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Classification

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Classification As more was learned about cell structure in organisms, bacteria were removed from the protist kingdom and fungi were taken out of the plant kingdom. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification


1
Classification
  • As more was learned about cell structure in
    organisms, bacteria were removed from the protist
    kingdom and fungi were taken out of the plant
    kingdom.
  • This lead to the five kingdom system, which was
    developed in 1969 by the
  • American ecologist R. H. Whitaker. This system
    has served taxonomists well for over 30 years.

2
Classification
  • Whitakers Five-Kingdom system
  • (1) Monera contains all the prokaryotes
    (bacteria).
  • (2) Protista contains all the single-celled
    eukaryotic organisms and is further divided into
    three groups animallike protists, plantlike
    protists, and funguslike protists.

3
Classification
  • (3) Fungi contains the yeasts, molds, and
    mushrooms They have cell walls that contain
    chitin and are heterotrophic.The yeast are
    unicellular, but most other fungi consist of
    numerous long multicellular filaments.
  • (4) Plantae (the plants) multicellular
    photoautotrophs with cellulose cell walls
  • (5) Animalia (the animals) multicellular motile
    heterotrophs having cells that lack cell walls.

4
Classification
  • Six Kingdoms
  • More recently the kingdom Monera has been divided
    into two kingdoms, making six kingdoms.
  • Kingdom Archaebacteria includes organisms that
    live in extremely harsh environments, for
    example, extremely salty environments and
    extremely hot environments.

5
Classification
  • Kingdom Eubacteria it is the larger of the two
    prokaryotic kingdoms.
  • It contains a wide range of organisms with many
    life styles. Some of the most important
    eubacteria are the cyanobacteria, also known as
    blue-green bacteria.
  • These organisms are photosynthetic.

6
Classification Six Kingdoms
7
Classification A New System
  • This new system institutes a taxon above the
    kingdom called the Domain.
  • Under the new system, life consists of three
    Domains--Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
  • The Bacteria and Archaea are all the
    prokaryotes--confined to a single kingdom under
    Whittaker's system. There are a number of
    distinctions between the two domains.

8
Classification A New System
  • These two domains are believed to have diverged
    very early in the evolution of life. Eukaryotes
    then diverged from Archaea, and they comprise the
    third domain, consisting of kingdoms of plants,
    animals, fungi,and several protist kingdoms.
  • A great deal of scientific research continues to
    go toward discovering more about and supporting
    (or refuting) this system of classification.

9
Classification A New System
10
Phylogeny
  • Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of an
    organism.
  • It is the cornerstone of a branch of biology
    called systematic taxonomy.
  • Systematics, as systematic taxonomy is commonly
    called, organizes the diversity of living things
    into the context of evolution
  • A phylogenetic tree is a family tree that shows a
    hypothesis about the evolutionary relationships
    thought to exist among groups of organisms.

11
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12
Phylogeny
13
Phylogenetic Tree Cytochrome c
14
Phylogeny
  • Phylogenetic trees are usually based on a
    combination of the following types of evidence
  • (1) The fossil record
  • (2) Morphology
  • (3) Embryological patterns of development
  • (4) Chromosomes and DNA
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