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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Toward the modern worldview – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION


1
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • Toward the modern worldview

2
Objectives
  • How did the Scientific Revolution reflect the
    values and ideals of the Renaissance?
  • Compare the Ptolemaic Universe and Copernican
    Universe.

3
MAJOR FACTORS LEADING TO THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • -rise of universities in the High Middle Ages
  • -broadening of the curriculum to include the
    study of mathematics and the sciences
  • -growing community of intellectuals
  • pursuing knowledge
  • Renaissance interest in the idea of
  • human potential and progress

4
  • the recovery of ancient classical texts (math,
    science, and philosophy)
  • Renaissance system of patronage allowed
    individuals to pursue scientific investigation
  • Galileo was supported by the Medici family

5
The Medieval Worldview Geocentrism
6
Ptolemys Universe
7
NICOLAUS COPERNICUS
  • (1473-1543)
  • -Polish astronomer
  • challenged the astronomer, Ptolemys,
    complicated explanation of planetary movements
  • proposed a sun centered solar system
    (heliocentric)
  • planets and stars revolved around a fixed sun
  • On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
  • published in 1543

8
THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTIONA SHIFT TO HELIOCENTRISM
9
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10
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11
TYCHO BRAHE 1546-1601
  • DANISH ASTRONOMER
  • MADE DETAILED OBSERVATIONS OF THE STARS AND
    PLANETS
  • USED THE VIEWS OF ARISTOTLE AND COPERNICUS
  • PLANETS REVOLVED AROUND THE SUN
  • SUN AND PLANETS REVOLVED AROUND THE EARTH AND MOON

12
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13
JOHANNAS KEPLER(1571-1630)
  • -German astronomer- worked with Brahe
  • -formulated the three laws of planetary motion
  • -orbits of the planets are elliptical
  • not circular
  • -velocity of a planets orbit is not
  • uniform
  • -the time it takes a planet to orbit the sun is
  • related to its distance from the sun
  • -Kepler provided mathematical proofs
  • for Copernicus heliocentric theory

14
JOHANNAS KEPLER
  • Renaissance values and ideas?
  • Separating _____ and ________ from reality.

15
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16
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • -Italian philosopher and astronomer
  • Medici family was a patron of his work
  • -viewed the physical universe as a Book of
    Naturewritten in mathematical characters.
  • Improved on the telescope (new invention)
  • this allowed him to observe the motion of the
    planets and the surface of the sun and moon

17
  • Galileo came to accept Copernicus idea of a
    heliocentric universe
  • based on his observations of Jupiter and its
    moons
  • Dialogue- Galileos discussion of his ideas
    regarding helio-centrism
  • It was not well received by the Church

18
  • -Galileos views were challenged by
  • the Church
  • Church feared that helio-centrism would undermine
    its authority and theology with humans being at
    the center of Gods universe
  • This theology was based on the geo-centrism of
    Aristotle and Ptolemy

19
  • Galileo was brought before the Inquisition
  • -His works were banned and teachings were
    condemned
  • placed on the Index of Forbidden Books
  • -he was threatened with torture and
    excommunication and placed under house arrest
  • -Galileo recanted his views shortly before his
    death in 1642
  • (the year Sir Isaac Newton was born)

20
GALILEO EVIDENCE FOR HELIOCENTRICISM(OBSERVATION
S OF THE MOONS OF JUPITER)
21
GALILEO OBSERVED JUPITER AND THE ROTATION OF ITS
MOONS
22
THE DIALOGUE
23
Galileo before the Inquisition
24
The Newtonian Synthesis
25
SIR ISAAC NEWTON
26
Isaac Newton (1642-1723)
  • -English mathematician Cambridge University
  • -built on the work of Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler,
    and Galileo (Newtonian synthesis)
  • -1686 formulated the mathematics for the
  • universal law of gravitation
  • (every physical body (object) in the universe
    exerts a force on every other body)
  • -provided evidence that the universe was governed
    by precise mathematical relationships

27
  • -Newton was deeply Christian (theistic) in his
    thinking
  • the physical order can be the effect of nothing
    else than the wisdom and skill of a powerful
    ever-living agent.
  • -the science of Newton would lay the foundation
    for much of the science of the western world
    (Einsteins theories would later challenge some
    of Newtons notions of a mechanical universe)

28
UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATIONNEWTONIAN
SYNTHESIS-RATIONAL PROOF FOR THE HELIOCENTRIC
MODEL
29
NEWTONS LAW OF GRAVITY
30
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31
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32
Newton also came to better understand the
properties of light
33
SIR FRANCIS BACON EMPIRICISM (SCIENTIFIC METHOD)
34
Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
  • -English politician and writer
  • (not a trained scientist)
  • Believed that knowledge comes through observation
    and experimentation (SCIENTIFIC METHOD)
  • We must allow the facts to speak for themselves
    and draw conclusions based on those facts
  • (inductive reasoning-EMPIRICISM)
  • Bacon proposed that an increase in knowledge
    would lead to powerful nations and an increase in
    personal wealth

35
EMPIRICAL MODEL
  • ALL KNOWLEDGE HAD TO BE EMPIRICALLY
    (SCIENTIFICALLY) VERIFIED TO BE VALID
  • Science
  • Data
  • proof
  • TRUTH CLAIMS NEEDED EMPIRICAL VERIFICATION

36
INDUCTIVE MODEL
37
RENE DESCARTES I think, therefore, I am.
38
Rene Descartes 1596-1650
  • French mathematician
  • Invented analytical geometry
  • Developed a scientific method based on rational
    deduction rather than empirical induction
  • Stressed rational speculation and reflection
  • Descartes believed that he could rationally prove
    the existence of God
  • Begins by doubting everything
  • Does not begin with faith

39
DEDUCTIVE MODEL
40
DESCARTES IDEAS IMPACTED THE WAY THE MODERN
WORLD WOULD COME TO LOOK AT KNOWLEDGE AND
TRUTH(CREATED A KIND OF DUALISM)
  • SUBJECTIVE
  • MIND
  • INTUITION
  • NOT OPEN TO EMPIRICAL OR MATHEMATICAL VERIFICATION
  • OBJECTIVE
  • PHYSICAL (MATTER)
  • SCIENTIFIC
  • MATHEMATICAL
  • RATIONAL
  • EMPIRICAL

41
BLAISE PASCAL 1623-1662
  • FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER
  • FIRST TO USE PROBABILITY THEORY
  • DEVELOPED THE FUNDAMENTALS OF CALCULUS
  • CHALLENGED WHETHER HUMAN REASON COULD REALLY
    ADDRESS LIFES GREATEST QUESTIONS.
  • DEEPLY CHRISTIAN THINKER

42
PENSEES
  • COMPILATION OF PASCALS REFLECTIONS ON CHRISTIAN
    TRUTH
  • COMPILED AFTER HIS DEATH
  • MOST WELL KNOWN LITERARY WORK

43
PASCALS WAGER
  • PASCAL USED A MATHEMATICAL ANALOGY TO EXPLAIN HIS
    FAITH IN GOD
  • BELIEVED THAT ONE HAD TO TAKE A LEAP OF FAITH
    TOWARD GOD
  • WE HAVE TO WAGER THAT GODS REVELATION IS TRUE
    AND REAL
  • IF ONE WINS THE WAGER WE GAIN EVERYTHING
  • LOSE THE WAGER- WE LOSE NOTHING

44
PASCAL
  • PASCAL BELIEVED THAT LOGIC AND REASON COULD NOT
    BRING ONE TO ULTIMATE CERTAINTY
  • CHALLENGED DESCARTES CONFIDENCE IN REASON AS THE
    PATH TO TRUTH (GOD)
  • STRESSED THE REASON OF THE HEART OVER PURE
    REASON AND LOGIC

45
PASCALS CALCULATING MACHINE
46
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION WOULD IMPACT THE
DEVELOPMENT OF TWO 18TH CENTURY MOVEMENTSTHE
ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE INDUSTIRAL REVOLUTION
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