Scientific Revolution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 41
About This Presentation
Title:

Scientific Revolution

Description:

Scientific Revolution One person or institution can have a great influence on the course of events. When should one question authority? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:385
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 42
Provided by: AnneRS4
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Scientific Revolution


1
Scientific Revolution
  • One person or institution can have a great
    influence on the course of events.
  • When should one question authority?

2
What was the Scientific Revolution?
  • Refers to historical changes in thought and
    belief in the world of science that unfolded in
    Europe between roughly 1550-1700
  • Began with Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543), who
    asserted a heliocentric (sun-centered) cosmos
  • Ended with Isaac Newton (1642-1727), who proposed
    universal laws and a Mechanical Universe

3
(No Transcript)
4
Where did previous knowledge come
from?
  • Medieval scientists, known as natural
    philosophers, did not make observations of the
    world and nature so much as relied on ancient
    authorities, especially Aristotle, for their
    scientific knowledge
  • Renaissance humanists studied the newly
    discovered works of ancient thinkers like
    Ptolemy, Archimedes, Plato.

5
  • Technical problems, like calculating how much
    weight a ship could hold, spurred a movement
    towards observation and measurement.
  • New instruments like the telescope and microscope
    made fresh observations and discoveries possible.
  • Printing spread ideas more quickly than ever
    before.

6
Ptolemy
  • 90 -168 was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote
    in Greek
  • Ptolemaic System Medieval philosophers
    constructed a geocentric-Earth is at the center.
  • Universe was a series of concentric spheres with
    a motionless Earth in the middle
  • Insisted that the orbits were circular.

7
(No Transcript)
8
Nicolas Copernicus 1473-1543
  • 1543-Published his famous work, On the
    Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, in 1543
  • Believed his heliocentric -with the Sun in the
    center- system was more accurate than the
    Ptolemaic system.

9
Nicolas Copernicus
  • Argued that all the planets revolved around the
    sun, the Moon revolved around Earth, and Earth
    rotated on its axis.
  • In the Copernican system, the heavens were not
    spiritual but material, and God was no longer in
    a specific place

10
(No Transcript)
11
Tycho Brahe 1546 - 1601
  • Born into nobility in Denmark
  • Lost nose in duel at the age of 20 so had metal
    prosthesis.
  • King Frederick II gave him an island, Hven, and
    built an observatory on it.
  • Improved methods and accuracy in observations
  • Observed the sky every night for years

12
Tycho Brahe
  • Kept voluminous records
  • Provided evidence that supported Copernicuss
    theory
  • Accurately catalogued over 1000 stars
  • Showed irregularities in moons orbit
  • His data provided the basis for the work of
    Johannes Kepler

armillary
azimuthal
13
The Moose and Jepp
  • Brahe kept a dwarf named Jepp (whom he believed
    to be clairvoyant) as a court jester who sat
    under the table during dinner.
  • He kept a pet moose. His prized companion met a
    tragic end, falling downstairs after drinking
    beer at a banquet.

14
Brahe/Kepler
  • Brahe hired a student named Johannes Kepler to
    assist him
  • Brahe realized Keplers potential as an
    astronomer
  • Because Brahe did not trust Kepler so he was only
    shown part of the data.
  • Kepler used Brahes data as the basis for his
    research-

15
Johannes Kepler 1571-1630
  • German mathematician- helped destroy the
    Ptolemaic system
  • Used Brahes data to calculate the orbits of the
    planets revolving around the sun.
  • Observations confirmed that the Sun was at the
    center of the universe
  • Tracked the elliptical not circular orbits of the
    planets (unlike Ptolemy who insisted the orbits
    were circular).

16
Galileo Galilei 1564 -1642
  • Italian scientist and mathematician
  • Heard of a new Dutch invention-the telescope
    improved upon it and then pointed it toward the
    sky.
  • Saw mountains on the Moon and the four moons
    orbiting Jupiter.
  • Concluded the earth moves around the sun as
    Copernicus had said.

17
Galileo Galilei
  • Discoveries contradicted the Catholic Church
  • The Church asked Galileo to abandon the
    Copernican-heliocentric- idea of the universe.
  • Galileo was accused of heresy and in 1633 was
    tried before the Inquisition
  • Faced with death he recanted his beliefs but
    spent the rest of his life under house arrest

18
(No Transcript)
19
"And yet ... it moves."
  • Allegedly said by Galileo after signing a
    recantation of the Copernican theory and
    accepting the churchs claim that the Earth was
    the center of the universe and unmoving.

20
How is truth determined?
  • Reason-Descartes or Observation-Bacon?
  • Truth is not determined at the
    beginning of inquiry, but at the end
    after a long process of investigation

21
René Descartes 15961650
  • The father of modern rationalism (reason is the
    source of truth).
  • 1637- Published Discourse on Method
  • Could be sure of only one thinghis own
    existence I think, therefore I am.
  • Would accept only those things his reason said
    were true.
  • The material world and the mental world were two
    different realms

22
René Descartes
I think, therefore I am!
  • Because I have the power to reason I exist!

23
Francis Bacon 1561-1626
  • English philosopher
  • Developed the Scientific Method
  • Bacon emphasized arriving at conclusions about
    nature using inductive reasoning, or making
    generalizations from particular observations and
    experiments organized to test hypotheses
  • Hypotheses- an educated guess

24
Scientific Method
25
Medicine and Chemistry
26
Andreas Vesalius 1514-1564
  • 1543-Published On the Structure of the Human Body
  • First accurate and detailed study human anatomy.
  • Autopsies!!
  • Reported his results from dissecting human bodies
    as a professor of surgery at the University of
    Padua

27
William Harvey 1578 -1657
  • 1628- Published On the Motion of the Heart and
    Blood
  • Described circulation of the blood for the first
    time
  • Work was based on observation and experiment
  • Showed that the heart was the beginning point of
    the bloods circulation.
  • Heart serves as a pump to force blood through
    veins and arteries.

28
Youve gotta have heart!
29
Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1632-1723
  • Perfected the microscope
  • First person to see cells and microorganisms

30
Robert Boyle 1627 -1691
  • Chemistry was also based on close observation and
    experiment
  • Identified basic building blocks of matter,
    opening the way for modern chemistry

31
Sir Isaac Newton 1643 - 1727
  • Mathematics professor at Cambridge University.
  • Published his views in Mathematical Principles of
    Natural Philosophy, also known as the Principia.
  • Gravity is the single force that keeps the
    planets in their orbit around the sun

32
Sir Isaac Newton
  • All motion in the universe can be measured and
    described mathematically
  • Invented calculus.
  • Newton gave the world a picture of the universe
    as a huge, regulated, uniform machine.

33
Gravity
  • Universal law of gravitation every object in the
    universe is attracted to every other object by a
    force called gravity.
  • This explained why planetary bodies did not go
    off in a straight line, but traveled in
    elliptical orbits.
  • Newton gave the world a picture of the universe
    as a huge, regulated, uniform machine.
  • This picture dominated the modern worldview until
    Einsteins theory of relativity.

34
(No Transcript)
35
Summary
  • Scientific Revolution
  • According to the Ptolemaic system, the universe
    is a series of concentric spheres with Earth
    fixed at the center.
  • The heliocentric theory stated that the sun was
    the center of the universe (Copernicus).
  • The Church ordered Galileo to abandon the
    Copernican idea of the nature of the universe.
  • William Harvey believed that the heart was the
    beginning point for the circulation of blood in
    the body.
  • Isaac Newtons universal law of gravitation
    showed how one law, mathematically proved, could
    explain all motion in the universe.
  • Francis Bacon, an English philosopher, developed
    the Scientific Method
  • Galileos observations seemed to indicate that
    the heavenly bodies were composed of material
    substance just like Earth, not pure orbs of
    light.
  • The scientific method was a systematic
    procedure, based on collecting and analyzing
    evidence and crucial to the evolution of science.

36
  • With its emphasis on reasoned observation and
    systematic measurement, the scientific revolution
    changed the way people viewed the world and their
    place in it.

37
  • What were some new scientific theories and
    discoveries?
  • What were some of the effects of these new
    theories?
  • Importance of the scientific revolution
  • Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of
    nature
  • Formulation of the scientific method
  • Expansion of scientific knowledge

38
Antoine Lavoisier
  • The founder of modern chemistry- invented a
    system of naming the chemical elements

39
  • http//www.crystalinks.com/copernicus.html

40
  • What do you think was the Catholic Churchs
    response to these developments of the Scientific
    Revolution?

41
Scientific Method
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com