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Chapter 17: Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550-1800


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Title: Chapter 17: Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550-1800

Chapter 17 Scientific Revolution and
Enlightenment, 1550-1800
Main Ideas
  • The Scientific Revolution gave Europeans a new
    way to view humankinds place in the universe.
  • New thinkers, scientists, mathematicians and
    astronomers began to use reason is order to prove
    new theories

Background to the Revolution
  • Medieval scientists, known as natural
    philosophers, focused ancient authorities,
    especially Aristotle, for their scientific
  • Renaissance ideals caused European scientists to
    adopt new views and methods

Background to the Revolution
  • Reasons for the Scientific Revolution
  • Technical problems
  • observation and measurement
  • New instruments
  • telescope and microscope
  • Printing Press
  • Spread ideas quickly and to the masses

  • Inventor of the Printing Press which greatly
    enhanced communication and literacy across the

Background to the Revolution
  • Reasons for the Scientific Revolution (continued)
  • study of mathematics
  • Secrets of nature written in mathematics
  • Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, and
    othersdeveloped new theories that became the
    foundation of the Scientific Revolution

The Popularization of Science in the Age of the
Enlightenment. This illustration shows the
German prince Frederick Christian visiting his
Academy of Sciences in 1739. Note the many
instruments of the new science around the
roomshuman skeletons, globes, microscopes,
telescopes, and orreries, mechanical models of
the solar system.
A Revolution in Astronomy
  • geocentric (Earth is at the center) model of the
    universe called the Ptolemaic system
  • Spheres revolves in circular motion around the
  • The tenth sphere is the prime mover, which
    moves itself and gives motion to the other
  • Beyond this is Heaven, where God and all the
    saved souls reside.

Ptolemaic Universe
A Revolution in Astronomy
  • Nicholas Copernicus contradicted this theory and
    published his famous work, On the Revolutions of
    the Heavenly Spheres.
  • heliocentric (with the Sun in the center) theory
  • he argued that all the planets revolved around
    the sun, the Moon revolved around Earth, and
    Earth rotated on its axis.

Copernican Universe
A Revolution in Astronomy
  • Johannes Kepler also helped destroy the Ptolemaic
  • Used math to confirm that the Sun was at the
    center of the universe.

Galileo Galilei
  • Father of Modern Science
  • Used his telescope to re-confirm that the sun was
    in fact at the center of the universe
  • Also wanted to figure out what planets were made

A Revolution in Astronomy
  • Galileos work began to make Europeans aware of
    the new view of the universe.

A Revolution in Astronomy
  • Galileo got into trouble with the Catholic
    Church, which ordered him to abandon the new
    system because the Copernican system went against
    the Church and the Bible.

Isaac Newton
  • What explains motion in the universe?
  • Newton published his views in Principia.
  • He defined the three laws of motion in the

A Revolution in Astronomy
  • Isaac Newton Continued
  • universal law of gravitation every object in the
    universe is attracted to every other object by a
    force called gravity
  • Planets traveled in elliptical orbits

Breakthroughs in Medicine and Chemistry
  • Andreas Vesalius, published in his On the Fabric
    of the Human Body
  • Breakthrough in anatomy with drawings of muscles,
    tendons, etc

Breakthroughs in Medicine and Chemistry
  • William Harveys On the Motion of the Heart and
  • Heart pumps blood (not the liver)
  • He also showed that the same blood runs through
    veins and arteries
  • blood makes a complete circuit through the body

Breakthroughs in Medicine and Chemistry
  • Robert Boyle
  • Chemist whose ideas were based on close
    observation and experiment
  • Boyles Law about gases the volume of a gas
    varies with the pressure exerted on it

Women and the Origins of Modern Science
  • Margaret Cavendish
  • female scientist
  • Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy, said
    humans, through science, were the masters of

Women and the Origins of Modern Science
  • In Germany, many women scientists were
  • Maria Winkelmann discovered a comet
  • Denied further work as an astronomer
  • Conflicted with ideas of the roles of women at
    the time

Descartes and Reason
  • René Descartes
  • In his Discourse on Method (1637), says that he
    can rationally be sure of his own existence.
  • he would accept only those things his reason said
    were true
  • I think, therefore I am
  • father of modern rationalism
  • reason is the chief source of knowledge

The Scientific Method
  • During the Scientific Revolution, people were
    concerned about how they could best understand
    the physical universe
  • They created the scientific method
  • The philosopher Francis Bacon was most
    responsible for this method

an unproven theory
change it, discard it, or let it stand as is
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to
display the answers.
The Scientific Method
  • Bacon emphasized inductive reasoning
  • He believed science was to give humankind new
    discoveries and the power to serve human purposes
    by conquering nature in action.
  • The control and domination of nature became an
    important concern of science and its accompanying

Chapter 17, Section 2 The Enlightenment
Main Ideas
  • Eighteenth-century thinkers used the ideas of the
    Scientific Revolution to reexamine all aspects of
  • This would be known as the Enlightenment.

Path to the Enlightenment
  • The Enlightenment was a philosophical movement
    built on the achievements of the Scientific
  • reason, natural law, hope, and progress

(No Transcript)
John Locke
  • greatly influenced Enlightenment thinkers.
  • born with a mind that is a blank slate and that
    knowledge comes to it through the five senses.
  • society was governed by natural laws

Path to the Enlightenment
  • Enlightenment thinkers hoped to discover with the
    scientific method the laws that everyone should
    follow to produce the ideal society

Philosophes and Their Ideas
  • Immanuel Kant summed up the Enlightenment in two
    Latin words
  • sapere aude dare to know (i.e. have the courage
    to think for yourself. )
  • The philosophes used reason to overcome obstacles
    to free thought and social reform.

Philosophes and Their Ideas
  • philosophe (philosopher) enlightenment thinkers
  • Most were writers, professors, economists,
    journalists, and social reformers
  • Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot

  • studied governments to find the natural laws
    governing social and political relationships
  • The Spirit of the Laws
  • identified three kinds of government republics,
    despotism, and monarchies

Montesquieu and Political Thought
  • His analysis of the English monarchy is his most
    lasting contribution
  • government functioned through a separation of
    powers controlled by checks and balances
  • influenced the American framers of the

Voltaire and the Enlightenment
  • Voltaire
  • Voltaire was best known for his criticism of
    Christianity and his belief in religious
  • Deism- religious philosophy based on reason and
    natural law.

Diderot and the Encyclopedia
  • Denis Diderots most important contribution to
    the Enlightenment was the Encyclopedia.
  • The Encyclopedia spread the ideas of the

Toward a New Social Science
  • The Enlightenments belief that Newtons methods
    of the Scientific Revolution could discover the
    natural laws of society led to the creation of
    what we call the social sciences, such as
    economics and political science.

Toward a New Social Science
  • Adam Smith founded modern economics
  • if people were free to pursue their economic
    self-interest, all society would benefit
  • laissez-faire hands off government politics

Toward a New Social Science
  • Smith said the government had only three
    legitimate functions
  • protecting society from invasion (army),
  • defending citizens from injustice (police),
  • and maintaining public works like roads and
    canals that private individuals could not afford.

Toward a New Social Science
  • Cesare Beccaria On Crimes and Punishments
  • No excessive brutality
  • argued against capital punishment

The Later Enlightenment
  • A new generation of philosophes emerged by the
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau -Discourse on the Origins
    of the Inequality of Mankind
  • argued that people formed governments and laws to
    protect their private property, but the
    government relationship enslaved them.

The Later Enlightenment--Rousseau
  • he presented the idea of a social contract in
    which members of society agree to be governed by
    the general will, which represents what is best
    for society as a whole
  • education should nurture, not restrict,
    childrens natural instincts
  • he believed that emotions, as well as reason,
    were important to human development

Rights of Women
  • Mary Wollstonecraft is considered the founder of
    the European and American movement for womens
  • She argued that women were as rational as men and
    as capable of being responsible free citizens.

Rights of Women
  • A Vindication of the Rights of Women
  • Power of men over women was equally wrong
  • women are rational beings, so they should have
    the same rights as menin educational, economic,
    and political life

Social World of the Enlightenment
  • The Enlightenment ideas were most known among the
    wealthy and well-read
  • Great increase in literacy and books

Social World of the Enlightenment
  • Enlightenment ideas also spread at the salon

Social World of the Enlightenment
  • Salons were gatherings in the elegant homes of
    the wealthy.
  • The guests took part in conversations, often
    about the new philosophical ideas.
  • Nobles, thinkers, artists, and government
    officials attended these salons. Some became very
  • The women who hosted them could sway political
    opinion and influence literary and artistic taste

Religion in the Enlightenment
  • Most of the philosophes attacked the Christian
    churches, but most Europeans of the time were
    very religious
  • The desire of ordinary Protestants for a greater
    depth of religious experience led to new
    religious movements

Religion in the Enlightenment
  • One new religious movement was Methodism
  • John Wesley had a mystical experience in which
    the gift of Gods grace assured him of

Religion in the Enlightenment
  • Wesley preached to masses and appealed mostly to
    lower classes
  • Caused conversions
  • Many Methodists helped each other do good works,
    which gave to the lower and middle classes a
    sense of purpose
  • Methodism became a separate Protestant group

Chapter 17, Section 3 The Impact of the
Main Ideas
  • Enlightenment beliefs were reflected in the art,
    music, and literature of the time.
  • Enlightenment thought impacted the politics of
    Europe in the eighteenth century.

People to Identify
  • Bach
  • Handel
  • Haydn
  • Frederick the Great
  • Maria Theresa
  • Catherine the Great
  • Mozart

The Arts
  • The Enlightenment had a large impact on culture
  • European monarchs tried to emulate Versailles,
    but in the Italian baroque style, not the French
  • They created a new kind of architecture
  • By the 1730s, a new artistic stylerococohad

The Arts
  • While the baroque style stressed grandeur and
    power, the rococo style emphasized grace, charm,
    and gentle action
  • It was highly secular, valuing the pursuit of
    pleasure, happiness, and love
  • The greatest rococo painter was Antoine Watteau

The Arts
  • Enchantment and enthusiasm are also part of
    rococo, as is evident in the paintings of
    Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
  • His masterpiece is the ceiling of the bishops
    residence at Würzburg, a huge scene representing
    the four continents

The Arts--Music
  • The eighteenth century was one of the greatest in
    history for European music

Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism
  • The philosophes believed in natural rights for
    all people (i.e. the rights mentioned in the
    Declaration of Independence).
  • The philosophes believed that enlightened rulers
    were to establish and preserve these.
  • These rulers were to nurture the arts, sciences,
    and education, and to enforce the laws fairly
    over all subjects

Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism
  • Enlightened absolutism is a term used to describe
    the monarchies that emerged at this time
  • According to this view, monarchs of this time
    tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while
    retaining royal power.
  • We examined three states where philosophes tried
    to influence rulers to make enlightened reforms
    Prussia, Austria, and Russia

Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism
  • Frederick William I and Frederick II made Prussia
    a European power in the eighteenth century
  • Frederick William I tried to maintain a highly
    efficient bureaucracy, whose values were
    obedience, honor, and service to the king.
  • Nobles who owned large estates were officers in
    the Prussian army
  • They believed in duty, obedience, and sacrifice,
    and were loyal to the king

Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism
  • Frederick II, or Frederick the Great, was one of
    Europes most cultured kings
  • He knew and adopted some Enlightenment ideas
  • He abolished torture, except in treason and
    murder cases, and granted limited freedom of
    speech, limited freedom of the press, and greater
    religious toleration.
  • As a boy

Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism
  • Austria was major power by the 18th century
  • Empress Maria Theresa, who came to the throne in
    1740, centralized the Austrian Empire and
    strengthened the states power
  • Her successor, Joseph II, was more influenced by
    the philosophes.
  • Abolished serfdom and the death penalty.
  • He recognized equality before the law and enacted
    religious reforms, including toleration

Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism
  • After several weak rulers following Peter the
    Greats death, Catherine the Great, the German
    wife of the murdered Peter III, came to the
    Russian throne
  • She ruled from 1762 to 1796
  • She knew the ideas of the Enlightenment and even
    invited Diderot to speak in Russia
  • In the end, she did not adopt Enlightenment
    reforms because she needed the support of the
    Russian nobility

Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism
Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism
  • The theory of enlightened absolutism seems
    questionable and was ultimately unsuccessful
  • Most of these three governments did not institute
    Enlightenment reforms
  • The decisions the rulers made were ultimately
    about the well-being of their states and
    increasing the states power

War of Austrian Succession
  • The War of the Austrian Succession (1740 to
    1748) was fought in Europe, the Far East, and
    North America
  • Maria Theresa succeeded her father to the
    Austrian throne after his death in 1740
  • The Prussian king took advantage of having a
    woman on the throne and invaded Austria
  • France allied with Prussia, and Britain allied
    with Austria

War of Austrian Succession
  • In 1748, the War of Austrian Succession ended
    with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, and all
    occupied territories but Silesia were returned to
    their original owners
  • Two new rivalries took center stage France and
    Britain over colonial empires and Austria and
    Prussia over Silesia
  • Maria Theresa refused to accept the loss of

Seven Years War
  • In 1756, another worldwide war broke outin
    Europe, India, and North America
  • The superb Prussian army was able to defeat the
    French, Austrians, and Russians for time

Seven Years War
Seven Years War
  • Prussian forces were being worn down, however,
    and Frederick the Great faced disaster until the
    czar Peter III withdrew his troops from the war
  • A stalemate led to peace
  • In 1763, under the Treaty of Paris, all occupied
    territories were returned and Austria officially
    recognized Prussias permanent control of Silesia

Seven Years War
  • The greatest conflicts of the Seven Years War
    took place in North America
  • The French colonies in North America (Canada and
    Louisiana) were thinly populated trading outposts
    because the French settlers would not move to
    North America
  • The 13 British colonies were thickly populated
    with more than 1 million people by 1750 and were
    also were quite prosperous

Seven Years War
  • The British and French fought in the waterways of
    the Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada and in the
    Ohio River valley
  • The French tried to establish forts in this
    valley to keep the British settlers from
    expanding into new territory

Seven Years War
  • At first the French were winning, but then
    William Pitt the Elder, Britains prime minister,
    revived Britains cause
  • He focused the British navy against the French
    and defeated the smaller, weaker French navy
  • The British soon scored a series of land
    victories in the Great Lakes area and the Ohio
    River valley

Seven Years War
  • The French made peace, and the 1763 Treaty of
    Paris transferred Canada and all lands east of
    the Mississippi to Britain
  • Spain, an ally of France, transferred Florida to
    British control, and France gave Spain its
    Louisiana territory
  • By 1763, Britain was the worlds greatest
    colonial power

Chapter 17, Section 4 Colonial Empires and the
American Revolution
Chapter 17, Section 4
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