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Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

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Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment. . . or when people realized they could think for themselves. Scientific Revolution (?) Middle Ages relied on works of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment


1
Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
  • . . . or when people realized they could think
    for themselves.

2
Scientific Revolution (?)
  • Middle Ages relied on works of Aristotle and
    Galen
  • Renaissance discovered works by Ptolemy,
    Archimedes, and Plato
  • Renaissance painters studied the natural world in
    more detail
  • Printing Press
  • Math

3
Heaven and Earth
  • Ancient Belief
  • Ptolemaic (geocentric) Earth as center of
    universe with 10 layers of spheres surrounding
  • Based on Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Christianity
  • Modern Understanding
  • Nicholas Copernicus heliocentric (sun-centered)
    universe
  • Johannes Kepler elliptical orbits of planets,
    proved Copernicus theory
  • Galileo Galilei studied astronomy, published
    works that showed Copernicus and Keplers
    theories
  • Inquisition
  • Isaac Newton universal law of gravitation

4
Nicolaus Copernicus
  • 1473 1543
  • Polish astronomer
  • 1543 publishes On Revolutions of the Heavenly
    Body
  • Heliocentric view

5
Johannes Kepler
  • 1571 1630
  • Danish mathematician
  • Mathematically supports Copernicus's theories

6
Galileo Galilei
  • 1564 1642
  • Italian astronomer
  • 1610 publishes Starry Messenger
  • Disproved Aristotles view of the universe
  • 1632 publishes Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief
    World Systems
  • Officially proclaimed his heliocentric views
  • 1633 Pope requires Galileo to recant
    (Inquisition)
  • Held in house arrest until his death

7
Trial of Galileo
8
Isaac Newton
  • 1643 1727
  • English mathematician
  • 1687 publishes Principles of the Natural
    Philosophy
  • Treatise of law of gravity
  • God is a clockmaker (deism)

9
Medicine
  • Ancient View
  • Based on Galen dissected animals, 2 types of
    blood based in the liver
  • Modern View
  • Andreas Vesalius
  • On the Fabric of the Human Body
  • William Harvey
  • On the Motion of the Heart and Blood

10
Secularism
  • Rene Descartes I think, therefore I am
  • Blaise Pascal tried to unite science and the
    church
  • Scientific Method
  • Francis Bacon inductive principles
  • English Royal Society
  • French Royal Academy of Sciences

11
The Enlightenment
  • Influence from Scientific Revolution
  • Reason applying scientific method to
    understanding life
  • Philosophe French intellectuals of the
    Enlightenment
  • Influence from Absolutism
  • Influences Absolutism

12
English Enlightenment
  • Thomas Hobbes
  • 1588 1679
  • 1651 publishes Leviathan
  • People are inherently evil
  • People need a strong government to control them
  • Hobbes view of Social Contract

13
English Enlightenment
  • John Locke
  • 1632 1704
  • Knowledge is based on experience
  • Natural Rights life, liberty, property
  • Political power comes from the consent of the
    governed

14
French Philisophes
  • Voltaire
  • Francois Marie Arouet
  • 1694 1778
  • Used satire to attack folly and stupidity in
    government
  • Friends with Frederick II of Prussia
  • Imprisoned twice
  • Exiled to England for 2 years

15
French Philisophes
  • Baron de Montesquieu
  • 1689 1755
  • 1748 publishes the Spirit of the Laws
  • Promoted a separation of powers in government

16
French Philisophes
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • 1712 1788
  • 1762 publishes the Social Contract
  • Ability to make laws is based on the will of the
    people
  • Consent of the governed

17
Philisophes and U.S. Politics
  • Locke (influenced the U.S. Declaration of
    Independence)
  • Governments power comes from the people
  • Natural rights (life, liberty, and property)
  • Voltaire Free Speech (influenced the U.S. Bill
    of Rights)
  • Montesquieu Separation of Powers (influenced
    the U.S. Constitution)
  • Rousseau Direct Democracy (influenced the U.S.
    Constitution)

18
Enlightened Thinkers
  • Denis Diderot (1713 1784)
  • Encyclopedia
  • Spread ideas of the Enlightenment
  • Adam Smith (1723 1790)
  • Economics The Wealth of Nations
  • Laissez-faire (hands off) government should
    stay out of peoples lives
  • Mary Wollstonecraft (1757 1797)
  • Founder of modern European feminism
  • Pointed out that enlightened thought would
    include women having equal rights

19
Enlightened Despots
  • Absolute leaders that took ideas from the
    Enlightenment
  • Frederick II (Prussia)
  • First servant of the state
  • Voltaire
  • Catherine the Great (Russia)
  • Voltaire

20
The Arts
  • Baroque-Rocco building was seen as a total work
    of art
  • Music
  • Bach
  • Handel
  • Haydn
  • Mozart
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