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Classification:

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Classification: Georgia Performance ... (archaebacteria,eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals). ... Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms. SB5. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification:


1
Classification
  • Georgia Performance Standards
  • SB3. Students will derive the relationship
    between single-celled and multi-celled organisms
    and the increasing complexity of systems.
  • b. Compare how structures and function vary
    between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria,eubacteri
    a, protists, fungi, plants, and animals).
  • c. Examine the evolutionary basis of modern
    classification systems.
  • d. Compare and contrast viruses with living
    organisms.
  • SB5. Students will evaluate the role of natural
    selection in the development of the theory of
    evolution.
  • e. Recognize the role of evolution to biological
    resistance (pesticide and antibiotic resistance).

2
Essential Questions
  1. How does the evidence of evolution contribute to
    modern classification systems?
  2. Why classify?
  3. On what criteria do Taxonomists base their
    classification of organisms?
  4. Are viruses alive?
  5. What is the role of evolution in antibiotic and
    pesticide resistance?

3
Why Classify?
  • To study the diversity of life, biologists use a
    classification system to name organisms and group
    them in a logical manner.
  • In taxonomy, scientists classify organisms and
    assign each organism a universally accepted name.
  • By using a scientific name, biologists can be
    certain that everyone is discussing the same
    organism.

4
Early Efforts at Naming Organisms
  • The first attempts at standard scientific names
    often described the physical characteristics of a
    species in great detail.
  • Results in long names
  • Difficult to standardize the names of organisms
  • Different scientists described different
    characteristics.

5
Binomial Nomenclature
  •  Carolus Linnaeus developed a two-word naming
    system called binomial nomenclature.
  • In binomial nomenclature, each species is
    assigned a two-part scientific name.
  • First word is the genus
  • Second word is the species

6
Organizing Lifes Diversity
Chapter 17
17.1 The History of Classification
  • When writing a scientific name, scientists use
    these rules
  • The first letter of the genus name always is
    capitalized, but the rest of the genus name and
    all letters of the specific epithet are lowercase.
  • If a scientific name is written in a printed book
    or magazine, it should be italicized.
  • When a scientific name is written by hand, both
    parts of the name should be underlined.
  • After the scientific name has been written
    completely, the genus name will be abbreviated to
    the first letter in later appearances (e.g., C.
    cardinalis).

7
Linnaeus's System of Classification
  • A group or level of organization is called a
    taxonomic category, or taxon
  • King Phillip Came Over From Genoa Spain
  • The are 7 taxonomic categories. (from smallest to
    largest)
  • species
  • genus
  • family
  • order
  • class
  • Phylum
  • kingdom.
  • Domain

8
The 7 taxonomic categories
  • Species - a group of organisms that breed with
    one another and produce fertile offspring.
  • Genus - a group of closely related species.
  • Family - genera that share many characteristics.
  • Order - is a broad taxonomic category composed
    of similar families.
  • Class - is composed of similar orders.
  • Phylum- several different classes that share
    important characteristics.
  • Kingdom - largest taxonomic group, consisting of
    closely related phyla

9
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10
Classification Pop Quiz
  • 1.  How are living things organized for study?
  • 2. Describe the system for naming species that
    Linnaeus developed.
  • 3. What are the seven taxonomic categories of
    Linnaeuss classification system from largest to
    smallest?
  • 4. Why do scientists avoid using common names
    when discussing organisms?
  • 5. Based on their names, you know that the
    baboons Papio annubis and Papio cynocephalus do
    NOT belong to the same
  • a. Class b. family
  • c. Genus d. species

11
Modern Evolutionary Classification 
  • Organisms are grouped into categories that
    represent lines of evolutionary descent, not just
    physical similarities
  • This strategy of grouping organisms together
    based on their evolutionary history is called
    evolutionary classification.
  • Modern classification systems are based upon
    biochemical and genetic evidence that indicates
    evolutionary relationships

12
How do we determine evolutionary relationships?
  • 1. Look for structural similarities.
  • 2. Look at breeding behavior.
  • 3. Look at geographic distribution and find
    where organism are located and their range.
  • 4. Look at Chromosomes for similar structure and
    number.
  • 5. Look at biochemistry Look for similar DNA
    sequences and therefore similar proteins

13
Phylogenetic Classification
  • Phylogeny the evolutionary history of a
    species.
  • Phylogenetic classification is a classification
    system that shows the evolutionary history of a
    species.
  • Cladistics It is assumed that a group of
    organisms diverged and evolved from a common
    ancestral group.
  • Derived traits Characteristics of the original
    group that are retained.

14
Classification Using Cladograms
  • Cladistic analysis identifies and considers only
    the characteristics that arise as lineages evolve
    over time.
  • Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a
    lineage but not in its older members are called
    derived characters.
  • Derived characters can be used to construct a
    cladogram, a diagram that shows the evolutionary
    relationships among a group of organisms.

15
Traditional Classification Versus Cladogram
Section 18-2
Appendages
Conical Shells
Crustaceans
Gastropod
Crab
Crab
Limpet
Limpet
Barnacle
Barnacle
Molted exoskeleton
Segmentation
Tiny free-swimming larva
TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION
CLADOGRAM
Go to Section
16
  • Cladogram a branching diagram using cladistics.
  • Image taken fromhttp//evolution.berkeley.edu/evo
    library/article//evo_03

17
Organizing Lifes Diversity
Chapter 17
17.2 Modern Classification
Cladograms
  • The greater the number of derived characters
    shared by groups, the more recently the groups
    share a common ancestor.

18
Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • Molecular Clocks
  • Comparisons of DNA can also be used to mark the
    passage of evolutionary time.
  • A model known as a molecular clock uses DNA
    comparisons to estimate the length of time that
    two species have been evolving independently.
  • Comparison reveal how dissimilar the genes are.
  • Degree of dissimilarity is an indication of how
    long ago the two species shared a common
    ancestor.

19
Checkpoint Questions
  • How is information about evolutionary
    relationships useful in classification?
  • How are genes used to help scientists classify
    organisms?
  • 3. What is the principle behind cladistic
    analysis?
  • 4. Describe the relationship between
    evolutionary time and the similarity of genes in
    two species.
  • 5. How have new discoveries in molecular biology
    affected the way in which we classify organisms
    compared with the system used by Linnaeus?
    Constructing a Chart  

20
Kingdoms and Domains 
  • The six-kingdom system of classification includes
    the following kingdoms
  • Eubacteria
  • Archaebacteria
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia.

21
The Three-Domain System
  • The domain is the most inclusive taxonomic
    category larger than a kingdom   
  • The three domains are
  • Bacteria kingdom Eubacteria
  • Archaea, kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Eukarya Kingdom protists, fungi, plants, and
    animals.

22
Key Characteristics of Kingdoms and Domains
Classification of Living Things
Eukarya
Bacteria Eubacteria Prokaryote Cell walls
with peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph
or heterotroph Streptococcus, Escherichia coli
Archaea Archaebacteria Prokaryote Cell walls
without peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph
or heterotroph Methanogens, halophiles
Protista Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose in
some some have chloroplasts Most unicellular
some colonial some multicellular Autotroph or
heterotroph Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds,
giant kelp
DOMAIN KINGDOM CELL TYPE CELL
STRUCTURES NUMBER OF CELLS MODE OF
NUTRITION EXAMPLES
Plantae Eukaryote Cell walls of cellulose
chloroplasts Multicellular Autotroph Mos
ses, ferns, flowering plants
Fungi Eukaryote Cell walls of chitin Most
multicellular some unicellular Heterotroph Mu
shrooms, yeasts
Animalia Eukaryote No cell walls or
chloroplasts Multicellular Heterotroph Sp
onges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals
Go to Section
23
Section 18-3
Living Things
are characterized by
Important characteristics
which place them in
and differing
Domain Eukarya
Cell wall structures
such as
which is subdivided into
which place them in
which coincides with
which coincides with
Go to Section
24
The Six Kingdoms
  • Kingdom Archaebacteria Bacteria that live in
    extreme environments void of oxygen. Cell
    membrane lipids, RNA, and cell wall structures
    are different than other bacteria.
  • Kingdom Eubacteria all other bacteria. Strong
    cell walls and less complicated genetic makeup.
    Live in many habitats
  • Kingdom Protista Eukaryote that lacks complex
    organ systems and lives in moist environments.
    Can be unicellular or multicellular

25
The Six Kingdoms Continued
  • Kingdom Fungi Heterotrophs that do not move from
    place to place. Uni or multicellular eukaryotes
    that absorb nutrients from organic material.
  • Kingdom Plantae Multicellular photosynthetic
    eukaryotes. Can not move from place to place.
    Cells organized into tissues, tissues organized
    into organs.
  • Kingdom Animalia Animals multicellular
    heterotrophs. Able to move from place to place.
    No cell walls. Cells form tissues that form
    organs that form organ systems.

26
Organizing Lifes Diversity
Chapter 17
17.3 Domains and Kingdoms
Domain Archaea
  • Archaea are thought to be more ancient than
    bacteria and yet more closely related to our
    eukaryote ancestors.
  • Archaea are diverse in shape and nutrition
    requirements.
  • They are called extremophiles because they can
    live in extreme environments.

27
Organizing Lifes Diversity
Chapter 17
17.3 Domains and Kingdoms
Domain Bacteria
  • Eubacteria are prokaryotes whose cell walls
    contain peptidoglycan.
  • Eubacteria are a diverse
    group that can survive in
    many different environments.

28
Bacteria and Viruses
Chapter 18
18.1 Bacteria
Mutations
  • Bacteria reproduce quickly and their population
    grows rapidly.
  • Mutations lead to new forms of genes, new gene
    combinations, new characteristics, and genetic
    diversity.
  • Rapid mutations cause bacteria to become
    resistant to many antibiotics and pesticides.

29
Organizing Lifes Diversity
Chapter 17
17.3 Domains and Kingdoms
Domain Eukarya
  • All eukaryotes are classified in Domain Eukarya.
  • Domain Eukarya contains Kingdom Protista, Kingdom
    Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, and Kingdom Animalia.

30
Organizing Lifes Diversity
Chapter 17
17.3 Domains and Kingdoms
Kingdom Protista
  • Protists are classified into three different
    groupsplantlike, animal-like, and funguslike.

31
Organizing Lifes Diversity
Chapter 17
17.3 Domains and Kingdoms
Kingdom Fungi
32
Organizing Lifes Diversity
Chapter 17
17.3 Domains and Kingdoms
Kingdom Plantae
  • Members of Kingdom Plantae form the base of all
    terrestrial habitats.
  • All plants are multicellular and have cell walls
    composed of cellulose.

33
Organizing Lifes Diversity
Chapter 17
17.3 Domains and Kingdoms
Kingdom Animalia
  • All animals are heterotrophic, multicellular
    eukaryotes.
  • Animal organs often are organized into complex
    organ systems.
  • They live in the water, on land, and in the air.

34
Organizing Lifes Diversity
Chapter 17
17.3 Domains and Kingdoms
VirusesAn Exception
  • A virus is a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein
    coat.
  • Viruses do not possess cells, nor are they cells,
    and are not considered to be living.
  • Because they are nonliving, they usually are not
    placed in the biological classification system.

35
Characteristics of Viruses
  • Viruses are not cells
  • Viruses are not alive
  • Viruses do not use energy
  • Viruses can reproduce only when inside living
    cells
  • Viruses do contain genetic info. can evolve
    over time.

36
Defenses Against Viruses
  • Why cant we treat viral diseases with
    antibiotics?
  • Vaccinations also protect against some viral
    diseases.
  • Harmless viruses stimulate the immune system to
    create defenses against the harmful form of the
    virus.
  • Vaccines only work on viruses whose surface
    proteins do not change (mutate). (Small pox,
    measles, polio)
  • HIV, cold viruses, and flu viruses (genes mutate
    too often for vaccines to become effective)

37
Checkpoint Questions
  • What are the six kingdoms of life as they are now
    identified?
  •  What are the three domains of life?
  • 3. Why was the kingdom Monera divided into two
    separate kingdoms?
  • 4. Why might kingdom Protista be thought of as
    the odds and ends kingdom?
  • 5. Which kingdoms include only prokaryotes? Which
    kingdoms include only heterotrophs?

38
Dichotomous Keys
  • A tool used to identify organisms is a
    dichotomous key.
  • A dichotomous key is a series of paired
    statements that describe physical characteristics
    of different organisms.
  • In this activity, you will use a dichotomous key
    to identify tree leaves.

39
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