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The Scientific Revolution

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The Scientific Revolution The Renaissance inspired curiosity in many fields and carried over to the science world geocentric- the earth is the center of the solar system. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Scientific Revolution


1
The Scientific Revolution The Renaissance
inspired curiosity in many fields and carried
over to the science world
2
geocentric- the earth is the center of the solar
system. (churchs view) heliocentric- the sun is
the center of the solar system Nicolaus
Copernicus- Polish astronomer who found that the
sun was the center. He did not publish his
findings out of fear and ridicule until the last
year of his life. Johannes Kepler- discovered
laws of planetary motion and agreed heliocentric
and added that the planets moved in ellipses
(oval paths) around the sun.
3
Galileo Galilei
  • Italian scientist mathematician
  • Discovered the law of the pendulum
  • Built his own telescope
  • The Catholic church warned Galileo not to defend
    ideas of Copernicus.
  • went to trial where he took back everything he
    had said. He publicly stated that Copernicus was
    wrong. He lived under house arrest the rest of
    his life.

4
  • The Scientific Method- procedure for gathering
    testing ideas.
  • Question comes from Observation
  • Form a hypothesis
  • Experiment
  • Analyze and Interpret data
  • Conclusion- confirms or disproves the observation
  • Francis Bacon- English writer and scientist who
    came up with the Scientific Method

5
  • Rene Descartes- French philosopher
    mathematician developed analytical geometry and
    believed in using logic and math to solve
    problems. Believed that everything should be
    doubted until proven with reason.
  • QUOTE 1 I think, therefore I am
  • Isaac Newton- English scientist who came up with
    the theory of gravity. wrote Mathematical
    Principles of Natural Philosophy
  • QUOTE 2 If I have seen further than others it
    is by standing upon the shoulders of giants

6
  • Scientific Instruments, Medicine, the Human
    body
  • Zacharias Jannsen- The first microscope
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek- used microscope to observe
    bacteria
  • Gabriel Fahrenheit- Dutch physicist made
    thermometer using mercury in a glass showed
    freezing at 32 degrees
  • Anders Celsius- created a new thermometer that
    showed freezing at 0
  • Andreas Vesalius- dissected human corpses and
    published observations with detailed drawings.
  • William Harvey- showed blood circulated through
    the body and understood the function of the heart
    blood vessels.
  • Edward Jenner- British physician introduced the
    vaccine to prevent smallpox

7
  • Discoveries in Chemistry
  • Robert Boyle- the founder of modern Chemistry. He
    used the Scientific Method in chemistry. Boyles
    law- how the volume, temperature, pressure of a
    gas affect each other.
  • Joseph Priestly- chemist who separated one pure
    gas from air. (his invention led to carbonated
    drinks)
  • Antoine Lavoisier- French chemist discovered
    oxygen

8
The Enlightenment The Age of Reason
  • The Scientific Revolution applied reason and
    scientific method to government, society,
    religion, economics, education.
  • Paris- the center of the Enlightenment

9
  • Thomas Hobbes- English philosopher idea of a
    social contract He believed the best form of
    government was an absolute monarchy. (could
    impose order demand obedience)
  • John Locke- English philosopher who disagreed
    with Hobbes. Thought people could govern
    themselves. believed in natural rights (life,
    liberty, property) He said that if a
    government fails to protect those, citizens have
    the right to overthrow. Two Treatises on
    Government foundation for modern democracy
    The idea of power in the people and the right to
    rebel was used in the American Revolution.

10
  • Philosophes- social critics in France who
    discussed
  • Reason
  • Nature
  • Happiness
  • Progress
  • Liberty
  • Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire- French
    philosophe who published over 70 books on
    politics, philosophy, history, fiction, drama.
    Wrote satires and criticized the clergy,
    aristocracy, government. He was sent to prison
    and exiled to England. He never stopped fighting
    for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion,
    freedom of speech.
  • QUOTE 3 I disapprove of what you say but
    will defend to the death your right to say it

11
  • Baron de Montesquieu- influential French writer
    studied Roman history. separation of powers-
    would keep any individual or group from gaining
    total control of the govt. checks and balances-
    On the Spirit of Laws His beliefs were the
    foundation for the American Constitution.
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau- disagreed with most other
    Enlightenment thinkers. Believed that people
    were born good society made them evil. believed
    in the social contract but as an agreement
    between people and their government. He
    believed in direct democracy. His ideas inspired
    leaders of the French Revolution.

12
  • Beccaria- Italian philosopher who exposed the
    abuses of the justice system. Wanted to abolish
    capital punishment.
  • The philosophes challenged thoughts about
    government and society but took a traditional
    approach to the role of women.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft- considered the 1st feminist.
    Author of Vindication of the Rights of Woman
    she argued for womens rights and the right to
    participate in govt.

13
The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas
  • salons- social gatherings attended by
    philosophers, artists, scientists, and other
    intellects.
  • Denis Diderot- French author of the Encyclopedie.
    It was banned by the church.
  • The salons and the encyclopedie helped educate
    people all over Europe.

14
Baroque
  • Grand and ornate style
  • Elaborate palaces such as Versailles

Classical- The Enlightenment ideals of order and
reason were reflected in the arts, music,
literature, painting, and architecture.
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