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The Scientific Revolution

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The Scientific Revolution * Andreas Vesalius pioneered the modern study of anatomy and wrote the first complete anatomy text, On the Fabric of the Human Body (De ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Scientific Revolution


1
The Scientific Revolution
2
What Was the Scientific Revolution?
  • A revolution in human understanding and knowledge
    about the physical universe
  • 17th century
  • Began with discoveries in astronomy

3
Science Before the Scientific Revolution
  • Based on reasoning
  • Experiments werent used
  • Science in medieval times
  • Alchemy potions/cures
  • Astrology positions of planets/stars influence
    behavior

A medieval alchemist
4
Factors Leading to the Scientific Revolution
  • Rise of universities
  • Exploration contact with Africa, Asia, advances
    in technology
  • Renaissance
  • Printing press

5
Models of the Universe Geocentric vs.
Heliocentric
  • Geocentric the Earth is at the center of the
    universe all heavenly bodies move around the
    Earth

Heliocentric the Sun is at the center of the
universe all heavenly bodies move around the
Sunincluding the Earth
6
Nicholas Copernicus (14731543)
  • Polish astronomer and mathematician
  • Heliocentric (sun centered) theory
  • Circular motion

7
Tycho Brahe (15461601)
  • Danish astronomer
  • Amassed accurate astronomical data
  • Theorized a system distinct from both the
    Ptolemaic and Copernican ones
  • Argued that the Moon and Sun revolve around the
    Earth while other planets revolve around the Sun

8
Johannes Kepler (15711630)
  • German astronomer and mathematician
  • Disagreed with Copernicus, claiming that other
    bodies moved in elliptical motion,

9
Galileo Galilei (15641642)
  • Italian mathematician, astronomer
  • Father of Science
  • Telescopes and astronomical discoveries
  • Saturn has rings!

Galileos telescopic drawing of the moon
10
Galileo vs. the Catholic Church
  • The church condemned heliocentric conceptions of
    the universe
  • Galileo put under house arrest

19th-century depiction of Galileo before the
Inquisition tribunal
11
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12
Keplers Three Laws of Planetary Motion
  • Law of Ellipses Planets orbit the sun in
    elliptical patterns
  • Law of Equal Areas The speed of planetary motion
    changes constantly depending on the distance from
    the Sun
  • Law of Harmonies Compares the movement of all
    the planets, claiming a similarity in their motion

13
Rationalism
  • Reason, not tradition, is the source of all
    knowledge
  • René Descartes (15961650)
  • French philosopher and mathematician
  • Cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore, I am)
  • Deductive reasoning

René Descartes
14
Empiricism
  • The belief that experience is the only true
    source of knowledge
  • Roger Bacon
  • Shift toward empiricism a hallmark of the
    Scientific Revolution
  • Helped lead to the development of the scientific
    method

Roger Bacon
15
Francis Bacon andthe Scientific Method
  • Empiricism Scientific Method
  • Use facts to make conclusions

16
The Scientific Method
  • Science as a multiple-step process

3. Test the theory with experiments
2. Develop a theory that explains the object or
phenomenon
1. Observe an object or phenomenon
17
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18
Roots of Scientific Thought Aristotle
  • 4th century BCE Greek philosopher and scientist
  • Wrote several scientific works
  • His work laid the foundation for scientific study
    through the medieval era
  • Gravity/Theory of falling objects
  • Astronomy Crystal spheres

19
Roots of Scientific Thought Ptolemy
  • 2nd century CE Greek astronomer, mathematician,
    and geographer
  • The Almagest (Syntaxis)
  • Geocentric (earth-centered) model of the universe
  • Motion of the planets

20
Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World
  • Galileos major work
  • Written in 1632
  • Argued in favor of the heliocentric model of the
    universe

Frontspiece from the Dialogue from left to
right, the figures shown are Aristotle, Ptolemy,
and Copernicus
21
Sir Isaac Newton (16421727)
  • English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician
  • Synthesized the works of Copernicus, Kepler and
    Galileo
  • Theories on gravity and motion

22
Newtons Laws of Motion
  • Law of Inertia-bodies in motion tend to stay in
    motion unless acted on by an outside force
  • Fundamental Law of Dynamics
  • Law of Reciprocal Actions-for every action, there
    is an equal and opposite reaction

23
Medicine Before the Scientific Revolution
  • Church didnt allow dissection
  • Illness was punishment for sin
  • Medicine challenged will of God

Illustration depicting a bloodletting, an
accepted medical procedure before the Scientific
Revolution
24
Ancient Medicine Galen (131201 CE)
  • Greek physician
  • Bodily humours different types of fluid cause
    illness
  • Use bloodletting, potions, vomiting to heal
  • Never studied human body, just pigs

25
Medieval Medicine The Catholic Church
  • Provided for care of the poor and the sick
  • Clerics treated sick
  • Eventually, university-trained doctors treat sick

Clerics treat a royal patient with leeches
26
Andreas Vesalius (15141564)
  • Corrected many of Galens errors
  • Dissected humans and drew them

27
Edward Jenner
  • Vaccine to prevent smallpox, used cowpox to
    prevent smallpox

28
William Harvey (15781657)
  • English physician
  • On the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals
  • Described the functioning of the heart and
    circulatory system
  • Disproved Galens theories

29
Chemistry
Joseph Priestley (17331804) Identified oxygen
Antoine Lavoisier (17431794) Water H2O
Robert Boyle (16271691)
30
Carolus Linnaeus (17071778)
  • Swedish botanist
  • Classification and naming of flora and fauna

31
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck(17441829)
  • French biologist
  • Early theory of evolution
  • Philosophie Zoologique
  • Lamarcks laws

32
Mathematics
  • Math symbols for addition, subtraction,
    multiplication and division invented in 1603
  • Analytical geometry Descartes
  • Calculus Newton

?

-
?
33
New Invention The Telescope
  • Invented in the Netherlands
  • Galileo
  • Newton

Illustration of Galileo at his telescope
34
New Invention The Microscope
  • Zacharias Janssen invented
  • Anton Van Leeuwenhoek observe bacteria

Hookes drawing of a flea (from Micrographia)
A Janssen microscope, c.1600
35
New Invention The Pendulum Clock
  • Allowed scientists to more accurately measure time

Huygenss design for a pendulum clock
36
New Invention Barometer
  • Invented by 17th-century Italian physicist
    Evangelista Torricelli
  • The barometer measures air pressure

Torricellis barometer experiment
37
New Invention Thermometer
  • Invented in the 17th century by Santorio
    Santorio, an Italian scientist
  • Gabriel Fahrenheit first to use mercury/glass
  • Anders Celsius temp scale

Santorio Santorio
Illustration depicting Santorios thermometer
38
New Invention Mechanical Calculator
  • Invented by Wilhelm Schickard, a German
    inventor could add, subtract, multiply, divide

Wilhelm Schickard
A 1624 sketch Schickard made of his calculator
39
The Significance of the Scientific Revolution
  • Abandonment of ancient and medieval systems
  • Development of the scientific method
  • The Enlightenment
  • Where would we be today without these inventions?
    This knowledge?
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