteria are important environmentally and
commercially.
23
Domain Eukarya is Divided into 5 Kingdoms
  • Monera (all prokaroyotes, bacteria)
  • Protista (protozoans, algae)
  • Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts )
  • Plantae (multicellular plants)
  • Animalia (multicellular animals)

24
Protista
  • Most are unicellular
  • Some are multicellular
  • Some are autotrophic, while others are
    heterotrophic

25
Fungi
  • Multicellular, except yeast
  • Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside
    their body then absorb it)
  • Cell walls made of chitin

26
Plantae
  • Multicellular
  • Autotrophic
  • Absorb sunlight to make glucose Photosynthesis
  • Cell walls made of cellulose

27
Animalia
  • Multicellular
  • Ingestive heterotrophs (consume food digest it
    inside their bodies)
  • Feed on plants or animals

28
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29
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30
Taxons
  • Most genera (genus) contain a number of similar
    species, with the exception of Homo that only
    contains modern humans
  • Classification is based on evolutionary
    relationships

31
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32
Basis for Modern Taxonomy
  • Homologous structures (same structure, different
    function)
  • Similar embryo development
  • Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of
    Proteins

33
Homologous Structures show Similarities in
mammals.
34
Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos
35
Cladogram
  • Diagram showing how organisms are related based
    on shared, derived characteristics such as
    feathers, hair, or scales

36
Primate Cladogram
37
Dichotomous Keying
  • Used to identify organisms
  • Characteristics given in pairs
  • Read both characteristics and either go to
    another set of characteristics OR identify the
    organism

38
Example of Dichotomous Key
39
The End
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