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The Scientific Revolution


Science from Copernicus to Newton Origins of the New Science Basis of the Scientific Revolution: 1. Conflicting classical sources (Aristotle, Ptolemy, Galen) 2. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution
  • Science from Copernicus to Newton

Origins of the New Science
  • Basis of the Scientific Revolution
  • 1.  Conflicting classical sources (Aristotle,
    Ptolemy, Galen)
  • 2.  Examination / focus of Renaissance artists on
  • 3.  Development of technical skills
  • 4.  Use of mathematics to understand nature

Forces influencing science
  • 1.  Aristotelian Philosophy  provided a starting
  • Matter made of four elements (earth, wind, water
    and fire)
  • 2.  Neo-Platonism  revival of Platonic
  • emphasis on mathematics
  • 3.  Mystical / alchemy  metaphysical (spiritual
    / moral) explanation of the world
  • Paracelsus  doctor / alchemist who believed that
    disease could be diagnosed and treated with
    ingested medicine
  • 4.  Natural Philosophy  attempt to explain the
    natural world

Characteristics of the Scientific Revolution
  • Europeans began to challenge classical thought
  • Materialistic  all matter made up of the same
    material subject to the same laws
  • Mathematical  use calculation to replace common
  • measurable, repeatable phenomena
  • People began to understand the mathematical
    nature of the universe
  • Science boils down to the mathematical
  • Development of scientific institutions began
    Labs, universities, journals, language, careers

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
  • Polish monk, mathematican and astronomer.
  • Presented first serious challenge to Ptolemys
    geocentric universe.
  • In On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres he
    proposed heliocentric theory
  • Avoided persecution through death

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
  • Built Europes first modern astronomical
  • Discovered a supernova and comet.
  • Believed all other planets revolved around the
    sun while the earth remained stationary.

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
  • Supported Heliocentric and states that
    revolutions are elliptical (German)
  • Developed a mathematical formula as proof
  • Developed three laws of planetary motion

Laws of Planetary Motion
  • 1. All planets revolve around he sun in
    elliptical orbits.
  • 2. The velocity of the planet varies according
    to its distance from the sun (closer faster,
    further slower)
  • 3. set out mathematical formula to explain the
    physical relationship among the moving planets
    and the sun.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • Asserted that planets are made of roughly same
    material as the Earth
  • Wrote The Starry Messenger (1610)
  • A Dialog Between the Two Great Systems of the
    World (1632)
  • Challenged biblical view of the heavens

Galileo and the Church
  • In 1632, Brought before the Roman Inquisition for
    teaching Copernicanism
  • Church was prepared to tolerate hypothesis (not
    fact). Galileo forced to recant.
  • Tried and found guilty of heresy, house arrest
    Dialogue was placed on the Index of Forbidden

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
  • Used experimental philosophy physics
  • Start with the natural world and then try to
    explain it
  • Natural philosophy began with an idea and applied
    it to nature
  • Used math to create models based on nature -
    used formulas
  • Expressed observations in numeric language
  • Math was a precise language that allowed for
    replication, collaboration and the creation of
    new knowledge
  • Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of
    Natural Philosophy) (1687)

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Laws of Universal Gravitation
  • 1.  Law of motion - every object is at rest or
    motion and continues until some force affects the
  • 2.  Rate of change of motion is in proportion to
    the force which affects the object
  • 3.  To every action there is always an equal and
    opposite reaction

Discoveries in Anatomy
  • Andreas Vesalius
  • Galen (Classical source) established classical
    beliefs regarding anatomy and physiology.
  • More accurate anatomical sketches  
  • William Harvey
  • Blood circulates throughout the body in a
    continuous loop
  • Previously believed that there were two
    circulation systems
  • Heart as a pump

Discoveries in Chemistry
  • Robert Boyle
  • supported atomic view of matter - chemistry
  • Boyle's Law  relationship between pressure and
  • Promoted the use to experimental technology

The Scientific Method
  • Use of observation and data collection to prove
    or disprove a hypothesis had been used by various
    researchers for centuries (especially the Arabs)
  • Scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo revive
    the use of these techniques in Europe.
  • Later scientists build upon their methods toward
    a more codified scientific method.

Francis Bacon
  • Challenged Aristotles reliance on deductive
  • codification of the Scientific Method (inductive
    empirical experimentalism)
  • The Advancement of Learning (1605)

Rene Descartes
  • Jesuit education Schooled in Aristotelian
  • Disagreed with the basis of Aristotelian
  • Embraced Skepticism (people who use doubt as the
    basis of knowledge)
  • Rejected absolute construct of knowledge,
    knowledge based on probability
  • Constructed knowledge based on doubt, but
    reaffirmed the value of deductive reasoning.
  • Used "proofs" to support philosophical learning
  • Could only accept that which you could prove
  • "I think, therefore I am"

Rene Descartes
  • Cartesian dualism  Mind and matter are separate,
    so to is the physical world from intellectual
    constructs (basis for science)            
  • Example  Ontological proof of god
  • One could only accept God if you could prove it
  • Descartes knew that he was not perfect
  • Only a perfect individual could place that
    concept in ones mind
  • Therefore perfection must exist
  • What is perfection, existence without limits
  • proof for God based upon doubt, if you doubt it
    then it must exist at some level
  • Contrast it to Aristotelian proof  Causality
  • believed that humans could more completely
    understand their world by using abstract
  • Believed in that nature operated based on a
    Mechanical set of laws

Blaise Pascal
  • Scientist who studied probability and
  • He had concerns about sciences influence on
  • Wrote Pensees, reflections on faith and science.

Scientific Societies
  • As the importance of science grew, scientific
    societies formed to promote research and share
  • Many had govt connections and support
    reflecting the growing influence of central
  • Rome (1603), Florence (1657), England (Royal
    Society, 1662), France (French Academy, 1666),
    Prussia (Berlin Academy, 1701)
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