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Scientific Revolution


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Title: Scientific Revolution

Scientific Revolution
  • Explain the scientific contributions of
    Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton and how
    these ideas changed the European world view.

  • The Renaissance inspired a spirit of curiosity
  • The Reformation encouraged leaders to challenge
    the accepted ways of thinking about God and
  • A new Revolution was occurring in Europe that
    will challenge how people view their space in the
    universe- the Scientific Revolution

Medieval View
  • Before 1500, people thought whatever the bible or
    ancient philosopher said must be true
  • Few European scholars questioned the scientific
    ideas of ancient thinkers or the church by
    carefully observing nature

Geocentric Theory
  • During the Middle Ages most scholars believed the
    earth was unmoving, and was the center of the
  • According to the belief, the sun, moon and other
    planets revolved around the earth
  • Common sense supported that view- it seemed the
    sun rises and sets everyday
  • This was known as the Geocentric theory
  • Was supported by Aristotle and Greek astronomer
  • The church supported this theory as well, and
    taught that God had purposely put the earth in
    the center of the universe

  • Ptolemys
  • Geocentric theory

New Way of Thinking
  • A few scholars published works that challenged
    the old ways of thinking in the 1500s, launching
    a change in European thought
  • Historians call this the Scientific Revolution- a
    new way of thinking about the world based on
    observation and willingness to question old

  • During the Renaissance, scholars uncovered many
    old manuscripts and realized that ancient
    authorities didnt always agree with each other
  • As Europeans traveled to Africa, Asia and the
    Americas, discoveries that had been unknown for
    centuries, just proved the possibility of new

Nicolaus Copernicus
  • First major challenge to the old ways of thinking
    was in astronomy
  • A small group of scholars questioned the
    geocentric theory
  • After studying planetary movements for over 25
    years, Nicolaus Copernicus concluded that the
    stars, earth and other planets revolved around
    the sun

Heliocentric Theory
  • Copernicuss heliocentric theory (sun-centered
    theory) was rejected by most scholars and clergy
    because it contradicted religious views
  • Fearing persecution and ridicule, Copernicus
    didnt publish his findings until 1543, the last
    year of his life
  • He received a copy of his book, On the
    Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies, on his

Scientific Revolution
  • Galileo
  • Italian scientist
  • Built new theories about astronomy
  • Built his own telescope to study the heavens
  • 1610, published Starry Messenger
  • Jupiter had four moons
  • Sun had dark spots
  • Earths moon had rough, uneven surface
  • Disproved Aristotles theory that the moon and
    stars were made of pure, perfect substance

The Warning
  • 1616, the Catholic church warned Galileo not to
    defend the ideas of Copernicus
  • Galileo remained silent publicly, but continued
    his studies
  • In 1632, Galileo published Dialogue Concerning
    the Two Chief World Systems that presented both
    views, but it was clear that Galileo supported
    Copernicuss view
  • The pope was angry, and summoned Galileo to stand
    trial before the Inquisition
  • Under the threat of torture, Galileo knelt before
    the cardinals and read aloud a signed confession
    agreeing Copernicuss findings were false

With sincere heart and unpretended faith I
abjure, curse and detest the aforesaid errors and
heresies of Copernicus and also every other
errorcontrary to the Holy Church, and I swear
that in the future I will never again say or
assert anything that may cause similar suspicion
toward me. -Galileo
  • Galileo lived under house arrest and died in 1642
    at his villa near Florence
  • His books and ideas still spread all over Europe
  • In 1992, pope John Paul II officially
    acknowledged that Galileo was correct in
    asserting that the earth revolves around the sun,
    but concluded that the church acted in good
    faith, and worked with the knowledge of their time

Scientific Revolution
  • Kepler
  • Mathematician
  • Concluded certain mathematical laws govern
    planetary motion
  • One showed the planets revolve around the sun in
    elliptical orbits (instead of circles)
  • Showed Copernicuss basic ideas were true

E. Newtons Universe
  • Born 1642
  • Studied at Cambridge University
  • Watched an apple fall and got the idea of gravity
  • 1687, Principia published
  • Newtons Laws
  • Universal gravitation
  • Kept everything in proper orbits
  • Invented calculus to explain his theories
  • Influenced scientific thought until Einstein

Scientific Revolution
  • Newton
  • Theory of Motion
  • All physical objects were affected equally by the
    same force
  • Law of Universal Gravitation
  • Every object in the universe attracts every other
  • Published The Mathematical Principles of Natural
  • Described the universe as a clock

New Ways of Thinking
  • Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes used science in
  • Bacon scientific method
  • Observation, hypothesis, experiments, and
  • Descartes believed truth must be reached via
  • Invented analytical geometry
  • I think, therefore I am

New Ways of Thinking

  • Robert Boyle-Chemistry
  • Great use of the scientific method, especially in
  • Considered father of modern chemistry.
  • Boyles Law- explains how the volume, temperature
    and pressure of gas effect each other

Scientific Instruments
  • 1590- first microscope developed by Dutch
    eyeglass maker, Zacharias Janssen
  • 1670s- Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a microscope to
    observe red blood cells and bacteria swimming in
    tooth scrapings

  • 1714 Dutch physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit created
    first thermometer to use mercury in glass,
    showing water freezing at 32 degrees
  • 1742-Swedish astronomer, Anders Celsius created
    another scale for the mercury thermometer,
    showing freezing at 0.

Medicine and the Human Body
  • During Middle Ages, European doctors had accepted
    as fact, the writings of ancient Greek physician
  • Galen had never dissected a human being, but
    studied the anatomy of pigs and other animals
  • Galen assumed the anatomy of a human was the same

  • Anatomy of a Pig Anatomy of a human

  • Galens assumptions were proved wrong by Andreas
    Vesalius, a physician who dissected a human
    corpse- despite the disapproval of this practice
  • He published his observations in his book, On the
    Fabric of the Human Body which was filled with
    detailed diagrams of human organs, bones and

  • 1700s British doctor Edward Jenner introduced a
    vaccine to prevent smallpox
  • He did this by using live germs from cowpox
    (cattle disease, but much milder than smallpox)
  • Inoculation had been used in Asia for years, and
    could be considered dangerous, but because he
    used a milder disease, the risks were lower

  • Other scholars and philosophers applied a
    scientific approach to other areas of life
  • They believed themselves to be rationale, orderly
    and industrious- or enlightened
  • These people would become the leaders of an
    intellectual movement called the Enlightenement

The Enlightenment
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The Enlightenment Begins
  • New intellectual movement which stressed reason
    and thought and the power of individuals to solve
  • Started from some key ideas put forth by Thomas
    Hobbes and John Locke

Hobbes Explore Govt.
  • Thomas Hobbes
  • Believed in natural law
  • Absolute monarchy was the best way to maintain
  • Leviathan published in 1651
  • Man was evil and needed laws
  • Govt. was a social contract to protect the people
  • People could rebel if the contract was broken

Locke Offers a Different View
  • John Locke
  • Agreed on natural laws and social contracts
  • Believed in natural rights of the individual
  • Life, liberty, and the pursuit of property
  • Two Treatises of Govt.
  • Govt. was best when power was limited
  • If it failed its duties to protect rights, it
    should be overthrown
  • Influenced Thomas Jefferson

The Enlightenment Begins
  • Locke
  • Purpose of government is to protect these rights
    if a government fails to do so, citizens have the
    right to overthrow it
  • Ideas are the foundation of modern democracy

Who do you agree with? Hobbes or Locke?
The Philosophes
  • Social critics in France
  • Believed they could apply reason to all aspects
    of life
  • Five concepts formed their core beliefs
  • Reason
  • Truth can be discovered through logical thinking
  • Nature
  • What was natural was also good and reasonable
  • Happiness
  • Seek well-being on earth
  • Progress
  • Society and humankind can improve
  • Liberty
  • Personal liberties Bill of Rights

  • Francois-Marie Arouet
  • Served time twice at the Bastille
  • Wrote books in exile supporting Bacon and Newton
  • Believed in religious liberty and free speech
  • I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend
    to the death your right to say it.

  • Baron de Montesquieu
  • The Spirit of Laws, 1748
  • Separation of powers divided among the branches
    of govt.
  • Legislative, executive, and judicial
  • Believed in the rights of the individual

Enlightenment Opponents
  • 1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • Committed to individual freedom
  • Believed the only good government was a direct
  • Had his own definition of the social contract
  • Agreement among free individuals to create a
    society and a government
  • Wanted to abolish titles of equality

Important Philosophes
  • Beccaria
  • Examined the justice system
  • Argued persons accused of a crime should receive
    a speedy trial, and torture should never be used
    degree of punishment should vary based on the

Women and the Enlightenment
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Argued that women, like men, need education to
    become useful
  • Urged women to enter male-dominated fields of
    medicine and politics
  • Women helped spread Enlightenment ideas through
    social gatherings called salons

Enlightenment and Monarchy
IV) The Enlightenment Spreads A)
Enlightened Despots (enlightened absolute
rulers) best form of government was a
monarch who respected individual rights
  • Frederick the Great of Prussia
  • a) granted religious freedom
  • b) reduced censorship
  • c) improved the education system
  • d) abolished torture
  • e) called The First Servant of the State

Enlightenment and Monarchy
  • 2) Joseph II of Austria
  • a) freedom of the press
  • b) freedom of religion
  • c) abolished serfdom

Enlightenment and Monarchy
3) Catherine the Great of Russia a)
Recommended allowing religious freedom
and abolishing torture and capital
punishment i) none of her recommendations
were ever put into law b) Her
enlightened views changed after a
peasant uprising which she crushed c) She
expanded Russia by winning a warm water
port from the Ottomans d) She also grabbed
land from Poland i) After losing land to
Russia, Prussia, and Austria, Poland
ceased to exist
Legacy of the Enlightenment
  • Theories helped inspired revolutionary movements
  • Three long-term effects
  • Belief in Progress
  • Growth of scientific knowledge led to many key
    new discoveries
  • A More Secular Outlook
  • Rise of a non-religious outlook
  • Mysteries of the universe could now be explained
  • Importance of the Individual
  • People began to turn away from the church and
    royalty for guidance looked to themselves
  • Can figure out for themselves what is right or

F. Classical Movements
  • Art, music, and literature were affected by the
  • Everything must have order and reason
  • Copied the Romans
  • Music was the newest art form
  • Pianos and violins were popular
  • Bach, Handel, and Mozart
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