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Classification of

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Classification of Organisms Credit: Nancy Dow, Jill Hansen, & Tammy Stundon Post test at 11:45 * Students will make a vocabulary list with these terms on a sheet or ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification of


1
  • Classification of
  • Organisms

Credit Nancy Dow, Jill Hansen, Tammy Stundon
2
Q and A

How is all life grouped?
How do you represent the diversity of organisms?
How are organisms named? What is a dichotomous
key?
3
  • Objectives
  • Classify organisms based on the distinguishing
    characteristics of the domains and kingdoms.
  • Describe how and why organisms are hierarchically
    classified based on evolutionary relationships.
  • Explain reasons for potential change in how
    organisms are classified.
  • Identify examples of scientific inferences
    (conclusions) made from observations.

4
  • Unit Vocab

Hierarchy Unicellular Multicellular Dichotomous Key Cladogram Autotrophic Heterotrophic Phylogeny Taxonomy
5
6 Kingdom Foldable
  1. Fold your paper in half (hot dog style).
  2. Fold your hot dog in half.
  3. Open your hot dog. Your hot dog now has a fold
    down the center.
  4. Fold each side of your hot dog so that you have 3
    equal sections on each side of your hot dog, for
    a total of six sections.

6
  • Cut the top flap of each section (DO NOT CUT BOTH
    FLAPS!)
  • Label flaps
  • Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi,
    Plantae, Animalia
  • For each kingdom, provide each of the following
    on the inside of your tab
  • Domain
  • Reproduction (BF/Sexual)
  • Single-cellular and/or Multi-cellular
  • Characteristics of Wall
  • Obtain/Use Energy
  • Examples

7
Lets Get Started!
8
Old Way of Thinking
PROKARYOTE
EUKARYOTE
1. Size
1. larger (nm)
1. Smaller (µm)
2. linear DNA
2. Circular DNA
2. Shape of DNA
3. membrane bound nucleus
3. Little to no true organelles
3. ribosomes
3. Presence of organelles
plasma membrane
4. BF Sexual
4. Binary Fission
4. Means of reproduction
5. K Protista K Fungi K Plantae K
Animalia
5. K Monera
5. Kingdoms
Q What thing seems to be left off?
9
From 5 Kingdoms to 6
  • ?

One Kingdom was split into 2 which one?
Kingdom Monera contained ALL bacteria
Why? See Next SLide
10
New View
  • 90s Carol Woese established a significant
    difference within bacteria to warrant 2 separate
    kingdoms
  • Peptidoglycan NOT in cell wall
  • Archaea ( Eukarya)
  • Peptidoglycan in cell wall
  • Eubacteria

www.comicvine.com 
11
  • Q In 1990, Carl Woese introduced the 3 Domain
    system for classifying living things, after the
    advancement of DNA analysis allowed for a
    comparison of species genetic code. Which of the
    following is the best explanation for why domains
    were added to the previous system of
    classification?
  • The old system of classification was wrong and
    needed to be corrected.
  • New species are evolving too quickly to keep up
    with the old system of classification
  • Domains have always been included they were just
    made official recently.
  • Some organisms, which were previously
    characterized together, were determined to be
    genetically very different.

12
Eubacteria Archaebacteria (Monera)
The two Prokaryote Kingdoms
Bacteria have a biomass greater than that of all
the plants and animals on earth. They thrive in a
variety of habitats including arctic ice,
volcanic vents, and the human intestines.
13
  • Archaebacteris and Eubacteria
  • 1st living forms on Earth
  • Lack a nucleus
  • Reproduce by binary fission
  • Singled-celled
  • Autotrophic (photo- and chemo-) and heterotrophic
  • Lack nuclei, mitochondria and other
  • membrane bound organelles
  • Live in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats

Eubacteria bacteria in less extreme
environments Streptococcus Archaebacteria -
live in extreme environments boiling water, no
oxygen, acid, hydrothermal vents Cyanobacteria
such as Stomatolites
14
  • Q Of the six kingdoms now recognized,
  • Two are plants and four are animal
  • Four are eukaryotes and two are prokaryotes
  • Four are macroscopic and two are microscopic
  • Two are eukaryotes and four are prokaryotes.
  • Q Which of the following is NOT a characteristic
    of organisms that make up the Domain Bacteria?
  • They lack membrane-bound organelles
  • They are multicellular
  • They lack a nucleus
  • They live in both aquatic and terrestrial
    habitats

15
Protista
The Eukaryotes
Ameba
Paramecium
  • Protista means 1st first with a nucleus
    (Eukaryotic)
  • Singled-celled
  • Photoautotrophic (algae)
  • Heterotrophic (slime molds)
  • Mainly Binary fission (asexual)
  • Sexual only under stress

Fungus
  • Multicellular
  • Nucleus (Eukaryotic)
  • Cell wall made of Chitin
  • Heterotrophic excrete digestive enzymes
  • than filaments absorb the nutrients
  • Asexual and Sexual Reproduction (spores)

Filaments magnified
16
Plants
The Eukaryotes.
  • Multicelluar
  • Nucleus
  • Photoautotrophic (Chlorophyll)
  • Cell wall with Cellulose
  • Mainly sexual reproduction, but asexual
  • does occur.

Animals
  • Multicellular
  • Nucleus
  • Heterotrophic
  • Trend to only sexual reproduction

Platypus
17
  • Q Which kingdoms have photosynthetic organisms?
  • fungi and plantae
  • fungi and protista
  • protista and plantae
  • plantae and animalia
  • Q Multicellular organisms composed of eukaryotic
    cells that lack cell walls, do not carry out
    photosynthesis, and obtain nutrients primarily by
    ingestion are classified as
  • Plantae
  • Fungi
  • Animalia
  • Protista

18
  • Q Organisms classified as fungi have unique
    characteristics. Which of the following
    characteristics is found only in organisms
    classified in the kingdom fungi?
  • single cells without a nucleus
  • multicellular with chloroplasts
  • multicellular filaments that absorb nutrients
  • colonies of single, photosynthetic cells that
    reproduce asexually

19
Kingdom Practice!!
  • Use manipulative to practice
  • your understanding of the kingdoms

20
Taxonomy (the science of classification)
  • Classification a method used to group
    and categorize organisms hierarchically.
  • In rank of relatedness
  • The groups in biological classification are known
    as taxa (singular taxon).

21
THE ORGANIZATION OF LIFE
The science of classification is called
taxonomy
DOMAIN
Clip
Bacteria Archaea Eukarya
KINGDOM
Come up with a mnemonic device to remember the
sequence! Report back to us
Protists Plants Fungi Animals
Ours King Paul Came Over For Good Supper
PHYLUM
Chordata
CLASS
Mammalia
ORDER
Artiodactyla
FAMILY
Giraffidae
The official scientific name is a combination of
the Genus and Specific Epithet (together, these
make the species).
GENUS
Giraffa
SPECIES
Giraffa camelopardalis
22
  • Biological Classification
  • Assign a universally accepted name to each
    organism (Latin)
  • 2. Place organism into groups that have
    biological meaning
  • Based on similarities in structures mainly
  • Many scientist are pushing for a complete DNA
    grouping more detailed/precise but a closest
    gets more messy before it gets organized affect.

23
  • 8th century Carolus Linnaeus developed a naming
    system
  • System called binomial nomenclature printing of
    the scientific name is the Genus Specific
    Epithet.
  • Because the names are Latinized
  • Underline or italicized
  • Also
  • Only the genus is capitalized.
  • Ex Canis lupus

Canis lupus familiaris Genus species subspecies
24
Pick two Species!
  • Pick any two species of your choice!
  • Correctly write the common and scientific name of
    each species.
  • Under the name, identify the complete taxonomic
    classification for each species.
  • Domain Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family,
    Genus, Specific epithet
  • Thats it!

25
Dichotomous Keys
  • Characteristics that define a species can be
    placed into a dichotomous key.
  • A dichotomous key divides characteristics into 2
    choices until a species is identified.
  • - It is used to help identify a species!
  • - Dichotomous means divided in 2 parts

26
Two Dichotomous Key Formats
  • Graphical (Diagram)
  • Traditional (Sentences)

27
(No Transcript)
28
Dichotomous Key Resources
  • Ferguson Foundation- interactive lessons
  • ? Shortened URL - http//goo.gl/2CXA7S
  • Key in 2 species
  • 1 fish 1 plant
  • Write down
  • Common Name
  • Scientific Name
  • Habitat
  • Identifying Characteristics.

29
Make Your Own Dichotomous Key!!
30
How do you represent the diversity of life?
Dendrograms! dendro tree, gramma diagram
31
A special type of dendrogram used in biology
CLADOGRAM (clade branch)
Evolutionary Tree of Life
EUKARYA
THE EVOLUTIONARY TREE OF LIFE
BACTERIA ARCHAEA
Protists Plants
Fungi Animals
Each tip branches out further to represent all
species on earth today.
Common ancestor of all life on earth
?
Animals
An evolutionary tree with a branch for each of
the millions of species on earth would be
incredibly complex.
32
HOW TO READ AN EVOLUTIONARY TREE
Fish Bird Human Rat
Mouse
Common ancestor of mice and rats
Common ancestor of mice, rats, and humans
Time
Common ancestor of mice, rats, humans, and birds
Common ancestor of mice, rats, humans, birds, and
fish
At this point, a speciation event occurred and
the ancestral species split into two species.
This shows which groups are closely related, not
which ones are more primitive or advanced.
33
How to Read An Evolutionary Tree (Cladogram)
Cladogram Practice!!
34
Which are more closely related?
35
Various types of evolutionary trees
No matter the style of tree, all represent the
most likely evolutionary pathways of organisms.
36
Q and A

How are organisms named? What is a dichotomous
key?
How is all life grouped?
How do you represent the diversity of organisms?
37
Questions?
38
  • Finish Up Vocab

Hierarchy Unicellular Multicellular Dichotomous Key Cladogram Autotrophic Heterotrophic Phylogeny Taxonomy Taxa
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